Japanese Law Translation

User Guide

About Japanese Law Translation


■  About Promoting the Translation of Japanese Laws and Regulations into Foreign Languages

 

<Introduction>

Promoting the translation of Japanese laws and regulations into foreign languages

With the advance of globalization, the translation of Japanese laws and regulations into foreign languages serves not only as a foundation for promoting investment in Japan and facilitating international business, but also as a means for Japan to be highly valued and trusted by the international community through the dissemination of information on the country's advanced legal system and expertise.

The Cabinet's task force on judicial reform stated in November 2004 that "it is absolutely essential that Japan's laws and regulations be easily and precisely understood, and we must lose no time in developing an infrastructure to promote the translation of our laws and regulations into foreign languages."

Subsequently, the Cabinet's Liaison Conference of the Relevant Ministries and Agencies for Developing a Foundation for Promoting Translation of Japanese Laws and Regulations into Foreign Languages decided on the creation and revision of the Standard Legal Terms Dictionary as a translation guideline, on the formulation of a translation plan for essential laws and regulations most in need of translation, and on the establishment and promotion of an interactive website. (For details of the decisions made at the Liaison Conference, please follow this link.)

As a result of the decisions reached at the Liaison Conference, in April of 2009, the Ministry of Justice launched the Japanese Law Translation Database (this website) and, in addition to making laws and regulations that have been translated by the relevant ministries and agencies available to the public, the Ministry of Justice is also engaged in making necessary revisions to the Standard Legal Terms Dictionary.

 

■  About Our Logo

 

Logo

Our logo represents a "bridge" for promoting international exchange, through fostering an understanding of Japanese laws and facilitating mutual information exchange through the promotion of the translation of Japanese laws and regulations into foreign languages.

 

■  About Site Content 

 

■  About Dictionary Content

 

Following a review by the Study Council for Promoting Translation of Japanese Laws and Regulations into Foreign Languages under the Cabinet's Liaison Conference of the Relevant Ministries and Agencies for Developing a Foundation for Promoting Translation of Japanese Laws and Regulations into Foreign Languages, version 1.0 of the Standard Legal Terms Dictionary was compiled by the working group which had been established under the Study Council.

Following version 1.0, the Law Translation Expert Council (versions 2.0 through 4.1) and the Japanese Law Translation Council (starting from version 5.0) have taken over the responsibility for revising the Standard Legal Terms Dictionary from the Study Council for Promoting Translation of Japanese Laws and Regulations into Foreign Languages.

When the relevant ministries and agencies translate laws and regulations into English, those translations use language based on this dictionary.

 

Handling of Personal Information


 

Personal information acquired through this site is used only within the context of this system and is not used without consent of the person concerned even if the information is used outside the scope of the system.

Except for cases where there is due cause for the execution of the law, etc., personal information will not be disclosed to or used by third parties for any reason.

 

Site Functions


 


 

For the functions and usage of this system, refer to "Description of Functions and Operations."

 

Operating Requirements

The supporting browsers are as follows excluding the "Keyword in Context Search" feature.

・Internet Explorer 11 or later

・Microsoft Edge 41 or later

・FireFox 58 or later

・Google Chrome 64 or later

・Safari 11 or later

The supporting browsers for the "Keyword in Context Search" feature are as follows:

・Internet Explorer 11 or later [1]

・Firefox 58 or later

 

[1] If you are using Internet Explorer 10 or higher, you will need to turn on Compatibility View. Please refer to the Microsoft support page (http://windows.microsoft.com/en-us/internet-explorer/use-compatibility-view#ie=ie-10) for details.

 

FAQ


Q. Can I freely use content from this site?

 

A. Yes. You are free to quote, reproduce and reprint all content from this site.

 

Q. Can I simultaneously conduct a search for laws in both Japanese and English?

 

A. Yes. Enter both Japanese and English keywords, separating each keyword with a space, and click the "Include any keyword" circle in the "Search Conditions" section before conducting the search.

 

Q. Can I provide web links to this site?

 

A. Yes. Please feel free to provide links to this site.

 

Description of Functions and Operations

Law Search


"Law Search" allows you to search for laws by the conditions shown below. The search results can be further narrowed down.

Search by terms (keywords) contained in laws.

Search by law title.

Search by law number.

Search by category of law.

Search by organizations in charge of translating the laws.


■  Search by Keyword

You can search for laws by entering terms (keywords) contained in the law (text of the law and the law title).


When you enter keywords into the text box and click on the "Search" button, the laws that meet the search criteria will be displayed in a list.


When you click on the "Clear" button, the keywords you entered will be cleared.

 

When you enter two or more keywords, separate each keyword with a space.

 

When you check the "Include all keywords" checkbox in the search conditions section, laws which contain all keywords will be searched.

 

When you check the "Include any keyword" checkbox in the search conditions section, laws which contain any of the keywords entered will be searched.

 


 

If you enter the keywords consisting of half-width characters (example: "act"), only the English translations of laws will be searched.

If you enter keywords consisting of full-width characters and half-width characters (example: " act") and check the "Include any keyword" checkbox in the search conditions section, laws will be simultaneously searched in Japanese and English. If you conduct a search using "Include all keywords" at this time, no results will be displayed.

 

A list of frequently-searched keywords will appear below the "Search by Keyword" box. If you click on one of them, you can conduct a search by the keyword you have clicked.


When you check the "Include older versions" checkbox when searching, laws prior to amendment currently registered in this system will also be searched.

 

When you check the "Include the tile of untranslated laws" checkbox when searching, laws currently registered in this system will be searched which have only had their titles translated.

 

When check the "Include tentative translation" when searching, the laws of tentative translation currently registered in this system will be searched.


With "Results per Page," you can designate the number of laws listed at one time in the search results. The number of laws can be selected from 20, 50, 100 and 200. The default is set at 20.


■  Search by Law Title

You can search for laws by entering terms (keywords) contained in the title of the law.

Enter a term (keyword) contained in the title of the law and click on the search button.

 

When you enter a keyword contained in the title of the law into the text box and click on the "Search" button, laws which contain those keywords will be searched and listed.

 

When you click on the "Clear" button, the keyword you entered will be cleared.

 


 

A list of frequently-searched keywords will appear below the "Search by Title" box. If you click on one of them, you can conduct a search by the keyword you have clicked.


You can also search for laws by clicking on the Japanese syllabary or alphabet/number buttons of the first letter in their titles.

 

When you click on the Japanese syllabary buttons, Japanese titles of laws will be searched. When you click on alphabet or number buttons, English translations of the titles of laws will be searched.


With "Results per Page," you can designate the number of laws listed at one time in the search results. The number of laws can be selected from 20, 50, 100 and 200. The default is set at 20.


■  Search by Law Number

You can search laws by entering the year of promulgation, type of the law, and law number.

When entering the year of promulgation, designate the Japanese era and year.

 

You can select the Japanese era and type of law from the drop-down menus.


You should designate the year and law number in half-width characters. You can conduct a search without entering the year or number.

 

When you click on the "Clear" button, the year and number will be cleared. The Japanese era and the type of law will return to their defaults.

 


 

With "Results per Page," you can designate the number of laws listed at one time in the search results. The number of laws can be selected from 20, 50, 100 and 200. The default is set at 20.


■  Search by Category of Law

You can search for laws by selecting the category of law.

When you click on one of the buttons for category of laws, the laws classified by that category will be listed.

 


 

 

With "Results per Page," you can designate the number of laws listed at one time in the search results. The number of laws can be selected from 20, 50, 100 and 200. The default is set at 20.

 

■  Search by Organization in Charge of Translation

You can search for laws by selecting the organization in charge of translating them.

When you click on one of the organizations, laws handled by that organization will be listed.

 


 

In the "Types of Laws" section, you can click the checkboxes to specify the types of laws to be searched.


With "Results per Page," you can designate the number of laws listed at one time in the search results. The number of laws can be selected from 20, 50, 100 and 200. The default is set at 20.


■  List of Law Search Results

Search results will be displayed in a list of titles of laws. By clicking on the title of a law in the list, you can display text of the law in a new window.

 

The designated search conditions will be displayed in the upper part of the screen.


In the list of search results, the number of laws designated on the search conditions screen will be displayed per page. You can change the number of laws displayed per page with the "Results per Page" drop-down box. You can select the number of laws listed from among 20, 50, 100 and 200. The default is set at 20.

 

To view other pages not currently displayed, you can click on "To previous" or "To next" in the lower part of the screen or click on a specific page number.

 


 

With "Advanced Search" in the top-left-hand side of the screen, you can further refine your search within the search results that are currently displayed.

 

In "Advanced Search," you can search laws by keywords, titles of laws, law numbers and category of laws, organizations in charge of translation when making an initial search.

You can refine search results by clicking on keywords often used in searches in the "Search by" box.


After clicking on the first Japanese syllable or letter/number of a law when using the "Search by Law Title" function, you can further refine the search by clicking on the next Japanese syllable or letter/number in the "Advanced Search" column on the left side of the page.


You can further refine searches for titles of laws using the "Search by keyword", "Search by Law Number", "Search by Category" or letter/number in the title of the law, found in the "Advanced Search" column on the left side of the page.

 

Using Law Data


■  Display Law

By clicking on the title of a law in the list of search results, you can display the text of the law in a new window.

 

In the upper part of the law text display screen,  information including the title of the law, law number, amendment date, version of the dictionary used when translating the law, and translation date, as well as the keywords used when conducting the search are displayed.

 

If the title of a law says "Tentative translation", it has not yet been proofread or corrected by a native English speaker or legal translation expert.

 

You can select one of the following formats to display the text of laws:

・Alternating Japanese-English

・Japanese-English comparison table format

・English

・Japanese

To change display format, select desired of format from the drop-down menu in the upper-right part of the screen and click the "Display" button.

 


 

When you click on "Next law" or "Previous law," the text of the laws just before and after the law that is currently displayed on the search results screen will be displayed.

 

The keywords that you used to conduct the search will be highlighted in the text of the law. When you click on the "Next hit" or the "Previous hit," the cursor will jump to the relevant keyword in the text. You can decide which keywords to jump through by using checkboxes for each keyword on the upper part of the screen. Five key words or less are displayed.

 

In the "Table of contents" on the left-hand side of the screen, the main sections of the law (Article and paragraph, etc.) are displayed. When you click on the relevant article, paragraph, etc., the cursor will jump to the relevant part in the text of the law.

 

In the "History" tab on the left-hand side of the screen, the history of amendments to the law is displayed. If older versions of the law are on the system, you can view them by clicking on the relevant link.

 

When you hover the cursor over part of the text of a law that was translated based on the Standard Legal Terms Dictionary, the relevant content of the Standard Legal Terms Dictionary appears in a pop-up box.

 

■  Download Law

 


 

You can download the data of law in the following formats:

         Text (.txt)

Alternating Japanese-English (Shift-JIS)

Alternating Japanese-English (UTF-8)

English (Shift-JIS)

English (UTF-8)

Japanese (Shift-JIS)

Japanese (UTF-8)

         Word (.doc)

Alternating Japanese-English

English

Japanese

         PDF.pdf

Alternating Japanese-English

English

Japanese

         XML (.xml)

English

Japanese

 

■  Print Law Data

With the "Print" button in the upper-right part of the law text display screen, you can display a print preview screen from which you can print the law text.

 

You can designate the print range by placing a check in the checkbox for articles and paragraphs, etc. in the "Table of contents" in the left-hand side of the screen.

 


 

 

Dictionary Search


 

"Dictionary Search" allows you to search the Standard Legal Terms Dictionary by entering the terms or translations  (keywords) contained in the dictionary.

■  Search by Keyword

You can search the Standard Legal Terms Dictionary by entering terms or translations (keywords) contained in the dictionary.

 

When you enter keywords into the text box and click on the "Search" button, the entries that meet the search conditions are searched and displayed in a list.

 

When you click the"Clear" button, the keywords you entered will be cleared.

 

When you enter two or more keywords, separate each keyword with a space.

 

If you enter keywords consisting of half-width characters (example: "act"), English translations in the dictionary are searched. Search results are displayed in the order of dictionary entries.

If you enter keywords consisting of full-width characters and half-width characters (example: " act") by selecting the "Include one of keywords" checkbox in the search condition, terms and translations are simultaneously searched. If a search is conducted with the "Include all keywords" checked, no results will be displayed.

 


 

When you place a check in the "Include all keywords" checkbox in the search conditions, the laws will be searched for using all the keywords.

When you place a check in the "Include one of keywords" checkbox in the search condition, the laws will be searched using any of the individual keywords you entered. ("or" condition)

The displayed keywords are the ones most frequently used. By clicking on any of them, you can conduct a search using the keyword you selected.

 

Using the "Results per Page" drop-down menu, you can designate the number of laws to be displayed in the list at one time in the search results. The number of laws to be displayed can be selected from 20, 50, 100 and 200. The default is set to 20 laws per page.

 

■  Search in Japanese/English

You can also search and display the laws by clicking on the syllabary or alphabet/number buttons using the first letter in their titles.

 

When you click on the Japanese syllabary buttons, entry terms in the dictionary will be searched. When you click on the alphabet/number buttons, English translations in the dictionary will be searched.

 


 

Using the "Results per Page" drop down menu, you can designate the number of laws to be displayed in the list at one time as the search results. The number of laws to be displayed at one time can be selected from 20, 50, 100 and 200. The default setting is 20 per page.

 

■  List of the Results for Dictionary Search

 

The search results will be displayed in a list of dictionary entries. Search results for the Standard Legal Terms Dictionary contain entry terms, their translations, difference standards for translations, notes (derivatives, etc.), and the links to the titles of the laws in which the entry term is used.

 

The designated search conditions will be displayed in the upper part of the screen.

 

In the list of search results, the number of laws designated on the search condition screen will be displayed per page. To change the number of laws to be displayed on one page, you can designate it with the "Results per Page" drop down menu. You can select the number of laws to be displayed from 20, 50, 100 and 200 laws per page. The default is set at 20.

 

To view other pages not currently displayed, you can click the "To previous" or "To next" buttons in the lower part of the screen or click a specific page number.

 


 

Using the "Advanced Search" in the top-left-hand side of the screen, you can refine your search within the search results that are currently displayed.

 

In "Search Refinement," you can search laws by keywords or Japanese Syllabary / ABC as the initial search.

 

You can refine search results by clicking keywords that are searched most often.

 

When conducting a search using the "Search in Japanese / English" function, a search can be further refined using the Japanese Syllabary / ABC boxes on the left hand side to display combinations that only include the first two conbinations of that term in the dictionary.

 

When you have conducted the initial search using "Search by Keyword" and you refine your search results using "Search in Japanese / English," the first letter of the entry terms or translations in the dictionary will be searched.

 

Use of Dictionary Data


 

By clicking on the term listed in the search result, a "Laws which use this term" link will be displayed. By clicking on the link, you can display the details of that dictionary entry.

 


 

In the upper part of the display section for details of the dictionary entry include entry terms, readings, translations, standards for using the translated word, and annotations (derivatives, etc.). In the lower part titled "List of law titles that contain the entry term mentioned above, " the list of law titles in which the term that is being searched is displayed.

 

When you click the "Laws which use this term" beside the translation, only the list of laws that contain the term being searched is displayed.

 

■  Download Dictionary Data

You can download the data of the Standard Legal Terms Dictionary in the following formats:

CSV(Shift-JIS)

CSV(UTF-8)

PDF

XML

 

Each downloadable dictionary entry data of the Standard Legal Terms Dictionary is described in the following order: entry, reading,  translation number, translation, proper use of the translated word, example in Japanese, example in English, example source, and annotation (derivatives, etc.)

 


 

 

■  Revision History of the Standard Legal Terms Dictionary

The differences in the contents of the new version from the older version of the Standard Legal Terms Dictionary will be displayed.

 


 

"Change or deletion of the entries," "Addition, change or deletion of the translations," and "Addition of the entries" will be displayed, as contents that have been changed.

 

"Keyword in Context Search"


 

"The Keyword in Context Search" allows you to view the terms (keywords) and their translations in the context of bilingual law texts.

Operating Environment
The supporting browsers are as follows.
Internet Explorer 11 or later [1]
Firefox 58 or later

This search page is displayed by using JavaScript and CSS. To normally display the page, you need to enable JavaScript and CSS.

 

[1] If you are using Internet Explorer 10 or higher, you will need to turn on Compatibility View. Please see the Microsoft support page (http://windows.microsoft.com/en-us/internet-explorer/use-compatibility-view#ie=ie-10) for details.

 

■  Search by Keyword

 


 

Enter the keyword into the keyword box in the upper-left, and click on "Search" button.

By entering a keyword into keyword box, law texts which use the keyword are searched and displayed in the left-side part of the screen with the keyword being placed in the center . At the same time, the corresponding translation to each law text is displayed in the right-hand part of the screen with the translation of the keyword being placed in the center.

The input keyword is displayed in blue, while its translation is displayed in following three colors;

 * blue: a translation that has been automatically estimated.

 * green: a translation from the Standard Legal Terms Dictionary.

 * red: a translation that has been designated in the [translation] box for the translation re-searching.

 

You can enter the keyword in Japanese and/or English.

 

Because the translation in blue is automated estimation, the displayed translation is not always correct. There also may be some cases that cannot estimate translations for an input keyword. Depending on the keyword, there are cases where the estimation of the translated word cannot be made.

 


 

By clicking on one of the displayed texts in the search results, the whole sentence will be displayed in the box below.

 


 

The translation that has been automatically filtered and chosen is displayed in the "translation" field.

If the displayed translation is different, you can select the translation from the pull-down list.

 

When you select a translation and click on the [translation re-search] button, the selected translation is displayed in red.

 

On the right side of the keyword displayed in the "keyword" field, the number of hits are displayed.

On the right side of the translation displayed in the "translation" field, the number of times that the translation appears in all bilingual corpuses are displayed.

When you enter a collocation of keywords or translations, separate each word with a space.

 

When you click on the "Sort" button (on the left side or on the right side), the list is sorted in ascending or descending order with the keyword or the translation in the center.

When there are two or more translations, the sorted results are displayed respectively for each translation.

 

■  Settings

 

When you click on the "Settings" button, the setting window for conducting context searches is displayed.

 


 

Use Dictionary

If unchecked, the Standard Legal Terms Dictionary is not used.

 

Show All Combinations of Translations

You can specify the display method when multiple sentences contain the same word.

If the checkbox is unchecked, only the words in the beginning of the sentence will be displayed.

If the checkbox is checked, all combinations are displayed.

For example, when there are two keywords in the Japanese sentence and there are three translations for each keyword in the English sentence, all six combinations are displayed.

If the checkbox is checked, it will slow down the operation

 

Include Articles

When the translation is filtered automatically, you can select whether or not to include phrases that contain articles ("a", "an", and "the" in the case of English).

If the checkbox is unchecked, phrases that contain articles (for example, "in the case of") are eliminated.

If the checkbox is checked, phrases that contain such articles are also included in the translation, but the number of potential translations that contain articles will increase among the overall number of the proper translation you are looking for.

After the checkbox is checked, when you designate "the" as the stop word, "the" is excluded from the potential choice of translations but "the car" may still be included as a potential translation.

If the checkbox is checked, it will slow down the operation.

 

Search Hiragana

You can select whether or not hiragana should be included in the Japanese translation.

If the checkbox is checked, the words including hiragana is included as a search condition for a translation, but the operation becomes slower.

 

Translation Length

You can designate the display limit when the translation is displayed in English by the number of words.

When the translation is displayed in Japanese, you can designate the display limit by the number of characters.

When you increase the numerical value, the operation becomes slower.

 

Japanese Term Length

You can designate the display limit when the translation is displayed in Japanese by the number of characters.

When you increase the numerical value, the operation will become slower.

 

When you click on the [Set] button, the settings are saved and the context search window appears. The same settings can be used for the next and subsequent context searches.

 

When you click on [Return to the default value], the settings will return to the default settings.

 

 

 

Other Functions


■  Updated Translations

Information about the addition and revision of law data, revision of dictionary data, etc. is posted here.

 


 

■  What's New

Information regarding additions or changes to functions of this system as well as information about system maintenance schedules, etc. is posted here.

 


 

■  Other Information

Information classified into the following categories is posted here: "Law Translation Guidelines", "Translation plan, etc.", "Public notices and message, etc.", "Outline of Law", "DTD", and "Other English Translation Data".

 

In the "Law Translation Guidelines" section you can download a copy of the Law Translation Guidelines (a list of rules for the translation of laws and regulations).

 


 

Under "Translation plan, etc.," information is posted about translation plans for laws.

 


 

Under "Public notices, messages, etc.," information is posted about public notices, messages, etc., that are not covered by the law search function.

 


 

Text summarizing the content of laws appears under the heading "Outline of Law", not actual text from laws.

 


 

Use "DTD," to download DTD (Document Type Definition) files for law data  (XML format) and the Standard Legal Terms Dictionary data (XML format).

 

Click on a download button to download a file.

 


 

"Other English Translation Data" provides English translations of names of governmental organizations and positions, as well as translations of laws that are publicized on individual ministry or agency websites, etc. (Those translations may not be based on the Standard Legal Terms Dictionary.)

 

To obtain information, select the information that you want to view from each of the pull-down menus, and click on the "View" button. The relevant information will be displayed in a new window.

 


 

Under "Names of Governmental Organizations and Positions," select the target government ministry name from the menu and click on the "View" button.

 


 

A list of English translations of the names of government organizations and positions of the government ministry which you has selected will be displayed.

 

Under "Information concerning the translation of laws ," select the first letter of a law title from the menu and click on the "View" button.

 


 

A list of law titles is displayed, and the cursor will jump to the letter selected in the menu.

 

■  Link to relevant organizations and groups

On the "Links" screen, links to translation organization and governmental organization websites, and websites related to this system are posted.

 


 

■  Search within This Site / Sitemap

Enter a keyword to conduct a full-text search of the whole site. There is also a sitemap here.

 


 

Enter a keyword in the text box, and click on the "Search" button.

 


 

A list of search results found in the site will be displayed.

 


 

<Main functions>

 

Overview

This is a full-text search system. You can search documents that contain words and phrases you designate and conduct searches based not only the words and phrases contained in law text but also attributes such as the titles of laws.

Instructions

 

Enter a search phrase in the entry field in the uppermost part of the screen. For example, If you want to find a document that contains the character string 法律, enter 法律.

 

If you separate your search terms with a space, you can conduct an AND search. For example, if you enter 政令 勅令, a document that contains both 政令 and 勅令 is searched for. You can get the same results by entering 政令&勅令 using an ampersand.

 

If you enclose several search terms in quotation marks, you can conduct a phrase search. For example, if you enter "untranslated laws", documents in which the word "laws" appears just after the word "untranslated" are searched for.

 

Use an exclamation mark to conduct an ANDNOT search. For example, when you enter 司法 ! 行政, documents that contain 司法 but not 行政 are searched for. The ANDNOT search is convenient when you find it difficult to find terms because part of a term is contained in another term. When conducting a search using 法務, if too many documents that contain 法務省 are found and you want to eliminate them, you can conduct the search using 法務 ! 法務省.

 

You can conduct an OR search using |. For example, if you enter 憲法 | 法律, documents that contain 憲法 or 法律 (or both) are searched for. The OR search is convenient if you take synonyms and variations in description into consideration for your search. With an OR search, you can avoid problems involving similar English words e.g. act | law, as well as variations in Chinese characters, e.g. 龍馬 | 竜馬.

 

Note that | is given higher priority than spaces, ampersands and exclamation marks. For example, when you enter 法律 | 法令| "Japanese Law" & 翻訳 | 訳語, documents that contain 法律, 法令 or Japanese Law and contain either 翻訳 or 訳語 are searched for.

 

If you put an asterisk after a character string, documents that contain a word that starts with the character string are searched for. For example, if you enter "Japan*", documents that contain words that start with "Japan" are searched for. If you put an asterisk before a character string, documents that contain words that end with the character string are searched for. For example, if you enter "*Laws," documents that contain combination of words that end with "Laws" are searched for. Moreover, if you put an asterisk before and after a character string, documents that contain words that match the regular expression of the character string are searched for. For example, if you enter *^un.*able$*, documents that contain words that start with "un" and end with "able" are searched for. Forward matches, backward matches and regular expressions can only be applied to languages in which words are separated with a space, such as English.

 

Search refinement by attribute

 

You can designates a condition for search refinement by attribute. For example, if you designate the condition as @title STRINC 辞書, the search is refined only to documents that contain the character string 辞書 in their titles. @title is the attribute name that indicates the title of a document. Possible attributes are shown below.

 

    * @uri: URI of document (URL)

    * @title: Title of document. Equal to "Subject" in the case of e-mail.

    * @author: Author of document. Equal to "From" in the case of e-mail.

    * @cdate: Creation time of document. Equal to "Date" in the case of e-mail.

    * @mdate: Last update time of document. Equal to "Date" in the case of e-mail.

    * @size: Size of document (file)

 

"STRINC" is an operator for judging whether or not a document contains a substring. Possible operators for refinement are as shown below.

 

    * STREQ: Matches the designated character string.

    * STRNE: Does not match the designated character string.

    * STRINC: Contains the designated character string.

    * STRBW: Starts with the designated character string.

    * STREW: Ends with the designated character string.

    * STRAND: Contains all tokens of the designated character string.

    * STROR: Contains one or more tokens of the designated character string.

    * STROREQ: Matches one or more tokens of the designated character string.

    * STRRX: Matches the regular expression of the designated character string.

    * NUMEQ: The numerical value and the date are equal to the designated ones.

    * NUMNE: The numerical value and the date are not equal to the designated ones.

    * NUMGT: The numerical value and the date are larger than the designated ones.

    * NUMGE: The numerical value and the date are equal to or larger than the designated ones.

    * NUMLT: The numerical value and the date are smaller than the designated ones.

    * NUMLE: The numerical value and the date are equal to or smaller than the designated ones.

    * NUMBT: The numerical value and the date are within the designated ones.

 

If you put an exclamation mark before an operator, e.g. !STREQ, the search is confined to documents that do not match the condition. If you put "I" before the operator of a character string, e.g. ISTREQ, the difference between upper case and lower case of English characters is ignored. If you designate only the attribute name by omitting the operator, the search is conducted for documents that have the attribute without questioning the value. STRAND, STROR, STROREQ and NUMBT take several character strings separated by a space as the argument. "NUMBT 51 100" means "from 51 to 100", including the boundary value.

 

If you arrange attribute names by separating them with a comma, it means that the document should contain one of the arranged attributes. For example, "from,to,cc STRINC mikio" means that "mikio" is contained in one of "from", "to" or "cc." You cannot put a space before or after the comma.

 

Order designation

 

You can also designate the display order of the results in the "order by" box. For example, if you designate the condition as @size NUMA, the documents are arranged in order of size, with the smallest one first. @size is an attribute name. You can designate the same attribute names used for designating the condition of refined searches. NUMA is an operator. Possible operators for designating order are shown below.

 

   * STRA: Ascending order of character strings (lexical order)

   * STRD: Descending order of character strings (lexical order)

   * NUMA: Ascending order of numerical values or dates.

   * NUMD: Descending order of numerical values or dates.

 

If you do not designate the order, the search results are displayed by score. That is, the more search terms are contained in a document, the higher the score of the document. If you omit the operator and only designate the attribute name, STRA will be designated by default.

 

Other functions

 

You can designate the number of documents to be displayed on each page of the search results in the "per page" box. When the search results cannot be displayed on one page, skip through pages by clicking "PREV" or "NEXT" at the bottom of the page.

 

Click on an option in the "clip by" box to limit the similarity of documents included in the results. This function is useful when several pages of similar documents are displayed as the search results.

 

If you select [detail] next to the URL under a search results, detailed information on that document is displayed. If you select [similar], similar documents are searched for. If you select [include], documents that were omitted are displayed.

 

Notes

 

The Japanese Law Translation Database utilizes Hyper Estraier, which can handle most languages including Japanese, such as English, German, French and Chinese. The difference between upper case and lower case English characters is ignored. "Japan," "japan," "JAPAN" and "jaPaN" are all treated as the same characters. Latin characters with diacritical marks (àéîõü), Greek characters (αβγδε), and Cyrillic characters (абвгд) are also treated as the same characters.

 

European languages are searched in units of words, while other languages (Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Arabic, etc.) are searched in units of characters. (N-gram model)

 

If you want to designate a blank space, ampersand, exclamation mark, | or asterisk as a part of the search term, you can use a phrase search. For example, when you want to search for AT&T, you can enter "AT&T".

 

Even if you do not enter a search term, you can conduct a search only with an attribute condition. In this case, only the documents that match the attribute condition are searched for amongst all documents.

 

 

Inquiries, Comments and Requests concerning This System

You can send inquiries, comments and requests concerning the contents and use of this system by telephone or e-mail.

 

■  Inquiries

Law Translation Section
Judicial System Division, Judicial System Department, Minister's Secretariat, Ministry of Justice

Telephone: +81-3-3580-4111(2368)

 

■  E-mail

Click the "Submit a comment/request" button near the bottom of the page.

 


 

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