Japanese Law Translation

User Guide

About Japanese Law Translation


■  About Promoting Translation of Japanese Laws and Regulations into Foreign Languages

 

<Introduction>

Promoting the translation of Japanese laws and regulations into foreign languages

With the advance of globalization in human activities, the translation of Japanese laws and regulations into foreign languages establishes not only a base for promoting investment in Japan and facilitating international business but also a base for Japan to gain high valuation and trust from the international community by disseminating information about the country’s legal system and expertise.

The Cabinet's task force on judicial reform stated in November 2004 that "it is absolutely essential that Japan's laws and regulations be readily and precisely understood, and we must loose no time in developing an infrastructure to promote the translation of our laws and regulations into foreign languages."

Subsequently, the Cabinet's Liaison Conference of the Relevant Ministries and Agencies for Developing a Foundation for Promoting Translation of Japanese Laws and Regulations into Foreign Languages decided on the creation and revision of the Standard Legal Terms Dictionary as a translation guideline, on the formulation of a translation plan for essential laws and regulations that are greatly in need of translation, and on the establishment and promotion of a functional website. (For details of the decisions by the Liaison Conference, please follow this link.)

As a result of the decisions reached at the Liaison Conference, in April of 2009, the Ministry of Justice launched the Japanese Law Translation Database (this website) and, in addition to making laws and regulations that have been translated by the relevant ministries and agencies available to the public, the Ministry of Justice is also engaged in making the necessary revisions to the Standard Legal Terms Dictionary.

 

■  About Logo Mark

 

Logo mark

The logo mark reflects the image of a "bridge" for promoting international exchange by sharing the understanding of Japanese laws and facilitating mutual information exchange through the promotion of the translation of Japanese laws and regulations into foreign languages.

 

■  About Data contained in this System 

 

■  About Dictionary Data

 

Following study by the Study Council for Promoting Translation of Japanese Laws and Regulations into Foreign Languages under the Cabinet's Liaison Conference of the Relevant Ministries and Agencies for Developing a Foundation for Promoting Translation of Japanese Laws and Regulations into Foreign Languages, version 1.0 of the Standard Legal Terms Dictionary was compiled by the working group which had been established under the Study Council.

Following version 1.0, the Law Translation Expert Council (versions 2.0 through 4.1) and the Japanese Law Translation Council (starting from version 5.0) have taken over the responsibility for revising the Standard Legal Terms Dictionary from the Study Council for Promoting Translation of Japanese Laws and Regulations into Foreign Languages.

When the relevant ministries and agencies translate laws and regulations into English, those translations are based on this dictionary.

 

Handling of Personal Information


 

The personal information acquired through this site is used only within this system and is not used without consent of the person concerned even if the information is used outside the scope of the system.

Except the case that there is due cause for the execution of the law, etc., personal information will not be disclosed to or used by third parties for any reason.

 

Guide to Functions


 


 

For the functions and usage of this system, refer to "Explanations of Functions and Operations."

 

Operating Environment

The supporting browsers are as follows except for "Keyword in Context Search."

・Internet Explorer 5.5 SP2 or later

・Netscape 7.0 or later

・Mozilla1.4.1 or later

・Safari 2.0 or later

The supporting browsers for "Keyword in Context Search" are as follows:

・Internet Explorer 6.0 or later [1]

・Firefox 1.5 or later

・Mozilla 1.4.1 or later

 

[1] If you are using Internet Explorer 10 or higher, you will need to turn on Compatibility View. Please see the Microsoft support page (http://windows.microsoft.com/en-us/internet-explorer/use-compatibility-view#ie=ie-10) for details.

 

FAQ


Q. Can I use the data?

 

A. Yes. You are free to quote, reproduce and reprint all data.

 

Q. Can I simultaneously conduct search both Japanese and English laws?

 

A. Yes. Enter both Japanese and English keywords, separating each keyword with a space, and place a check in "Include either one of the keywords" before conducting the search.

 

Q. Can I provide web links to this site?

 

A. Yes. Please feel free to link to this site.

 

Explanations of Functions and Operations

Law Search


"Law Search" allows you to search laws by the methods shown below. The search results can be further narrowed down.

Search by terms (keywords) contained in laws.

Search by law titles.

Search by law numbers.

Search by categories of law.

Search by organizations in charge of translating the laws.


■  Search by Keyword

You can search the laws by entering terms (keywords) contained in the law (text of the law and the law title).


When you enter keywords into the text box and click on the "Search" button, the laws that meet the search condition is searched and displayed in a list.


When you click on the "Clear" button, the keywords you entered will be cleared.

 

When you enter two or more keywords, separate each keyword with a space.

 

When you place a check in the "Include all keywords" checkbox in the search conditions, the laws will be searched for all the keywords.

 

When you place a check in the "Include one of keywords" checkbox in the search condition, the laws will be searched for any of the individual keywords you entered. (“or” condition)

 


 

If you enter the keywords consisting of one-byte characters (example: "act"), only the English translations of laws are searched.

If you enter keywords consisting of two-byte characters and one-byte characters (example: " act") with placing a check in the "Include one of keywords" checkbox in the search condition, the laws both in Japanese and English are simultaneously searched. If you conduct the search by "Include all keywords" in this time, no results will be displayed.

 

The displayed keywords are the ones often found. If you click on one of them, you can conduct the search by the keyword you have clicked.


When you place a check in the "Include past law data" checkbox as the target for search, the laws prior to amendment currently registered in this system will also be subject to searching.

 

When you place a check in the "Include the tile of untranslated laws" checkbox as the target for search, the laws only with the translation of their titles currently registered in this system will also be subject to searching.

 

When you place a check in the "Include tentative translation" checkbox as the target for search, the laws of tentative translation currently registered in this system will also be subject to searching.


With "Results per Page," you can designate the number of laws to be displayed in the list at one time as the search results. The number of laws can be selected from among 20, 50, 100 and 200. The default is 20.


■  Search by Law Title

You can search the laws by entering terms (keywords) contained in the title of the law.

Enter a term (keyword) contained in the law title and click on the search button.

 

When you enter a keyword contained in the title of the law into the text box and click on the "Search" button, the laws are searched and the data of the laws that meets the search condition is displayed in a list.

 

When you click on the "Clear" button, the keyword you entered will be cleared.

 


 

The displayed keywords are the ones often found. If you click on one of them, you can conduct the search by the keyword you have clicked.


You can also search and display the laws by clicking on the Japanese syllabary or alphabet/number buttons of the first letter in their titles.

 

When you click on the Japanese syllabary buttons, Japanese titles of the laws will be searched. When you click on the alphabet or number buttons, English translations of the titles of the laws will be searched.


With "Results per Page," you can designate the number of laws to be displayed per page as the search results at one time. The number of laws can be selected from among 20, 50, 100 and 200. The default is 20.


■  Search by Law Number

You can search the laws by entering a promulgation year, a type of the law, and a law number.

For entering a promulgation year, designate "era name" and "year."

 

You can select "era name" and "type of law" from the pull-down menu.


You should designate the "year" and "number" in one-byte characters. You can conduct the search without entering a "year" or "number."

 

When you click on the "Clear" button, the "year" and the "number" will be cleared. The "era name" and the "type of law" will return to their defaults.

 


 

With "Results per Page," you can designate the number of laws to be displayed per page as the search results at one time. The number of laws can be selected from among 20, 50, 100 and 200. The default is 20.


■  Search by Category of Law

You can search the laws by selecting category of the law.

When you click on one of the buttons for category of laws, the laws classified by the category will be displayed in a list.

 


 

 

With "Results per Page," you can designate the number of laws to be displayed per page as the search results at one time. The number of laws can be selected from among 20, 50, 100 and 200. The default is 20.

 

■  Search by Organization in Charge of Translation

You can search the laws by selecting organization in charge of translating laws.

When you click on one of the buttons for organization, the laws classified by the organization in charge will be displayed in a list.

 


 

With "Types of Laws" checkbox, you can designate the types of laws to be searched.


With "Results per Page," you can designate the number of laws to be displayed per page as the search results at one time. The number of laws can be selected from among 20, 50, 100 and 200. The default is 20.


■  List of the Results of Law Search

The search results will be displayed in a list of titles of laws. By clicking on the title of a law in the list, you can display the law text within a new window.

 

The designated search conditions will be displayed in the upper part of the screen.


In the list of search results, the number of laws designated on the search condition screen will be displayed per page. To change the number of laws to be displayed on one page, you can designate it with "Results per Page." You can select the number of laws to be displayed from among 20, 50, 100 and 200. The default is 20.

 

To view other pages not currently displayed, you can click "To previous" or "To next" in the lower part of the screen or click a specific page number.

 


 

With "Search Refinement" in the left-hand side of the screen, you can refine your search within the search results that are currently displayed.

 

In "Search Refinement," you can search laws by keywords, titles of laws, law numbers, category of laws, organizations in charge of translation as the initial search.

You can refine search results by clicking keywords keywords often used in searches


When you have conducted the initial search by designating the Japanese syllabary or the alphabet/number with the "Search by Law Title," the search refinement is conducted for the second letter and afterwards of the titles of the laws.


When you have conducted the initial search with "Search by Keyword," "Search by Law Number," "Search by Category," or "Search by Organization" and you refine your search results by Japanese syllabary or alphabet/number of the titles of the laws, the first letter of the title will be searched.

 

Use of Law Data


■  Display Law Data

By clicking on the title of a law in the list of search results, you can display the law text within a new window.

 

In the upper part of the law text display screen,  information about the relevant law including title of law, law number, amendment date, dictionary version used when translating, and translation date, as well as the keywords you used when conducting the search, are displayed.

 

Any translation that the title of a law indicates to be a "Tentative translation" has not yet been proofread or corrected by a native English speaker or legal translation expert.

 

You can select one of the following formats to display law text:

・Alternating Japanese-English

・Japanese-English comparison table format

・English

・Japanese

When you change display format, select the one of formats from the pull-down menu in the upper-right part of the screen and click "Display" button.

 


 

When you click on "Next law" or "Previous law," you can display texts of the laws just before and after the law that is currently displayed on the search results screen according to the order in the list of search results.

 

The search keywords that you used to conduct the search will be highlighted in the text of the law. When you click on the "Next hit" or the "Previous hit," the cursor will jump to the relevant keyword in the text. You can decide which keywords to jump through by using checkboxes for each keyword on the upper part of the screen. Five key words or less are displayed.

 

In the "Table of contents" on the left-hand side of the screen, the logical structure of the law (article and paragraph, etc.) is displayed in a tree view. When you click on the relevant article, paragraph, etc., the cursor will jump to the relevant part in the text of the law.

 

In the "History" on the left-hand side of the screen, the history of amendments to the laws is displayed. When data of former versions of the law have been stored in the system and you click one of the data, the former version can be displayed.

 

When you point the cursor to a part of the displayed text of a law that was translated based on Standard Legal Terms Dictionary, the relevant contents of the Standard Legal Terms Dictionary data are displayed in a pop-up window.

 

■  Download Law Data

 


 

You can download the data of law in the following formats:

         Text (.txt)

Alternating Japanese-English (Shift-JIS)

Alternating Japanese-English (UTF-8)

English (Shift-JIS)

English (UTF-8)

Japanese (Shift-JIS)

Japanese (UTF-8)

         Word (.doc)

Alternating Japanese-English

English

Japanese

         PDF.pdf

Alternating Japanese-English

English

Japanese

         XML (.xml)

English

Japanese

 

■  Print Law Data

With the "Print" button in the upper-right part of the law text display screen, you can display a print preview screen from which you can print the law text.

 

You can designate the print range by placing a check in the checkbox for articles and paragraphs, etc. in the "Table of contents" in the left-hand side of the screen.

 


 

 

Dictionary Search


 

"Dictionary Search" allows you to search the Standard Legal Terms Dictionary by entering the entry terms or translations  (keywords) contained in the dictionary.

■  Search by Keyword

You can search the Standard Legal Terms Dictionary by entering entry terms or translations (keywords) contained in the dictionary.

 

When you enter keywords into the text box and click on the "Search" button, the entries that meet the search condition is searched and displayed in a list.

 

When you click on the "Clear" button, the keywords you entered will be cleared.

 

When you enter two or more keywords, separate each keyword with a space.

 

If you enter keywords consisting of one-byte characters (example: "act"), English translations in the dictionary are searched. Search results are displayed in the order of dictionary entries.

If you enter keywords consisting of two-byte characters and one-byte characters (example: " act") with placing a check in the "Include one of keywords" checkbox in the search condition, entry terms and translations are simultaneously searched. If you conduct the search by "Include all keywords" in this time, no results will be displayed.

 


 

When you place a check in the "Include all keywords" checkbox in the search conditions, the laws will be searched for all the keywords.

When you place a check in the "Include one of keywords" checkbox in the search condition, the laws will be searched for any of the individual keywords you entered. (“or” condition)

The displayed keywords are the ones often found. If you click on one of them, you can conduct the search by the keyword you have clicked.

 

With "Results per Page," you can designate the number of laws to be displayed in the list at one time as the search results. The number of laws can be selected from among 20, 50, 100 and 200. The default is 20.

 

■  Search by Japanese syllabary / ABC

You can also search and display the laws by clicking on the syllabary or alphabet/number buttons of the first letter in their titles.

 

When you click on the Japanese syllabary buttons, entry terms in the dictionary will be searched. When you click on the alphabet/number buttons, English translations in the dictionary will be searched.

 


 

With "Results per Page," you can designate the number of laws to be displayed in the list at one time as the search results. The number of laws can be selected from among 20, 50, 100 and 200. The default is 20.

 

■  List of the Results for Dictionary Search

 

The search results will be displayed in a list of dictionary entries. Search results for the Standard Legal Terms Dictionary contain entry terms, their translations, difference standards for translations, notes (derivatives, etc.), and the links to the titles of the laws in which the entry term is used.

 

The designated search conditions will be displayed in the upper part of the screen.

 

In the list of search results, the number of laws designated on the search condition screen will be displayed per page. To change the number of laws to be displayed on one page, you can designate it with "Results per Page." You can select the number of laws to be displayed from among 20, 50, 100 and 200. The default is 20.

 

To view other pages not currently displayed, you can click "To previous" or "To next" in the lower part of the screen or click a specific page number.

 


 

With "Search Refinement" in the left-hand side of the screen, you can refine your search within the search results that are currently displayed.

 

In "Search Refinement," you can search laws by keywords or Japanese Syllabary / ABC as the initial search.

 

You can refine search results by clicking keywords often used in searches

 

When you have conducted the initial search with "Search by Japanese Syllabary / ABC," the search refinement is conducted for the second letter and afterwards of the entry terms or translations in the dictionary.

 

When you have conducted the initial search with "Search by Keyword" and you refine your search results with "Search by Japanese syllabary / ABC," the first letter of the entry terms or translations in the dictionary will be searched.

 

Use of Dictionary Data


 

By clicking on the entry term in the list of search results, you can display "Laws which use this term" link beside the term. By clicking on the link, you can display the details of the dictionary entry.

 


 

In the upper part of the display section for details of the dictionary entry include entry terms, reading, translations, difference standards for translations, and notes (derivatives, etc.). In the lower part titled "List of law titles that contain the entry term mentioned above, " the list of the law titles in which the entry term is used is displayed.

 

When you click the "Laws which use this term" beside the translation, a list of only laws that contain the translation is displayed.

 

■  Download Dictionary Data

You can download the data of the Standard Legal Terms Dictionary in the following formats:

CSV(Shift-JIS)

CSV(UTF-8)

PDF

XML

 

Each dictionary entry in downloadable data of the Standard Legal Terms Dictionary is described in the order: entry, reading,  translation number, translation, difference standards for translation, example (Japanese), example (English), example source, and note (derivatives, etc.)

 


 

 

■  Revision History of the Standard Legal Terms Dictionary

The differences in contents of the new version from the older version of the Standard Legal Terms Dictionary will be displayed.

 


 

As the differences in contents of the dictionary, "Change or deletion of the entries," "Addition, change or deletion of the translations," and "Addition of the entries" will be displayed.

 

"Keyword in Context Search"


 

"The Keyword in Context Search" allows you to see terms (keywords) and their translations in the context of bilingual law texts.

Operating Environment
The supporting browsers are as follows.
Internet Explorer 6.0 or later [1]
Firefox 1.5 or later
Mozilla 1.4.1 or later

This search page is displayed by using JavaScript and CSS. To normally display the page, you need to enable JavaScript and CSS.

 

[1] If you are using Internet Explorer 10 or higher, you will need to turn on Compatibility View. Please see the Microsoft support page (http://windows.microsoft.com/en-us/internet-explorer/use-compatibility-view#ie=ie-10) for details.

 

■  Search by Keyword

 


 

Enter the keyword into the keyword box in the upper-left, and click on "Search" button.

By entering a keyword into keyword box, law texts which use the keyword are searched and displayed in the left-side part of the screen with the keyword being placed in its center . At the same time, the corresponding translation to each law text is displayed in the right-hand part of the screen with the translation of the keyword being placed in its center.

The input keyword is displayed in blue, while its translation is displayed in following three kinds of color;

 * blue: the translation that has been automatically estimated.

 * green: the translation from the Standard Legal Terms Dictionary.

 * red: the translation that has been designated in the [translation] box for the translation re-search.

 

You can enter the keyword in Japanese and/or English.

 

Because the translation in blue color is identified by automatic estimation, the displayed translation is not always correct. There also may be some cases that cannot estimate translations for an input keyword.

 


 

By clicking on one of the displayed texts as search results, its whole is displayed in the box below.

 


 

The translation that has been automatically judged is displayed in the "translation" field.

If the displayed translation is unreasonable, you can select the translation from a pull-down list.

 

When you select a translation and click on the [translation re-search] button, the selected translation is displayed in red.

 

On the right side of the keyword displayed in the "keyword" field, the number of hits is displayed.

On the right side of the translation displayed in the "translation" field, the number of times that the translation appears in all bilingual corpuses is displayed.

When you enter a collocation of keywords or translations, separate each word with a space.

 

When you click on the "Sort" button (on the left side or on the right side), the list is sorted ascending or descending order with the keyword or the translation as the center.

When there are two or more translations, the results of sorting are displayed respectively for each translation.

 

■  Settings

 

When you click on the "Set" button, the setting window for conducting context searches is displayed.

 


 

Use Dictionary

When the checkbox is unchecked, the Standard Legal Terms Dictionary is not used.

 

Show All Combinations of Translations

You can select the display method for a case in which several same words are contained in a sentence.

When the checkbox is unchecked, only the first time that the word appears in the sentence is displayed.

When the checkbox is checked, all combinations are displayed.

For example, when there are two keywords in the Japanese sentence and there are three translations for each keyword in the English sentence, all six combinations are displayed.

When the checkbox is checked, the operation becomes slower.

 

Include Articles

When the translation is automatically judged, you can select whether or not phrases that contain articles ("a", "an", and "the" in the case of English) should be candidates.

When the checkbox is unchecked, phrases that contain articles (for example, "in the case of") are eliminated from candidates.

When the checkbox is checked, phrases that contain such articles are also treated as the translation, but the number of candidate translations that contain articles increases among the overall number of candidate translations.

After the checkbox is checked, when you designate "the" as the stop word, "the" is eliminated from the candidate translations but "the car" may be included in the candidate translations

When the checkbox is checked, the operation becomes slower.

 

Search Hiragana

You can select whether or not hiragana should be included in the Japanese translation.

When the checkbox is checked, the words including hiragana are also treated as the translation, but the operation becomes slower.

 

Translation Length

You can designate the display limit when the translation is displayed in English by the number of words.

When the translation is displayed in Japanese, you can designate the display limit by the number of characters.

When you increase the numerical value, the operation becomes slower.

 

Japanese Term Length

You can designate the display limit when the translation is displayed in Japanese by the number of characters.

When you increase the numerical value, the operation becomes slower.

 

When you click on the [Set] button, the settings is saved and the context search window appears. The same settings can be used for the next and subsequent context searches.

 

When you click on [Return to the default value], the settings will return to the default settings.

 

 

 

Other Functions


■  Update Information

For "Update Information," information about the addition and revision of law data, revision of dictionary data, etc. is posted.

 


 

■  What's New and News

For "What's New and News," information is posted regarding additions or changes to functions of this system as well as information about system maintenance schedules, etc.

 


 

■  Related Information

On "Related information", information classified into the following categories: "Outline of Law", "Public notices and message, etc.," "DTD," "Translation plan, etc.," and "Other English Translation Data" is posted.

 

What appears under the heading "Outline of Law" is not the actual texts of the laws, but texts that summarize their contents.

 


 

For "Public notices and message etc.," information is posted about public notices, messages, etc., which is not subject to the law search of this system.

 


 

With "DTD," you can download DTD (Document Type Definition) files for law data  (XML format) and Standard Legal Terms Dictionary data (XML format) which are available from this site.

 

When you click on a download button, the file will be downloaded.

 


 

For "Translation plan, etc.," information is posted about translation plans for laws.

 


 

"Other English Translation Data" provides the English translation of the names of governmental organizations and positions as well as translations of laws that are publicized by each individual ministry or agency on websites, etc. (The translation may not be based on the Standard Legal Terms Dictionary.)

 

To obtain information, select the information that you want to view from each of the pull-down menus, and click on the "View" button. The relevant information will be displayed in a new window.

 


 

In "Names of Governmental Organizations and Positions," select the target government ministry name from the menu and click on "View" button.

 


 

A list of English translations of the Names of Government Organizations and Positions of the government ministry which you has selected will be displayed.

 

In "Information concerning the Translation of Laws ," select an alphabet of the first letter of the law title from the menu and click on "View" button.

 


 

A list of law titles is displayed, and the cursor will jump to the alphabet selected in the menu.

 

■  Link to relevant organizations and groups

On the "Link to relevant organizations and groups" screen, links to sites of translation organizations and governmental organizations, and sites related to this system are posted.

 


 

■  Search within This Site / Site map

By entering a keyword, You can conduct full-text search within the whole site. Also, the site map of this site is placed.

 


 

Enter a keyword into the text box, and click on "Search" button.

 


 

A list of search results found within the site will be displayed.

 


 

<Main functions>

 

Overview

This is a full-text search system. You can search documents that contain words and phrases you designate. You can conduct searches based not only the words and phrases contained in the law text but attributes such as the titles of laws.

How to use

 

You should enter a search phrase in the entry field in the uppermost part of the screen. For example, If you want to search a document that contains the character string "法律," enter "法律".

 

When you enter the search terms by separating them with a space, you can conduct an AND search. For example, if you enter "政令 勅令," a document that contains both "政令" and" 勅令" is searched. You can get the same results by entering "政令&勅令" using "&,".

 

When you enclose several search terms in """", you can conduct a phrase search. For example, when you enter ""untranslated laws"", documents in which the word "laws" appears just after the word "untranslated" are searched for.

 

When you use "!", you can conduct an ANDNOT search. For example, when you enter "司法 ! 行政," documents that contain "司法" but do not contain "行政" are searched for. The ANDNOT search is convenient when you find it difficult to find terms because part of a term which is contained in another term. When conducting the search by "法務", if too many documents that contain "法務省" are found and you want to eliminate such documents, you can conduct the search by "法務 ! 法務省".

 

You can conduct an OR search by using "|". For example, when you enter "憲法|法律", documents that contain either "憲法" or "法律" (or both) are searched for. The OR search is convenient when you conduct searches by taking synonyms and variations in description into consideration. With the OR search, you can avoid the problems of English words like "act | law", as well as the f variations in description in Chinese characters like "龍馬|竜馬".

 

Note that "|" is given higher priority than spaces," &" and "!". For example, when you enter "法律|法令| "Japanese Law" & 翻訳 | 訳語" , documents that contain "法律," " 法令" or "Japanese Law" and contains either "翻訳" or" 訳語" are searched for.

 

When you put "*" after a character string, documents that contain a word that starts with the character string is searched. For example, when you enter "Japan*", documents that contain words that start with "Japan" are searched for. When you put "*" before a character string, documents that contain words that end with the character string are searched for. For example, when you enter "*Laws," documents that contain combination of words that end with "Laws" are searched for. Moreover, when you put "*" before and after a character string, documents that contain words that match the regular expression of the character string are searched for. For example, when you enter "*^un.*able$*", documents that contain words that start with "un" and end with "able" are searched for. Forward matches, backward matches and regular expressions can only be applied to languages in which words are separated with a space such as English.

 

Search refinement by attribute

 

XXX of "with XXX" designates the condition of search refinement by attribute. For example, when you designate the condition as "@title STRINC辞書", the search is refined only to documents that contain the character string "辞書" in their titles. "@title" is the attribute name that indicates the title of a document. The attributes are as shown below.

 

    * @uri: URI of document (URL)

    * @title: Title of document. Equal to the value of "Subject" in the case of e-mail.

    * @author: Author of document. Equal to the value of "From" in the case of e-mail.

    * @cdate: Creation time of document. Equal to the value of "Date" in the case of e-mail.

    * @mdate: Last update time of document. Equal to of "Date" in the case of e-mail.

    * @size: Size of document (file)

 

"STRINC" is an operator for judging whether or not a document contains a substring. The operators for refinement are as shown below.

 

    * STREQ: Matches the designated character string.

    * STRNE: Does not match the designated character string.

    * STRINC: Contains the designated character string.

    * STRBW: Starts with the designated character string.

    * STREW: Ends with the designated character string.

    * STRAND: Contains all tokens of the designated character string.

    * STROR: Contains one or more tokens of the designated character string.

    * STROREQ: Matches one or more tokens of the designated character string.

    * STRRX: Matches the regular expression of the designated character string.

    * NUMEQ: The numerical value and the date are equal to the designated ones.

    * NUMNE: The numerical value and the date are not equal to the designated ones.

    * NUMGT: The numerical value and the date are larger than the designated ones.

    * NUMGE: The numerical value and the date are equal to or larger than the designated ones.

    * NUMLT: The numerical value and the date are smaller than the designated ones.

    * NUMLE: The numerical value and the date are equal to or smaller than the designated ones.

    * NUMBT: The numerical value and the date are within the designated ones.

 

When you put "!" before an operator like "!STREQ", the search is refined to documents that do not match the condition. When you put "I" before the operator of a character string like "ISTREQ", the difference between the upper case and the lower case of English characters, etc. is ignored. When you designate only the attribute name by omitting the operator, the search is conducted for documents that have the attribute without questioning the value. STRAND, STROR, STROREQ and NUMBT take several character strings separated with a space as the argument. "NUMBT 51 100" means "from 51 to 100", which includes the boundary value in the range.

 

When you arrange attribute names by separating them with ",", it means the document should contain one of the arranged attributes. For example, "from,to,cc STRINC mikio" means that ""mikio" is contained in one of "from", "to" and "cc." You cannot put a space before and after ",".

 

Order designation

 

XXX of "order by XXX" designates the display order of the results. For example, when you designate the condition as "@size NUMA", the documents are arranged in the order of size with the smallest one first. "@size" is an attribute name. You can designate the same attribute names used for designating the condition of refined searches. "NUMA" is an operator. The operators for designating the order are shown below.

 

   * STRA: Ascending order of character strings (lexical order)

   * STRD: Descending order of character strings (lexical order)

   * NUMA: Ascending order of numerical values or dates.

   * NUMD: Descending order of numerical values or dates.

 

When you did not designate the order, the search results are displayed by score. The more search terms are contained in a document, the higher the score of the document. When you only designate the attribute name and omit the operator, it is considered that STRA is designated.

 

Other functions

 

XX of "XX per page" designates the number of documents to be displayed on each page of the search results. When the search results cannot be displayed on one page, you can move the current page to the previous or the next page by selecting "PREV" or "NEXT" at the bottom of the page showing the search results.

 

XX of "clip by XX" designates the power to collect similar documents included in the results. This function is convenient when you want to avoid the trouble of moving several pages when similar documents are displayed as the search results.

 

When you select "[detail]" in the search results, detailed information of each document is displayed. When you select "[similar]" in the search results, similar documents are searched for. When you select "[include]" in the search results, omitted documents are displayed.

 

Notes

 

Hyper Estraier can handle not only Japanese but most languages such as English, German, French and Chinese. The difference between the upper case and the lower case of English characters is ignored. "Japan," "japan," "JAPAN" and "jaPaN" are all handled as the same characters. Latin characters with diacritical marks (àéîõü), Greek characters (αβγδε), and Cyrillic characters (абвгд) are also handled as the same characters.

 

European languages are searched in units of word, while other languages (Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Arabic, etc.) are searched in units of character. (N-gram model)

 

When you want to designate “blank”, "&", "!", "|", or "*" as a part of the search term, you can use a phrase search. For example, when you want to search "AT&T", you can enter ""AT&T"".

 

Even if you do not enter the search term, you can conduct the search only with an attribute condition. In this case, only the documents that match the attribute condition are searched for amongst all documents.

 

This site was created as the most primitive application of Hyper Estraier. Because Hyper Estraier is offered as a library for programmers (API), flexible customization and addition of strong functions are possible. If you are interested, please see the website of Hyper Estraier.

 

Inquiries, Comments and Requests for This System

You can send inquiries, comments and requests concerning the contents and usage of this system by telephone or e-mail.

 

■  Inquiries

Laws Translation Section
Judicial System Division, Judicial System Department, Minister's Secretariat, Ministry of Justice

Telephone: +81-3-3580-4111(2368)

 

■  E-mail

Click on "here" of "Send your comments from here." in the lower part of the TOP screen.

 


 

When the e-mail send screen appears, use this format.

 


 

         Type

Select the type of comment. Required.

         Title

Enter a title of comment. Required.

         Message

Enter a message within 4,000 one-byte characters. Required.

         E-mail address

Enter the address in one-byte characters.

         Country name

Optional.

         Gender

Optional. The default is "No answer".

         Age

Optional. Designate the relevant range of age. When you do not want to designate the range, select "No answer".

         Other

Optional. Please answer the questionnaire. When there are no relevant choices, select "Other".

 

When entry is completed, enter the displayed numerical value and click on the send button.