Road Traffic Act
Act No. 105 of June 25, 1960
Contents
Chapter I General Provisions (Articles 1 to 9)
Chapter II Pedestrian Traffic Rules (Articles 10 to 15)
Chapter III Vehicle and Streetcar Traffic Rules
Section 1 General Rules (Articles 16 to 21)
Section 2 Speed (Articles 22 to 24)
Section 3 Cutting Across Roads and Other Such Maneuvers (Articles 25 and 25-2)
Section 4 Passing and Other Such Maneuvers (Articles 26 to 32)
Section 5 Going Over Railroad Crossings (Article 33)
Section 6 Traffic Rules at Intersections; Related Considerations (Articles 34 to 37-2)
Section 6-2 Traffic Rules for Protecting Crossing Pedestrians and Cyclists (Articles 38 and 38-2)
Section 7 Emergency Motor Vehicles and Other Vehicles (Articles 39 to 41-2)
Section 8 Driving at Reduced Speeds and Coming to a Stop (Articles 42 and 43)
Section 9 Stopping and Parking (Articles 44 to 50)
Section 9-2 Measures against Illegal Stopping and Illegal Parking (Articles 50-2 to 51-16)
Section 10 Lights and Signals (Articles 52 to 54)
Section 11 Boarding, Loading, and Towing (Articles 55 to 61)
Section 12 Prohibition against Driving Improperly Maintained Vehicles; Related Considerations (Articles 62 to 63-2)
Section 13 Special Rules for Bicycle Traffic (Articles 63-3 to 63-11)
Chapter IV Driver and User Responsibilities
Section 1 Driver Responsibilities (Articles 64 to 71-6)
Section 2 Measures in the Event of a Traffic Accident; Related Considerations (Articles 72 to 73)
Section 3 User Responsibilities (Articles 74 to 75-2-2)
Chapter IV-2 Special Rules for Motor Vehicle Traffic on National Expressways and Limited Highways
Section 1 General Rules (Articles 75-2-3 and 75-3)
Section 2 Motor Vehicle Traffic Rules (Articles 75-4 to 75-9)
Section 3 Driver Responsibilities (Articles 75-10 and 75-11)
Chapter V Road Use; Related Considerations
Section 1 Activities Prohibited on Roads; Related Considerations (Articles 76 to 80)
Section 2 Hazard Prevention and Other Such Measures (Articles 81 to 83)
Chapter VI Driver Licensing for Motor Vehicles and Motorized Bicycle
Section 1 General Rules (Articles 84 to 87)
Section 2 Applying for Licenses; Related Considerations (Articles 88 to 91)
Section 3 Licenses; Related Considerations (Articles 92 to 95)
Section 4 Driver's License Tests (Articles 96 to 97-3)
Section 4-2 Driving Schools (Articles 98 to 100)
Section 4-3 Retesting (Articles 100-2 and 100-3)
Section 5 License Renewal; Related Considerations (Articles 101 to 102-2)
Section 6 Revocation and Suspension of Licenses; Other Measures (Articles 103 to 107)
Section 7 International Driving Permits and Foreign Driver's Licenses; Foreign Driving Permits (Articles 107-2 to 107-10)
Section 8 Asking Others to Handle Administrative Processes Involved in Licensing (Article 108)
Chapter VI-2 Training (Articles 108-2 to 108-12)
Chapter VI-3 The Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis (Articles 108-13 to 108-25)
Chapter VI-4 Facilitation of Organized Activities in the Private Sector and Elsewhere to Contribute to the Safety and Fluidity of Traffic (Articles 108-26 to 108-32-2)
Chapter VII Miscellaneous Provisions (Articles 108-33 to 114-7)
Chapter VIII Penal Provisions (Articles 115 to 124)
Chapter IX Special Rules on Procedures for Handling Violations
Section 1 General Rules (Article 125)
Section 2 Notice to Appear and Notice of Findings (Articles 126 and 127)
Section 3 Payment and Provisional Payment of Penalties (Articles 128 to 129-2)
Section 4 Criminal Cases against Violators (Articles 130 and 130-2)
Section 5 Miscellaneous Provisions (Articles 131 and 132)
Supplementary Provisions
Chapter I General Provisions
(Purpose)
Article 1 The purpose of this Act is to prevent road hazards and otherwise ensure the safety and fluidity of traffic, as well as to contribute to preventing blockages arising from road traffic.
(Definitions)
Article 2 (1) In this Act, the meanings of the terms set forth in the following items are as prescribed in those items:
(i) road: a road as prescribed in Article 2, paragraph (1) of the Road Act (Act No. 180 of 1952), a limited highway as prescribed in Article 2, paragraph (8) of the Road Transportation Act (Act No. 183 of 1951), and any other route used for public traffic;
(ii) sidewalk: the part of a road that has been demarcated with curb lines or fences or any similar structure so as to make it available for pedestrian traffic;
(iii) roadway: the part of a road that has been demarcated with curb lines or fences or any similar structure or road marking so as to make it available for vehicle traffic;
(iii)-2 main roadway: a roadway consisting of the main lanes of a national expressway (meaning a road as prescribed in Article 4, paragraph (1) of the National Expressway Act (Act No. 79 of 1957); the same applies hereinafter) or a limited highway (meaning a limited highway as prescribed in Article 48-4 of the Road Act; the same applies hereinafter);
(iii)-3 bicycle path: the part of a road that has been demarcated with curb lines or fences or any similar structure so as to make it available for bicycle traffic;
(iii)-4 side strip: the part of a road that extends in a strip running along the edge of a road that either has no sidewalks or that has no sidewalks on that side, which has been demarcated with road markings so as to make it available for pedestrian traffic or maintain the effectiveness of the roadway;
(iv) pedestrian crossing: the part of a road that has been marked with road signs or road markings (hereinafter referred to as "road signs or markings") indicating it to be a place for pedestrians to cross;
(iv)-2 bicycle crossing lane: the part of a road that has been marked with road signs or markings indicating it to be a place for bicycles to cross;
(v) intersection: the part of the road (or roadway, on a on a road with demarcations between the sidewalk and the roadway) that intersects at an intersecting roads, T-junction, or other place where two or more roads intersect;
(vi) safety zone: an island-shaped installation put in place to ensure the safety of persons boarding and disembarking from streetcars and the safety of crossing pedestrians, or the part of a road that road signs or road markings indicate to be a safety zone;
(vii) vehicle traffic lane: the part of a road that road markings indicate to be the specific part of the road down which vehicles are to proceed;
(viii) vehicle: a motor vehicle, motorized bicycle, light road vehicle, or trolleybus;
(ix) motor vehicle: a vehicle that has a motor and is operated without recourse to rails or overhead wires, not including a motorized bicycle, bicycle, or wheelchair being used by a person with a physical disability, and not including a wheeled walking aid or small vehicle that Cabinet Order prescribes (hereinafter referred to as a "wheeled walking aid or small vehicle");
(x) motorized bicycle: a vehicle that has a motor with total emissions or rated output not exceeding that which Cabinet Office Order prescribes, which is operated without recourse to rails or overhead wires, not including a bicycle, wheelchair being used by a person with a physical disability, or a wheeled walking aid or small vehicle;
(xi) light road vehicle: a bicycle or cart, or a vehicle towed by human or animal power or by another vehicle which is operated or driven without recourse to rails (including a sleigh, horse, or cattle), not including a wheelchair being used by a person with a physical disability, wheeled walking aid or small vehicle, or a vehicle made for children;
(xi)-2 bicycle: a vehicle with two or more wheels that has pedals or hand cranks driven by human power (other than a vehicle operated on rails), not including a wheelchair being used by a person with a physical disability, a wheeled walking aid or small vehicle, or a vehicle made for children (and not including a vehicle that uses a motor to supplement human power and which satisfies the criteria that Cabinet Office Order prescribes);
(xi)-3 wheelchair being used by a person with a physical disability: a wheelchair that a person who has difficulty walking due to a physical disability uses to move from place to place (for wheelchairs with motors, this is limited to those satisfying the criteria that Cabinet Office Order prescribes);
(xii) trolleybus: a vehicle powered by electricity supplied through overhead wires, which is operated without recourse to rails;
(xiii) streetcar: a vehicle operated on rails;
(xiv) traffic light: a device operated electrically which uses lights to display signals intended to control traffic and achieve other such ends;
(xv) road sign: a sign board that displays road traffic regulations or instructions;
(xvi) road marking: a marking depicted on a road surface with raised road markers, paint, lines comprising stones, etc., symbols, or letters to display road traffic regulations or instructions;
(xvii) driving/operating: using a vehicle or streetcar (hereinafter referred to as a "vehicle or streetcar") on a road in keeping with its primary purpose;
(xviii) parking/parked: holding a vehicle or streetcar at a stop to wait for customers, load or unload baggage or cargo, or due to a malfunction or other such circumstance (other than when it is held at a stop for a period of less than five minutes to load or unload cargo or when it is held at a stop load or unload passengers), or a state in which a vehicle or streetcar is held at a stop, and because the driver of that vehicle or streetcar (hereinafter referred to as a "driver") has left the vicinity of the vehicle or streetcar, it cannot be driven immediately;
(xix) stopping: bringing a vehicle or streetcar to a stop in a manner that does not fall within the definition of parking;
(xx) driving at reduced speed: proceeding at a speed that enables the vehicle or streetcar to be brought to a stop immediately;
(xxi) passing: when a vehicle catches up with another vehicle or streetcar, changes course, overtakes it on one side, and comes out in front of it;
(xxii) obstructing progress: starting to move or continuing to move in circumstances that would likely cause another vehicle or streetcar to have to suddenly change speed or direction in order to avoid danger;
(xxiii) traffic nuisance: air pollution, noise, or vibration as prescribed by Cabinet Office Order/Ministry of the Environment Order, arising from road traffic and causing damage to human health or the living environment.
(2) As concerns the application of this Act, demarcation lines set in place pursuant to Article 45, paragraph (1) of the Road Act are treated as road markings, pursuant to Cabinet Office Order/Order of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism.
(3) As concerns the application of this Act, the following persons are treated as pedestrians:
(i) a wheelchair being used by a person with a physical disability, a wheeled walking aid or small vehicle, or a vehicle made for children;
(ii) a person walking while pushing a standard or large motorcycle, two-wheeled motorized bicycle or two- or three-wheeled bicycle (other than one with a sidecar or a vehicle towing another vehicle) as prescribed in the following Article.
(Motor Vehicle Types)
Article 3 A motor vehicle is classified on the basis of the standards that Cabinet Office Order prescribes for body size, structure, and engine size, as standard motor vehicle, mid-sized motor vehicle, semi-mid-sized motor vehicle, large motor vehicle, special small motor vehicle, special large motor vehicle, standard motorcycle (including one with a sidecar; the same applies hereinafter), or large motorcycle (including one with a sidecar; the same applies hereinafter).
(Regulation of Traffic by the Public Safety Commission)
Article 4 (1) On finding it to be necessary to do so in order to prevent road hazards and otherwise ensure the safety and fluidity of traffic or to prevent traffic nuisances and other problems arising from road traffic, the prefectural public safety commission (hereinafter referred to as a "public safety commission") may install and manage traffic lights or road signs or markings to control traffic, to prohibit the entry of pedestrians or vehicle or streetcar traffic, or to otherwise regulate road traffic, pursuant to Cabinet Order. In urgent cases in which there is no time to install road signs or markings or if a public safety commission finds it difficult to regulate traffic using road signs or markings, it may regulate traffic through on-site instructions being given by a police officer of the prefectural police under its management in a way that is equivalent to regulation of traffic through the installation and management of road signs or markings.
(2) The regulation of traffic under the preceding paragraph is undertaken at a specific location or within a specific area or section of a road. It may have a limited target and its application may be limited to certain days or hours.
(3) A public safety commission must endeavor to install traffic lights at high-traffic intersections other than roundabouts (meaning intersections with a circular area for motor vehicle traffic, where drivers of vehicles are directed by road signs or markings to proceed in a clockwise direction; the same applies hereinafter), and at other locations where lights are found to be necessary to prevent traffic hazards.
(4) Cabinet Order provides for the meanings of signals displayed by traffic lights and for other necessary particulars concerning traffic lights.
(5) Cabinet Office Order/ Order of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism provides for the types, formats, placement, and other necessary particulars concerning road signs and markings.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 119, paragraph (1), item (i) and Article 121, paragraph (1), item (i) apply to the second sentence of paragraph (1) of this Article.) 
(Delegation to the Chiefs of Police Stations and Others)
Article 5 (1) A public safety commission, pursuant to Cabinet Order, may have the chief of a police station prohibit the entry of pedestrians or vehicle or streetcar traffic as prescribed in paragraph (1) of the preceding Article or otherwise regulate traffic during a short period.
(2) A public safety commission may delegate a person that Cabinet Order prescribes to handle the administrative functions involving the installation or management of traffic lights.
(Regulation of Traffic by Officers)
Article 6 (1) A police or traffic patrol officer as prescribed in Article 114-4, paragraph (1) (hereinafter referred to as an "officer") may control traffic using hand signals and other signals (hereinafter referred to as "alternative signals"). On finding it to be particularly necessary to do so in order to prevent road hazards and otherwise ensure the safety and fluidity of traffic, an officer may use an alternative signal with a different meaning from that of a signal displayed by a traffic light, regardless of the signal displayed by the traffic light.
(2) On finding a compelling reason to do so in order to ensure that traffic runs smoothly on a road (other than a national expressway or limited highway; the same applies in paragraph (4)) on which severe traffic congestion is likely to occur due to a severe back-up of vehicle or streetcar traffic, a police officer may prohibit or restrict vehicles or streetcars from entering a location or order the driver of a vehicle or streetcar at the location to back up or comply with different traffic rules than those prescribed in Article 8, paragraph (1), or Chapter III, Section 1, 3, or 6, but only so far as is necessary in order to reduce congestion.
(3) On finding the measures prescribed in the preceding paragraph to be insufficient to reduce congestion at a location, a police officer may issue the necessary instructions to relevant persons at the location, but only so far as is necessary to reduce congestion.
(4) On finding there to be an urgent need to do so in order to prevent a road traffic hazard that is likely to occur due to circumstances such as road damage or fire, a police officer may prohibit or restrict pedestrian or vehicle or streetcar traffic on that road temporarily, but only so far as is necessary.
(5) Cabinet Order provides for the meanings of alternative signals referred to in paragraph (1).
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 120, paragraph (1), item (i) applies to paragraph (2) of this Article. Article 119, paragraph (1), item (i), and Article 121, paragraph (1), item (i) apply to paragraph (4) of this Article.) 
(Obligation to Obey Traffic Light Signals and Alternative Signals)
Article 7 A pedestrian or the driver of a vehicle or streetcar that is using a road must obey the signals indicated by traffic lights or the alternative signals of an officer (or the alternative signals given in a case as referred to in the second sentence of paragraph (1) of the preceding Article).
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 119, paragraph (1), item (i)-2, paragraph (2) of that Article, and Article 121, paragraph (1), item (i).) 
(Prohibition and Permission of Entry)
Article 8 (1) It is prohibited for a pedestrian or the driver of a vehicle or streetcar to enter onto a road or any part of a road onto which entry is prohibited by a road sign or marking.
(2) Notwithstanding the preceding paragraph, if the chief of the police station finds there to be a compelling reason as prescribed by Cabinet Order and grants permission, a vehicle may proceed onto a road or a part of a road onto which entry is prohibited by a road sign or marking.
(3) The chief of the police station must issue a permit when granting the permission prescribed in the preceding paragraph.
(4) The driver of a vehicle issued a permit pursuant to the preceding paragraph must carry that permit at all times when using the road or part of the road for which the permission has been given.
(5) On finding it to be necessary to do so, the chief of the police station may attach conditions when granting a permission as referred to in paragraph (2).
(6) Cabinet Office Order provides for the format of the permit referred to in paragraph (3) and for necessary particulars concerning the permission referred to in paragraph (2).
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 119, paragraph (1), item (i)-2, paragraph (2) of that Article, and Article 121, paragraph (1), item (i) apply to paragraph (1) of this Article. Article 121, paragraph (1), item (i)-2 apply to paragraph (5) of this Article.) 
(Obligations of the Drivers of Vehicles When Entering onto Pedestrian Paths)
Article 9 When entering onto a road on which a road sign or marking indicates that vehicular entry has been prohibited so as to ensure the safety and fluidity of pedestrian traffic (referred to in Article 13-2 as a "pedestrian path") after obtaining the permission prescribed in paragraph (2) of the preceding Article or by reason of being exempt from that prohibition, the driver of a vehicle must be particularly careful of pedestrians and drive at a reduced speed.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 119, paragraph (1), item (i)-2 and paragraph (2)) 
Chapter II Pedestrian Traffic Rules
(Traffic Distribution)
Article 10 (1) On a road without demarcations between the roadway and either the sidewalk or a side strip sufficiently wide for safe use by pedestrians (referred to in the following paragraph and the following Article as a "sidewalk or side strip"), a pedestrian must keep to the right edge of the road; provided, however, that if it is dangerous to use the right edge of the road or if there are other compelling circumstances, a pedestrian may keep to the left edge of the road.
(2) On a road with demarcations between the sidewalk or side strip and the roadway, a pedestrian must use the sidewalk or side strip, except in the following cases:
(i) when crossing the roadway;
(ii) if the sidewalk or side strip cannot be used for reasons such as road works, or if there are other compelling circumstances.
(3) When using a sidewalk pursuant to the preceding paragraph, a pedestrian must endeavor to avoid any part of the sidewalk for use by standard bicycles as prescribed in Article 63-4, paragraph (2).
(Passage of Processions and Other Groups)
Article 11 (1) Notwithstanding paragraph (2) of the preceding Article, a group of students in transit, a funeral procession, or any other procession (hereinafter referred to as a "procession") or group of persons that Cabinet Order prescribes as likely to prevent pedestrians from proceeding must keep to the right edge of the roadway (or, if a roadway has a bicycle path, the part of the right edge of the roadway that is not the bicycle path; the same applies in the following paragraph) when on a road with demarcations between the sidewalk or side strip and the roadway.
(2) Notwithstanding paragraph (2) of the preceding Article, processions other than those that Cabinet Order prescribes as referred to in the preceding paragraph may use the roadway when on a road with demarcations between the sidewalk or side strip and the roadway. In such a case, the procession must keep to the right edge of the roadway.
(3) In order to prevent a road hazard or on finding that it is it necessary to do so in order to otherwise ensure the safety and fluidity of traffic, a police officer may order the leader of a procession as referred to in paragraph (1) to keep to the left edge of the road or roadway (or, if the roadway has a bicycle path, the part of the left edge of the roadway that is not the bicycle path), specifying the area of the road or roadway for use by the procession.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 121, paragraph (1), item (ii) apply to paragraph (1) of this Article. Article 121, paragraph (1), item (iii) applies to paragraphs (2) and (3) of this Article.) 
(Crossing Roads)
Article 12 (1) When crossing a road near a pedestrian crossing, a pedestrian must use the pedestrian crossing.
(2) A pedestrian must not cross a road diagonally at an intersection unless permitted to do so by road signs or markings
(Places at Which Crossing Is Prohibited)
Article 13 (1) A pedestrian must not cross the road immediately in front of or behind a vehicle or streetcar; provided, however, that this does not apply if the pedestrian is using a pedestrian crossing, crossing in compliance with the signal indicated by a traffic light, or crossing in compliance with the alternative signal of an officer
(2) A pedestrian must not cross a part of the road where crossing is prohibited by road signs or markings.
(Special Rules for Roads Such as Pedestrian Paths)
Article 13-2 Article 10 through the preceding Article does not apply to a pedestrian using a pedestrian path or a road that a vehicle or streetcar cannot enter for structural reasons.
(Protection of the Visually Impaired, Children Not Yet of School Age, the Elderly, and Others)
Article 14 (1) A person with a visual impairment (including persons equivalent thereto; the same applies hereinafter) must carry a cane as prescribed by Cabinet Order or be accompanied by a guide dog as prescribed by Cabinet Order when using the road.
(2) A person without a visual impairment (other than a person with a hearing impairment or with a physical disability of the grade that Cabinet Order prescribes) must not carry a cane as prescribed by Cabinet Order or be accompanied by a dog outfitted as prescribed by Cabinet Order when using the road.
(3) A person responsible for the protection of an elementary schooler (meaning a person at least six years old but less than 13 years old; the same applies hereinafter) or a child not yet of school age (meaning a person under six years old; the same applies hereinafter) must not allow the elementary or child not yet of school age to play on a busy road, at a railroad crossing, or on road in the vicinity of a railroad crossing; and must not allow a child not yet of school age for whose protection the person is responsible to walk on such a road or crossing unaccompanied by that person or a caretaker acting in that person's stead.
(4) In a location where it is found to be necessary to instruct, signal, or take other appropriate measures when elementary or children not yet of school age are passing down the road on the way to elementary school, preschool, an authorized child care center with combined preschool and daycare facilities, or another educational or child care facility, an officer or any person who happens to be present at that location must take those measures in an effort to ensure that the elementary or children not yet of school age are able to pass safely down the road.
(5) If requested by an elderly pedestrian, a pedestrian with a physical disability, or any other pedestrian with difficulty using the road who is crossing or attempting to cross the road, an officer or any person who happens to be present at that location must instruct, signal, or take other appropriate measures in an effort to ensure that the pedestrian is able to cross the road safely.
(Traffic Instructions)
Article 15 If a pedestrian is using the road in a way that violates Article 10, paragraph (1) or (2), Article 12, or Article 13, an officer may instruct the pedestrian to comply with the traffic rules prescribed in the relevant Article.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 121, paragraph (1), item (iv)) 
Chapter III Vehicle and Streetcar Traffic Rules
Section 1 General Rules
(General Rules)
Article 16 (1) The rules for vehicle and streetcar traffic over roads are governed by this Chapter.
(2) To apply this Chapter, a vehicle that is being towed by a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle is deemed to be part of that motor vehicle or motorized bicycle.
(3) The provisions of this Chapter that pertain to traffic at intersections do not apply to a motor vehicle proceeding along a main roadway.
(4) To apply this Chapter to a road with a bicycle path, the bicycle path is treated as one roadway and the part of the road that is not the bicycle path is treated as another roadway.
(Traffic Distribution)
Article 17 (1) On a road with demarcations between the sidewalk or side strip (hereinafter referred to in this Article as a "sidewalk or side strip") and the roadway, a vehicle must proceed along the roadway; provided, however, that this does not apply if circumstances compel the driver to cross the sidewalk or side strip in order to enter or leave a facility or place adjoining the road, or when the vehicle passes through the sidewalk or side strip to the extent necessary for the driver to stop or park on the sidewalk or side strip pursuant to Article 47, paragraph (3) or Article 48.
(2) In a case as referred to in the proviso to the preceding paragraph, the vehicle must come to a stop immediately before entering the sidewalk or side strip and must not prevent pedestrians from proceeding.
(3) A vehicle other than a two-wheeled or three-wheeled bicycle (this excludes bicycles with sidecars and those that are towing other vehicles) must not enter onto a bicycle path; provided, however, that a vehicle may cut across a bicycle path if circumstances compel the driver to do so in order to enter or leave a facility or place adjoining the road.
(4) A vehicle must proceed along the part of the road (or the part of the roadway, if the road with demarcations between the sidewalk or side strip and the roadway; the same applies hereinafter through Section 9-2) to the left of the center (if a railway track runs along the side edge of a road, this means the center of the part of the road that does not include the track bed, and if a center line is indicated by road signs or markings, the center of the road is the part of the road that is indicated to be the center line; the same applies hereinafter) (hereinafter, the part of the road to the left of the center is referred to as the "left side" of the road).
(5) Notwithstanding the preceding paragraph, a vehicle may stray fully or partially onto the part of the road to the right side of the center (hereinafter referred to as the "right side" of the road) in the cases set forth in the following items. In such a case, the driver of the vehicle must ensure that as little of the vehicle as possible strays onto the right side, except in the case set forth in item (i):
(i) if the road is a one-way street (meaning that vehicles on the road are prohibited from proceeding in a given direction; the same applies hereinafter);
(ii) if the width of the left side of the road is insufficient to allow the vehicle to proceed;
(iii) if it is impossible for the vehicle to proceed on the left side of the road due to an obstruction such as road damage or road work;
(iv) if the driver of the vehicle is attempting to pass another vehicle on the left side of a road less than six meters wide (but only if the driver of the passing vehicle has a clear view of the right side of the road and there is no likelihood of obstructing traffic coming from the other direction; this excludes cases in which the vehicle is prohibited by road signs or markings from straying fully or partially onto the right side of the road);
(v) if traffic rules are specified by road signs or markings near a curve on a steeply sloping road, and the vehicle is proceeding down the road in compliance with what is specified.
(6) It is prohibited for a vehicle to enter a safety zone or any other part of the road that road signs or markings indicate is not being made available for vehicle traffic.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 119, paragraph (1), item (ii)-2 applies to paragraphs (1) through (4) and paragraph (6) of this Article.) 
(Use of the Side Strip by Light Road Vehicles)
Article 17-2 (1) Notwithstanding paragraph (1) of the preceding Article, a light road vehicle may use a side strip on the left side of a road (other than a side strip demarcated by road markings prohibiting use by light road vehicles) unless doing so would greatly prevent pedestrians from proceeding.
(2) In a case as referred to in the preceding paragraph, the driver of a light road vehicle must progress down the side strip at such a speed and in such a way as to not prevent pedestrians from proceeding.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 121, paragraph (1), item (v) applies to paragraph (2) of this Article.) 
(Keeping to the Left When Proceeding Down a Road; Related Considerations)
Article 18 (1) Unless a vehicle (other than a trolleybus) is proceeding down a road with vehicle traffic lanes, it must proceed down the left side of the road if it is a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle, and along the left edge of the road if it is a light road vehicle; provided, however, that this does not apply when the driver is passing; if the driver is moving towards the center or right edge of a road pursuant to Article 25, paragraph (2) or Article 34, paragraph (2) or (4); or if road conditions or other circumstances compel the driver to do otherwise.
(2) When passing a pedestrian while proceeding, pursuant to the preceding paragraph, down a road without demarcations between the sidewalk and the roadway or in any other case, the driver of a vehicle must maintain a safe distance between the vehicle and the pedestrian or drive at a reduced speed.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 119, paragraph (1), item (ii)-2 applies to paragraph (2) of this Article.) 
(Prohibition against Light Road Vehicles Traveling Abreast of Each Other)
Article 19 The driver of a light road vehicle must not pull abreast of another light road vehicle if doing so would result in those light road vehicles traveling abreast of each other.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 121, paragraph (1), item (v)) 
(Vehicle Traffic Lanes)
Article 20 (1) On a road with vehicle traffic lanes, a vehicle must proceed down the first lane from the left edge of the road; provided, however, that if the left side of the road (or the road itself, if it is a one-way street) has at least three vehicle traffic lanes, a motor vehicle (other than a special small motor vehicle or motor vehicle designated by road signs or markings) may proceed down any vehicle traffic lane other than the rightmost lane, pursuant to Cabinet Order and in accordance with its speed.
(2) On a road with vehicle traffic lanes, if road signs or markings specify a traffic distribution different from that which the preceding paragraph prescribes, vehicles must abide by that distribution of traffic in proceeding down those vehicle traffic lanes.
(3) When passing; when moving towards the left edge, center, or right edge of a road pursuant to Article 25, paragraph (1) or (2), Article 34, paragraphs (1) through (5) or Article 35-2; when proceeding in accordance with Article 35, paragraph (1); when continuing along a vehicle traffic lane down which the vehicle has been proceeding pursuant to Article 26-2, paragraph (3); when temporarily giving way pursuant to Article 40, paragraph (2); or if road conditions or other circumstances compel it, the driver of a vehicle may proceed other than in accordance with the preceding two paragraphs. When passing another vehicle in such a case, the driver must use the vehicle traffic lane that is to the immediate right of the vehicle traffic lane in which the vehicle has been proceeding.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 120, paragraph (1), item (iii) and paragraph (2)) 
(Priority Lanes for Fixed-Route Buses and Other Such Motor Vehicles)
Article 20-2 (1) On a road with a vehicle traffic lane indicated by road signs or markings to be a priority lane for motor vehicles that a provider of motor carrier services for ride-sharing by general passengers as prescribed in Article 9, paragraph (1) of the Road Transportation Act make available for scheduled transportation on fixed routes as prescribed in Article 5, paragraph (1), item (iii) of that Act or for any other motor vehicle as prescribed by Cabinet Order (hereinafter referred to in this Article as a "fixed-route bus or other such motor vehicle"), a motor vehicle (other than a fixed-route bus or other such motor vehicle; the same applies hereinafter in this Article) must not proceed down that lane if traffic congestion on the road would render it unable to move out of the lane in the event that a fixed-route bus or other such motor vehicle approached from behind; and if a fixed-route bus or other such motor vehicle approaches from behind when a motor vehicle is proceeding down such a lane, the motor vehicle must promptly move out of the lane so as not to obstruct its regular operation; provided, however, that this does not apply if a motor vehicle is required pursuant to other provisions of this Act to proceed down that lane or if a motor vehicle must proceed down that lane due to road conditions or other compelling circumstances.
(2) The main clause of paragraph (1) of the preceding Article does not apply to a motor vehicle proceeding along any vehicle traffic lane or road section that is to the immediate right of the vehicle traffic lane prescribed in the preceding paragraph.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 120, paragraph (1), item (iii) and paragraph (2) apply to paragraph (1) of this Article.) 
(Entering Railway Track Beds)
Article 21 (1) A vehicle (other than a trolleybus; the same applies hereinafter in this Article and paragraph (1) of the following Article) must not enter a railway track bed, except when driving across it in order to turn left, turn right, cut across the road, or make a U-turn, or unless the driver is compelled to do so in order to prevent a hazard.
(2) Notwithstanding the preceding paragraph, a vehicle may enter a track bed in the cases set forth in the following items. In such a case, the vehicle must not prevent streetcars from proceeding:
(i) if the width of the part of the left side of a road that does not include the track bed is insufficient for the vehicle to proceed down it;
(ii) if the vehicle cannot proceed down the part of the left side of the road that does not include the track bed due to road damage, road work, or any other obstruction;
(iii) if the motor vehicle proceeding down the track bed is one that road signs or markings indicate is permitted to proceed down it.
(3) If a streetcar approaches from behind while a vehicle is proceeding down a track bed, the driver of the vehicle must promptly move off the track bed or maintain the necessary distance from the streetcar so as not to obstruct its regular operation.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 121, paragraph (1), item (v)) 
Section 2 Speed
(Maximum Speed Limits)
Article 22 (1) A vehicle must not exceed the posted maximum speed limit when traveling on a road where a maximum speed limit is specified by road signs or markings, and must not exceed the maximum speed limit prescribed by Cabinet Order when traveling on any other road.
(2) A streetcar or trolleybus must not exceed the posted maximum speed limit when traveling on a road where a maximum speed limit below that which has been prescribed by an order based on Article 14 (including as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to Article 31 of that Act; the same applies in Article 62) of the Railway Track Act (Act No. 76 of 1921) is specified by road signs or markings, and must not exceed the maximum speed limit prescribed by such an order on any other road.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 118, paragraph (1), item (i) and paragraph (2) of that Article) 
(Issuing Instructions to Users of Vehicles Regarding Violation of Maximum Speed Limits)
Article 22-2 (1) If the driver of a vehicle violates the preceding Article (hereinafter referred to in this Article and Article 75-2, paragraph (1) as committing a "violation (of the maximum speed limit)") in connection with the services of the vehicle's user(other than the selfsame driver of the vehicle; the same applies hereinafter in this Article), and the user of the vehicle in which the violation occurs is found not to be undertaking the necessary operational management to prevent such violations from occurring in that vehicle, the public safety commission with jurisdiction over the vehicle's base of operations may instruct the user to direct or advise its drivers to drive in a way that does not violate the maximum speed limit, and may instruct the user to take other measures that are needed for preventing violations of the maximum speed limit.
(2) If the user of a vehicle that is subject to instructions as under the preceding paragraph is a motor carrier as prescribed in the Road Transportation Act, a person engaged in Type II cargo transportation services as prescribed in the Cargo Forwarder Service Act (Act No. 82 of 1989), or a track operator as prescribed in the Railway Track Act (but only a trolleybus operator), the instructions must be issued based on an agreement entered into in advance between the public safety commission and the administrative agency that supervises its services.
(Minimum Speed Limits)
Article 23 When proceeding down a road (other than the main roadway of a national expressway as prescribed in Article 75-4) where a minimum speed limit is specified by road signs or markings, a motor vehicle must not travel at a speed below that minimum speed limit, except when the driver reduces speed pursuant to laws and regulations or is compelled to do so in order to prevent a hazard.
(Prohibition on Sudden Braking)
Article 24 The driver of a vehicle or streetcar must not suddenly apply the brakes in a way that causes the vehicle or streetcar to stop suddenly or sharply reduce speed, unless compelled to do so in order to prevent a hazard.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 119, paragraph (1), item (i)-3) 
Section 3 Cutting Across Roads and Other Such Maneuvers
(How to Exit the Road)
Article 25 (1) To make a left turn and exit the road, a driver must bring a vehicle as close as possible to the left edge of the road beforehand and reduce speed.
(2) To make a right turn and exit the road, a driver must bring a vehicle (other than a light road vehicle or trolleybus) as close as possible to the center of the road beforehand (or as close as possible to the right edge of the road, if the road is a one-way street) and reduce speed.
(3) Once the driver of a vehicle indicates the intention to make a left or right turn in order to exit the road and brings the vehicle towards the left edge, center, or right edge of the road pursuant to the preceding two paragraphs, the driver of a vehicle behind the turning vehicle must not obstruct the course of the turning vehicle unless avoiding this would make the driver have to suddenly change speed or direction.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 121, paragraph (1), item (v) applies to paragraphs (1) and (2) of this Article. Article 120, paragraph (1), item (ii) applies to paragraph (3) of this Article.) 
(Prohibition on Cutting Across Roads and Other Such Maneuvers)
Article 25-2 (1) The driver of a vehicle must not make a left or right turn, cut across a road, make a U-turn, or back up in order to enter a facility or place adjoining a road if doing so would likely obstruct the normal flow of pedestrian or other vehicle or streetcar traffic.
(2) The driver of a vehicle must not cut across a road, make a U-turn, or back up on a part of the road where doing so is prohibited by road signs or markings.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 119, paragraph (1), item (ii)-2 applies to paragraph (1) of this Article. Article 120, paragraph (1), item (iv) and paragraph (2) apply to paragraph (2) of this Article.) 
Section 4 Passing and Other Such Maneuvers
(Maintaining Distance between Vehicles)
Article 26 When proceeding down the road in a vehicle or streetcar immediately behind another vehicle or streetcar on the same course, the driver must maintain the distance that would be necessary to allow the driver to avoid a collision even if the vehicle or streetcar traveling immediately in front of it were to stop suddenly.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 119, paragraph (1), item (i)-4 and Article 120, paragraph (1), item (ii)) 
(Prohibition on Changing Course)
Article 26-2 (1) The driver of a vehicle must not change course without due cause.
(2) The driver of a vehicle must not change course if this would likely cause a sudden change of speed or direction by a vehicle or streetcar that is approaching from behind on the same course that the driver would be on after changing course.
(3) Except in the following cases, when proceeding down a vehicle traffic lane demarcated with road markings to show that a change of course is prohibited for vehicles in that lane, the driver of a vehicle must not change course beyond where those road markings start:
(i) when bringing the vehicle towards the left or right side of a road pursuant to Article 40 or if it is impossible to continue to proceed down the current vehicle traffic lane due to road damage, road work, or any other obstruction;
(ii) when attempting to proceed in compliance with Article 40, or when attempting to proceed in accordance with the provisions on traffic distribution in a vehicle traffic lane where the vehicle is unable to proceed due to road damage, road work, or any other obstruction.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 120, paragraph (1), item (ii) applies to paragraph (2) of this Article. Article 120, paragraph (1), item (iii) and paragraph (2) apply to paragraph (3) of this Article.) 
(Obligations of a Vehicle Being Overtaken by Another Vehicle)
Article 27 (1) When a second vehicle subject to a higher maximum speed limit as prescribed by Cabinet Order based on Article 22, paragraph (1) (hereinafter referred to in this Article as the "maximum speed limit") catches up with a first vehicle (other than a motor vehicle that a provider of motor carrier services for ride-sharing by general passengers as prescribed in Article 9, paragraph (1) of the Road Transportation Act uses for scheduled transportation on a fixed route as prescribed in Article 5, paragraph (1), item (iii) of that Act or a motor vehicle used for motor carrier services open to specific passengers as prescribed in Article 3, item (ii) of that Act (hereinafter referred to as a "bus"), and other than a trolleybus), the first vehicle must not increase its speed until the second vehicle has finished passing it. The same applies when a second vehicle that is subject to the same or a lower maximum speed limit catches up to a first vehicle, if the driver of the first vehicle seeks to continue to travel at a lower speed than the second vehicle.
(2) Notwithstanding Article 18, paragraph (1), unless a road has vehicle traffic lanes, if a second vehicle subject to a higher maximum speed limit catches up with a first vehicle (other than a bus or trolleybus) and there is insufficient room between the center of the road (or the right edge of the road, if the road is a one-way street; the same applies hereinafter in this paragraph) and the first vehicle for the second vehicle to pass, the driver of the first vehicle must give way to the second vehicle by bringing the first vehicle as close as possible to the left edge of the road. The same applies when a second vehicle that is subject to the same or a lower maximum speed limit catches up to a first vehicle, if the driver of the first vehicle seeks to continue to travel at a lower speed than the second vehicle and there is insufficient room between the center of the road and the first vehicle for the second vehicle to pass.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 120, paragraph (1), item (ii)) 
(How to Pass)
Article 28 (1) When attempting to pass another vehicle, the driver of a vehicle must keep to the right side of the vehicle that the driver is attempting to pass (hereinafter referred to in this Section as the "leading vehicle").
(2) Notwithstanding the preceding paragraph, when attempting to pass a leading vehicle that is traveling close to the center or the right edge of a road pursuant to Article 25, paragraph (2) or Article 34, paragraph (2) or (4), the driver of a vehicle must keep to the left side of the leading vehicle.
(3) When attempting to pass a streetcar, the driver of a vehicle must keep to the left side of the streetcar; provided, however, that this does not apply if the track runs along the left edge of the road.
(4) In the cases referred to in the preceding three paragraphs, the driver of a vehicle that is attempting to pass another vehicle (referred to in the following Article as the "trailing vehicle") must pay due attention to the traffic coming from the opposite direction and from behind it and the traffic ahead of the leading vehicle or streetcar, and must proceed at the safest possible speed and in the safest possible manner, in keeping with the speed and course of the leading vehicle or streetcar and the road conditions.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 119, paragraph (1), item (ii)-2) 
(When Passing Is Prohibited)
Article 29 A trailing vehicle must not start to pass a leading vehicle when the leading vehicle is attempting to pass another motor vehicle or trolleybus.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 119, paragraph (1), item (ii)-2) 
(Places Where Passing Is Prohibited)
Article 30 The driver of a vehicle must not change course or overtake a leading vehicle on the side in order to pass another vehicle (other than a light road vehicle) on a part of the road where passing is prohibited by road signs or markings or on a part of the road as set forth below:
(i) on a sharp curve of a road, at the top of an incline, or on a steep downward slope;
(ii) in a tunnel (but only on a part of a road that does not have vehicle traffic lanes);
(iii) at an intersection (other than at an intersection on a priority road as prescribed in Article 36, paragraph (2), if the vehicle is proceeding down the priority road), at a railroad crossing, at a pedestrian crossing, over a bicycle crossing lane or within the 30 meters leading up to any of the foregoing.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 119, paragraph (1), item (ii) and paragraph (2) of that Article) 
(Stopping or Reducing Speed If Streetcars Are Stopped)
Article 31 Having caught up with a streetcar that has stopped to load or unload passengers, the driver of a vehicle must stop behind the streetcar until it finishes loading and unloading passengers and until all persons who have alighted from the streetcar have finished crossing or are no longer trying to cross ahead of the vehicle on the left side of the streetcar; provided, however, that, if there is a safety zone in place to ensure the safety of persons boarding and alighting from a streetcar or if no person is boarding or alighting from a streetcar and it is possible to maintain a distance of at least 1.5 meters from the left side of the streetcar, a vehicle may pass the streetcar on its left side at a reduced speed.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 119, paragraph (1), item (ii)-2) 
(Protections for Departing Buses)
Article 31-2 Once the driver of a bus that has been stopped at a bus stop to load or unload passengers gives a hand or turn signal to indicate the intention to change course in order to depart, the driver of a vehicle behind the bus must not obstruct its change of course unless avoiding this would make the driver have to suddenly change speed or direction.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 120, paragraph (1), item (ii)) 
(Prohibition on Cutting Off Other Drivers)
Article 32 Having caught up with a vehicle or streetcar that is stopped or driving at a reduced speed in order to stop pursuant to laws and regulations, in compliance with a police officer's orders, or to prevent a hazard; or having caught up with another vehicle or streetcar that is stopped or driving at a reduced speed behind a leading vehicle or streetcar, the driver of a vehicle must not pass on the left side of the leading vehicle or streetcar or pull in front of or cross ahead of the vehicle or streetcar
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 120, paragraph (1), item (ii)) 
Section 5 Going Over Railroad Crossings
(Going Over Railroad Crossings)
Article 33 (1) Before going over a railroad crossing, the driver of a vehicle or streetcar must stop immediately in front of the railroad crossing (or immediately in front of any stop line established by road signs or markings; the same applies hereinafter in this paragraph) and must not proceed until after checking that it is safe to do so; provided, however, that the vehicle or streetcar may proceed without stopping immediately before a railroad crossing when complying with a signal indicated by a traffic light.
(2) A vehicle or streetcar must not enter a railroad crossing while a railroad crossing gate is closing or closed or while a railroad crossing alarm is sounding.
(3) If the driver of a vehicle or streetcar becomes unable to drive the vehicle or streetcar at a railroad crossing due to a malfunction or other such circumstance, the driver must immediately signal an emergency or take other measures to inform railroad or track officials or police officers of the emergency, as well as taking the necessary measures to move the vehicle or streetcar off the railroad crossing.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 119, paragraph (1), item (ii) and paragraph (2) apply to paragraphs (1) and (2) of this Article.) 
Section 6 Traffic Rules at Intersections; Related Considerations
(Turning Left and Right)
Article 34 (1) To make a left turn, a driver must bring a vehicle as close as possible to the left edge of the road beforehand, and proceed along that edge for as long as possible (or down the part of the road specified by road signs or markings, if any) at a reduced speed.
(2) To make a right turn, the driver of a motor vehicle, motorized bicycle, or trolleybus must bring it as close as possible to the center of the road beforehand, and proceed through the intersection just inside the center point (or through the part of the intersection specified by road signs or markings, if any) at a reduced speed.
(3) To make a right turn, the driver of a light road vehicle must bring the vehicle as close as possible to the left edge of the road beforehand, and proceed through the intersection along the outer edge at a reduced speed.
(4) Notwithstanding paragraph (2), to make a right turn onto a one-way street, a driver must bring a motor vehicle, motorized bicycle, or trolleybus as close as possible to the right edge of the road beforehand, and proceed through the intersection inside the center point at a reduced speed (or through the part of the intersection specified by road signs or markings, if any ) at a reduced speed.
(5) Notwithstanding paragraph (2) and the preceding paragraph, to make a right turn on a road on which motorized bicycles are required by road signs or markings to proceed along the side edge of a controlled intersection when turning right, and on any other road with three or more vehicle traffic lanes on the left side of the road (or on the road itself, if it is a one-way street) (hereinafter referred to in this paragraph as a "multi-lane road") (but only if a motorized bicycle is turning right at a controlled intersection), the driver must bring the motorized bicycle as close as possible to the left edge of the road beforehand, and drive at a reduced speed along the outer edge of the intersection; provided, however, that this does not apply when a motorized bicycle is required by road signs or markings on a multi-lane road to move towards the center or the right edge of the road before turning right at a controlled intersection.
(6) When the driver of a vehicle uses a hand or turn signal to indicate the intention to move towards the left edge, center, or right edge of the road pursuant to the preceding paragraphs before turning left or right on a road, the driver of a vehicles behind that vehicle must not obstruct the change of course unless avoiding this would make that driver have to suddenly change speed or direction.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 121, paragraph (1), item (v) applies to paragraphs (1) through (5) of this Article. Article 120, paragraph (1), item (ii) to paragraph (6) of this Article.) 
(Designated Traffic Distribution)
Article 35 (1) Notwithstanding paragraphs (1), (2), and (4) of the preceding Article, if road signs or markings on a road with vehicle traffic lanes specify a traffic distribution for the directions in which vehicles progress through the intersection, the driver of a vehicle (other than light road vehicle or motorized bicycle turning left or right at an intersection where motorized bicycles are required to comply with the main clause of paragraph (5) of the preceding Article when turning right) must abide by that distribution of traffic in proceeding down those vehicle traffic lanes; provided, however, that this does not apply if it is impossible to do so and still comply with Article 40 or if it is impossible to do so due to road damage, road work, or any other obstruction.
(2) The provisions of paragraph (6) of the preceding Article apply mutatis mutandis if the driver of a vehicle uses a hand or turn signal to indicate the intention to change course in order to abide by a distribution of traffic as referred to in the preceding paragraph.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 120, paragraph (1), item (iii) and paragraph (2) apply to paragraph (1) of this Article. Article 120, paragraph (1), item (ii) applies to paragraph (2) of this Article.) 
(Left Turns and Other Maneuvers Through Roundabouts)
Article 35-2 (1) Notwithstanding Article 34, paragraphs (1) through (5), to make a left or a right turn through a roundabout, a driver must bring a vehicle as close as possible to the left edge of the road beforehand, and proceed for as long as possible along the outer edge of the roundabout (or down the part of the road specified by road signs or markings, if any) at a reduced speed.
(2) To go straight or make a U-turn through a roundabout, a driver must bring a vehicle as close as possible to the left edge of the road beforehand, and proceed for as long as possible along the outer edge of the roundabout (or down the part of the road specified by road signs or markings, if any) at a reduced speed.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 121, paragraph (1), item (v)) 
(Interacting with Other Vehicles and Streetcars at Intersections)
Article 36 (1) Unless the following paragraph applies, it is prohibited for the driver of either a vehicle or streetcar, these being classed separately as set forth in each of the following items, to obstruct the progress of another vehicle or streetcar as set forth in the item at an uncontrolled intersection:
(i) a vehicle must not obstruct the progress of: vehicles approaching from the left on a road intersecting the road on which the vehicle is proceeding (hereinafter referred to as an "intersecting road") and streetcars proceeding down an intersecting road;
(ii) a streetcar must not obstruct the progress of: streetcars approaching from the left on an intersecting road.
(2) At an uncontrolled intersection, a vehicle or streetcar must not obstruct the progress of other vehicles and streetcars traveling on an intersecting road that constitutes a priority road (meaning a road designated as such by road signs or markings, or a road at whose intersections a center line or vehicle traffic lanes have been established by road signs or markings in order to regulate the movement of vehicles on the road; the same applies hereinafter) or of other vehicles and streetcars traveling on an intersecting road that is clearly wider than the road on which the first vehicle or streetcar is traveling, unless the road on which the first vehicle or streetcar is traveling is also a priority road.
(3) Before entering an uncontrolled intersection, the driver of a vehicle or streetcar (other than a vehicle or streetcar traveling on a priority road) must drive at reduced speed if the intersecting road is a priority road or is clearly wider than the road on which that vehicle or streetcar is proceeding.
(4) Before entering an intersection and when traveling through it, the driver of a vehicle or streetcar must pay particular attention to vehicles and streetcars traveling on intersecting roads, vehicles and streetcars approaching from the opposite direction and turning right, and pedestrians crossing the road at or in the immediate vicinity of the intersection, and must proceed at the safest possible speed and in the safest possible manner, in keeping with the conditions at the intersection.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 120, paragraph (1), item (ii) applies to paragraph (1) of this Article. Article 119, paragraph (1), item (ii)-2 applies to paragraphs (2) through (4) of this Article.)
Article 37 When making a right turn at an intersection, a vehicle or streetcar must not obstruct the progress of other vehicles and streetcars passing straight through or turning left at the intersection.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 120, paragraph (1), item (ii)) 
(Interacting with Other Vehicles and Streetcars in Roundabouts)
Article 37-2 (1) Notwithstanding Article 36, paragraphs (1) and (2) and the preceding Article, a vehicle or streetcar in a roundabout must not obstruct the progress of other vehicles and streetcars in the roundabout.
(2) Notwithstanding Article 36, paragraph (3), a vehicle or streetcar must reduce speed when entering a roundabout.
(3) Notwithstanding Article 36, paragraph (4), when about to enter a roundabout and when traveling in it, the driver of a vehicle or streetcar must pay particular attention to vehicles and streetcars about to enter the roundabout, vehicles and streetcars traveling in the roundabout, and pedestrians crossing the road at or in the immediate vicinity of the roundabout, and must proceed at the safest possible speed and in the safest possible manner, in keeping with the conditions at the roundabout.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 119, paragraph (1), item (ii)-2) 
Section 6-2 Traffic Rules for Protecting Crossing Pedestrians and Cyclists
(Pedestrians' and Cyclists' Right of Way at Pedestrian and Bicycle Crossings)
Article 38 (1) When approaching a pedestrian crossing or a bicycle crossing lane (hereinafter referred to in this Article as a "pedestrian or bicycle crossing"), a vehicle or streetcar must proceed at a speed that will enable it to stop immediately in front of the pedestrian or bicycle crossing (or immediately in front of any stop line indicated by road signs or markings; the same applies hereinafter in this paragraph), unless there are clearly no pedestrians or bicycles (hereinafter referred to in this Article as a "pedestrian or cyclist") ahead of the vehicle or streetcar. In such a case, if a pedestrian or cyclist is crossing or about to cross the pedestrian or bicycle crossing ahead of the vehicle or streetcar, the vehicle or streetcar must come to a stop immediately in front of the pedestrian or bicycle crossing and must not prevent that pedestrian or cyclist from proceeding.
(2) When overtaking another vehicle or streetcar on one side before pulling in front of it, the driver of a vehicle or streetcar must come to a stop if the other vehicle or streetcar is stopped at or immediately in front of a pedestrian or bicycle crossing (other than a pedestrian or bicycle crossing where the signal indicated by a traffic light or the alternative signal of an officer prohibits pedestrians and cyclists from crossing at the time the vehicle or streetcar in question is overtaking; the same applies hereinafter in the following paragraph).
(3) A vehicle or streetcar must not overtake another vehicle or streetcar (other than a light road vehicle) on one side and pull in front of it over a pedestrian or bicycle crossing or on a part of the road within 30 meters before the pedestrian or bicycle crossing, except in a case that falls under Article 30, item (iii).
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 119, paragraph (1), item (ii) and paragraph (2) of that Article) 
(Right of Way for Pedestrians at Intersections without Pedestrian Crossings)
Article 38-2 A vehicle or streetcar must not prevent a pedestrian from proceeding who is crossing the road at an intersection or any place in its immediate vicinity without a pedestrian crossing.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 119, paragraph (1), item (ii)-2) 
Section 7 Emergency Motor Vehicles and Other Vehicles
(Traffic Distributions and Related Considerations for Emergency Motor Vehicles)
Article 39 (1) Notwithstanding Article 17, paragraph (4), an emergency motor vehicle (meaning a fire truck, ambulance, or other motor vehicle that Cabinet Order prescribes which is used for emergency services pursuant to Cabinet Order; the same applies hereinafter) may stray fully or partially onto the right side of a road beyond as prescribed in Article 17, paragraph (5), if it needs to do so in order to pass or if there are other compelling circumstances.
(2) An emergency motor vehicle is not required to stop even if stopping is required pursuant to laws and regulations. In such a case, the driver of an emergency motor vehicle must drive at reduced speed, paying attention to other traffic.
(Right of Way for Emergency Motor Vehicles)
Article 40 (1) When an emergency motor vehicle is approaching an intersection or its vicinity, streetcars must come to a stop and avoid entering the intersection, and vehicles (other than other emergency motor vehicles; the same applies hereinafter in this Article) must avoid the intersection and come to a stop on the left side of the road (or on the right side of the road of a one-way street, if moving towards the left side of the road would prevent the emergency motor vehicle from proceeding; the same applies hereinafter in the following paragraph).
(2) When an emergency motor vehicle is approaching any place other than what is prescribed in the preceding paragraph, the driver of a vehicle must move the vehicle towards the left side of the road and give way to that emergency motor vehicle.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 120, paragraph (1), item (ii)) 
(Special Rules for Emergency Motor Vehicles and Other Vehicles)
Article 41 (1) Article 8, paragraph (1), Article 17, paragraph (6), Article 18, Article 20, paragraphs (1) and (2), Article 20-2, Article 25, paragraphs (1) and (2), Article 25-2, paragraph (2), Article 26-2, paragraph (3), Article 29, Article 30, Article 34, paragraphs (1), (2), and (4), Article 35, paragraph (1), and the first sentence of Article 38, paragraphs (1) and (3) do not apply to emergency motor vehicles.
(2) Beyond what is prescribed in the preceding paragraph, Article 22 does not apply to an emergency motor vehicle that is bearing down on a vehicle or streetcar violating Article 22.
(3) Article 18, paragraph (1), Article 20, paragraphs (1) and (2), Article 20-2, and Article 25-2, paragraph (2) do not apply to a motor vehicle engaged exclusively in traffic control that Cabinet Office Order prescribes.
(4) Article 17, paragraphs (4) and (6), Article 18, paragraph (1), Article 20, paragraphs (1) and (2), Article 20-2, Article 23, and Article 25-2, paragraph (2) do not apply to a motor vehicle designed for road maintenance (meaning a motor vehicle as Cabinet Order prescribes which is used exclusively in works such as the maintenance and repair of roads; the same applies in Article 75-9) when that motor vehicle is being employed in a work such as the maintenance or repair of a road pursuant to Cabinet Order.
(Right of Way and Related Considerations for Fire-Services Vehicles)
Article 41-2 (1) When a fire-services vehicle (meaning a vehicle other than a fire truck, which is used in firefighting and is being driven pursuant to Cabinet Order as a part of fire-fighting services; the same applies hereinafter in this Article) is approaching an intersection or its vicinity, vehicles and streetcars (other than emergency motor vehicles and other fire-services vehicles) must avoid the intersection and come to a stop.
(2) When a fire-services vehicle is approaching any place other than what is prescribed in the preceding paragraph, the driver of a vehicle (other than an emergency motor vehicle or another fire-services vehicle) must not prevent the fire-services vehicle from proceeding.
(3) Article 39 applies mutatis mutandis to fire-services vehicles.
(4) Article 8, paragraph (1), Article 17, paragraph (6), Article 18, Article 20, paragraphs (1) and (2), Article 25, paragraphs (1) and (2), Article 25-2, paragraph (2), Article 26-2, paragraph (3), Article 29, Article 30, Article 34, paragraphs (1) through (5), Article 35, paragraph (1), the first sentence of paragraph (1) and the entirety of paragraph (3) of Article 38, and Article 40, paragraph (1), Article 63-6, and Article 63-7 do not apply to fire-services vehicles.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 120, paragraph (1), item (ii) applies to paragraphs (1) and (2) of this Article.) 
Section 8 Driving at Reduced Speeds and Coming to a Stop
(Places Where Vehicles Must Be Driven at Reduced Speeds)
Article 42 The driver of a vehicle or streetcar must drive at a reduced speed when traveling on a part of a road where road signs or markings specify that such a vehicle or streetcar must be driven at a reduced speed, as well as in the following cases:
(i) before entering an intersection with poor visibility on the right or left, or before proceeding through a part of an intersection with poor visibility on the right or left (unless traffic controls are in place at the intersection or unless the vehicle or streetcar is proceeding down a priority road);
(ii) when proceeding around a curve in the road, over the top of an incline, or on a steep downward slope.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 119, paragraph (1), item (ii) and paragraph (2) of that Article) 
(Coming to a Stop at Designated Places)
Article 43 If road signs or markings specify that a vehicle or streetcar must come to a stop at or immediately in front of an uncontrolled intersection, the vehicle or streetcar must come to a stop immediately in front of the stop line indicated by road signs or markings (or immediately in front of the intersection, if a stop line is not indicated by road signs or markings). In such a case, the vehicle or streetcar must not obstruct the progress of a vehicle or streetcar traveling down the intersecting road, except in a case falling under Article 36, paragraph (2).
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 119, paragraph (1), item (ii) and paragraph (2) of that Article) 
Section 9 Stopping and Parking
(Places Where Stopping or Parking Is Prohibited)
Article 44 The driver of a vehicle must not stop or park on a part of the road where stopping or parking is prohibited by road signs or markings or on a part of the road as set forth below, except when coming to a stop pursuant to laws and regulations, in compliance with a police officer's orders, or in order to prevent a hazard; provided, however, that this does not apply if a bus or trolleybus stops to load or unload passengers, or parks to adjust its timing so that operations can get back on schedule, at a stop or station that is a part of its transit system:
(i) in an intersection, pedestrian crossing, bicycle crossing lane, or railroad crossing; on a track bed; in the vicinity of the top of a slope; on a steep slope; or in a tunnel;
(ii) within 5 meters of the outside edges of an intersection or a curve in the road;
(iii) within the 5 meters in front of and behind the outside edges of a pedestrian crossing or bicycle crossing lane;
(iv) the part of the road to the left of a safety zone and within the 10 meters in front of and behind that part of the road;
(v) within 10 meters of a signpost or signage for a bus stop or for a trolleybus or streetcar station (but only during the hours of operation of buses, trolleybuses, and streetcars in the transit system of which that stop or station is a part);
(vi) within the 10 meters in front of and behind the outside edges of a railroad crossing.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 119-2, paragraph (1), item (i) and paragraph (2) and Article 119-3, paragraph (1), item (i) and paragraph (2)) 
(Places Where Parking Is Prohibited)
Article 45 (1) The driver of a vehicle must not park on a part of the road where parking is prohibited by road signs or markings or on a part of the road as set forth below; provided, however, that this does not apply if permission to park there has been granted by the chief of the police station pursuant to public safety commission rules:
(i) within 3 meters of a motor-vehicle entrance or exit connecting the road and a facility or place that has been set up along the road for loading and unloading persons or cargo; for parking; or for storing or repairing motor vehicles;
(ii) within 5 meters of the outside edge of a road work zone while road work is taking place in that zone;
(iii) within 5 meters of a place where fire-services machinery or equipment is stored, within 5 meters of a fire-services cistern, or within 5 meters of an entrance or exit connecting either of these to the road;
(iv) within 5 meters of a fire hydrant, a sign indicating a designated fire-services water source, or the water intake or injection tube of a fire-services cistern;
(v) within 1 meter of a fire alarm.
(2) The driver of a vehicle must not park pursuant to Article 47, paragraph (2) or (3) if doing so would fail to leave at least 3.5 meters (or the distance that is specified by road signs or markings, if any) of road to the right side of the vehicle; provided, however, that this does not apply when cargo is being loaded or unloaded if the driver does not leave the vicinity of the vehicle or if the driver leaves the vicinity of the vehicle but will be able to go back to driving immediately, and does not apply if the driver is compelled to park pursuant to those provisions in order to assist an injured or sick person.
(3) The main clause of the preceding paragraph does not apply in an area that the public safety commission prescribes as an area with infrequent traffic.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 119-2, paragraph (1), item (i) and paragraph (2), and Article 119-3, paragraph (1), item (i) and paragraph (2) apply to paragraphs (1) and (2) of this Article.) 
(Special Rules for Stopping and Parking Motor Vehicles Bearing an Elderly- or Special-Needs Driver Mark)
Article 45-2 (1) Notwithstanding Article 44 or paragraph (1) of the preceding Article, a standard motor vehicle that is driven by a person as referred to in one of the following items (referred to hereinafter in this paragraph and in the following paragraph as an "elderly or special-needs driver") (but only a standard motor vehicle for which the elderly or special-needs driver has made a filing with the public safety commission having jurisdiction over the domicile thereof pursuant to Cabinet Office Order) and that, while stopped or parked, displays a mark that an elderly or special-needs driver has been issued pursuant to the following paragraph in an easily visible location on its front-end (hereinafter referred to as a "motor vehicle bearing an elderly or special-needs driver mark") may be parked or stopped fully or partially within a part of the road where stopping or parking is prohibited under Article 44 or where parking is prohibited under paragraph (1) of the preceding Article, if road signs or markings indicate that parking or stopping is permitted there:
(i) a person 70 years of age or older who has been issued a license that covers standard motor vehicles as prescribed in Article 71-5, paragraph (3) (such a license is referred to simply as a "license for a standard motor vehicle" hereinafter in this Article);
(ii) a person as prescribed in Article 71-6, paragraph (2) or (3);
(iii) a person other than as set forth in the preceding two items, who has been licensed for a standard motor vehicle and who Cabinet Order provides for as being in need of special consideration as concerns where they are allowed to stop or park a standard motor vehicle driven thereby, because of physical limitations due to pregnancy or other considerations.
(2) At the application of an elderly or special-needs driver, the public safety commission must issue the driver a mark indicating the driver to be an elderly or special-needs driver who drives the standard motor vehicle to which the filing prescribed in the preceding paragraph pertains.
(3) A person who has been issued an elderly or special-needs driver mark may apply to the public safety commission having jurisdiction over the domicile thereof for its reissuance if the elderly or special-needs driver mark is lost, damaged, or defaced.
(4) A person who has been issued an elderly or special-needs driver mark must promptly return it to the public safety commission having jurisdiction over the domicile if the person's license for standard motor vehicles is revoked or ceases to be valid, if the circumstances prescribed in paragraph (1), item (iii) cease to be a factor, or if any other event that Cabinet Office Order prescribes occurs.
(5) Beyond what is prescribed in the preceding three paragraphs, Cabinet Office Order provides for the necessary matters in relation to elderly or special-needs driver marks.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 121, paragraph (1), item (ix) applies to paragraph (4) of this Article.) 
(Special Rules for Places Where Stopping or Parking Is Prohibited)
Article 46 Notwithstanding Article 44 or Article 45, paragraph (1), beyond as prescribed in paragraph (1) of the preceding Article, the driver of a vehicle may stop or park the vehicle partially within a part of the road where stopping and parking are prohibited under Article 44 or where parking is prohibited under Article 45, paragraph (1), if stopping or parking is permitted by road signs or markings.
(How to Stop and Park)
Article 47 (1) When stopping to load or unload persons or cargo, a driver must bring a vehicle as close as possible to the left edge of the road, and must position the vehicle so as not to obstruct traffic.
(2) When parking, a driver must bring a vehicle to the left edge of the road, and must position the vehicle so as not to obstruct traffic.
(3) Notwithstanding the preceding two paragraphs, when stopping or parking in a place with a side strip adjacent to the left edge of the roadway (other than side strips demarcated with road markings indicating that stopping and parking are prohibited there, and other than side strips as prescribed by Cabinet Order), the driver must bring the vehicle into the side strip pursuant to Cabinet Order, and must position the vehicle so as not to obstruct traffic.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 119-3, paragraph (1), item (iv) applies to paragraph (1) of this Article. Article 119-2, paragraph (1), item (ii) and Article 119-3, paragraph (1), item (iv) apply to paragraphs (2) and (3) of this Article.) 
(Special Rules on How to Stop and Park)
Article 48 Notwithstanding the preceding Article, if road signs or markings specify how to stop or park, the driver of a vehicle must stop or park in that way.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 119-2, paragraph (1), item (i) and paragraph (2) and Article 119-3, paragraph (1), item (i) and paragraph (2)) 
(Time-Restricted Parking Areas)
Article 49 (1) A public safety commission is to install and manage parking meters (but only ones that function as Cabinet Office Order prescribes; the same applies hereinafter) or devices that function as Cabinet Office Order prescribes for issuing tickets (meaning an emblem in a format that Cabinet Office Order prescribes that indicates the time of issuance and other information that Cabinet Office Order prescribes; the same applies hereinafter) (hereinafter such a device is referred to as a "ticket dispenser") for areas of road that road signs or markings specify to be areas in which vehicles may remain parked during a limited timeframe (hereinafter referred to as a "time-restricted parking zone"), in order to ensure proper parking in those time-restricted parking zones.
(2) Beyond as prescribed in the preceding paragraph, a public safety commission must take the necessary measures to ensure proper parking in time-restricted parking zones, such as providing information for drivers seeking to park their vehicles in time-restricted parking zones and establishing systems of organization for vehicles being parked in time-restricted parking zones.
(3) A public safety commission may ask a person that Cabinet Office Order prescribes to handle all or part of the administrative functions involved in the management of the parking meters and ticket dispensers prescribed in paragraph (1), as well as the measures prescribed in the preceding paragraph.
(Time-Restricted Parking Areas for Elderly and Special-Needs Drivers)
Article 49-2 The public safety commission may designate a time-restricted parking zone as an area of road where motor vehicles bearing elderly and special-needs driver marks may remain parked during a limited timeframe. In such a case, the public safety commission must indicate that designation on road signs or markings as prescribed in paragraph (1) of the preceding Article.
(How to Park in Time-Restricted Parking Areas; Related Considerations)
Article 49-3 (1) Notwithstanding Articles 44 through 48, the parking of vehicles in time-restricted parking zones (other than when a bus or trolleybus parks at a stop or station which is part of its transit system to adjust its timing so that operations can get back on schedule; the same applies in the following Article) is subject to this Article through Article 49-5.
(2) A vehicle (but only a motor vehicle bearing an elderly or special-needs driver mark, if it is on an area of road designated pursuant to the preceding Article (hereinafter referred to in the following Article as a "time-restricted parking zone for elderly and special-needs drivers"); the same applies hereinafter in this Article, Article 49-6, and Article 119-3, paragraph (1), item (ii)) must not remain parked in a time-restricted parking zone beyond the timeframe specified by road signs or markings, as counted from the time that a parking meter as referred to in Article 49, paragraph (1) detects the vehicle or from the time that a ticket is issued by a ticket dispenser as referred to in that paragraph.
(3) The driver of a vehicle must not park in a time-restricted parking zone other than on a part of the road and in the way specified by road signs or markings.
(4) Having parked in a time-restricted parking zone, the driver of a vehicle, pursuant to Cabinet Order, must immediately activate a parking meter as set forth in Article 49, paragraph (1); or must immediately have a ticket dispenser as prescribed in that paragraph issue a ticket, and must display that ticket in an easily visible place at the front of the vehicle while it is parked (but only during the period of time from the issuance of the ticket until the expiration of the timeframe indicated by road signs or markings).
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 119-3, paragraph (1), item (i) and paragraph (2) apply to paragraph (2) of this Article. Article 119-2, paragraph (1), item (i) and paragraph (2) and Article 119-3, paragraph (1), item (i) and paragraph (2) apply to paragraph (3) of this Article. Article 119-3, paragraph (1), item (iii) and paragraph (2) apply to paragraph (4) of this Article) 
(Prohibition Against Parking in Time-Restricted Parking Areas for Elderly and Special-Needs Drivers)
Article 49-4 The driver of a vehicle other than a motor vehicle bearing an elderly or special-needs driver mark must not park in a time-restricted parking zone for elderly and special-needs drivers.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 119-2, paragraph (1), item (i) and paragraph (2) and Article 119-3, paragraph (1), item (i) and paragraph (2)) 
(Special Rules on Parking in Time-Restricted Parking Areas)
Article 49-5 If the chief of a police station specifies a place, manner, start time, and end time for parking and grants permission, pursuant to public safety commission rules, for a vehicle to be parked in a time-restricted parking zone, the preceding two Articles (other than Article 49-3, paragraph (1)) do not apply to the vehicle subject to that permission and to the driver of that vehicle, so long as the driver parks the vehicle in the specified place and manner between that start time and end time. In such a case, the vehicle must not remain parked there beyond the specified end time.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 119-3, paragraph (1), item (i) and paragraph (2) apply to the second sentence of this Article.) 
(Special Rules on Stopping in Time-Restricted Parking Areas)
Article 49-6 Notwithstanding Article 44, the driver of a vehicle may stop in a part of a road as set forth in the items of that Article if it is within a time-restricted parking zone that road signs or markings specify to be a part of the road on which a vehicle may be parked pursuant to Article 49-3, paragraph (3).
(Special Rules for On-Street Parking Spots in Time-Restricted Parking Areas)
Article 49-7 (1) If an on-street parking spot as prescribed in Article 2, item (i) of the Act (hereinafter referred to in this Article and Article 110-2 as an "on-street parking spot") is created in a time-restricted parking zone pursuant to Article 5, paragraph (1) of the Parking Spaces Act (Act No. 106 of 1957), Article 49 does not apply to the part of the road containing that on-street parking spot.
(2) Any parking meters or ticket dispensers that are installed by an on-street parking administrator as prescribed in Article 6, paragraph (1) of the Parking Spaces Act for a part of the road where on-street parking spots have been created in a time-restricted parking zone are deemed to be parking meters or ticket dispensers as prescribed in Article 49, paragraph (1), and are subject to Article 49-3.
(3) Articles 49-3 through 49-5 do not apply to any part of a road where on-street parking spots have been created in a time-restricted parking zone for which no parking meter or ticket dispenser has been installed.
(Prohibition on Entry into Intersections and Other Parts of the Road)
Article 50 (1) A vehicle or streetcar must not enter a controlled intersection (or any part of a road beyond a stop line indicated by road signs or markings at a controlled intersection; the same applies hereinafter in this paragraph) if, because of the positioning of vehicles and streetcars further ahead on the intended course, it would likely end up stopping inside the intersection and thereby obstructing other vehicles or streetcars from proceeding down an intersecting road.
(2) A vehicle or streetcar must not enter a pedestrian crossing, bicycle crossing lane, railroad crossing, or part of the road demarcated with road markings if, because of the positioning of vehicles and streetcars further ahead on the intended course, it would likely end up stopping in that part of the road.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 120, paragraph (1), item (v) and paragraph (2) of that Article) 
Section 9-2 Measures against Illegal Stopping and Illegal Parking
(Measures against Illegal Stopping)
Article 50-2 If a vehicle (other than a trolleybus; the same applies hereinafter from this Article to Article 51-2 and in Article 51-4) is found to be stopped in violation of Article 44, Article 47, paragraph (1) or (3) or Article 48, an officer may order the driver of the vehicle to change the way the vehicle is stopped or to move the vehicle from a place where stopping is prohibited.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 119, paragraph (1), item (iii)) 
(Measures against Illegal Parking)
Article 51 (1) If a vehicle is found to be parked in violation of Article 44, Article 45, paragraph (1) or (2), Article 47, paragraph (2) or (3), Article 48, Article 49-3, paragraph (2) or (3), Article 49-4, or the second sentence of Article 49-5, or if a vehicle is parked in a time-restricted parking zone where a ticket dispenser as referred to in Article 49, paragraph (1) has been installed but a ticket issued by the ticket dispenser is not being displayed and this is found to violate Article 49-3, paragraph (4) (referred to collectively as a vehicle being "found to have been parked illegally" in paragraph (1) of the following Article and Article 51-4, paragraph (1)), an officer may order the driver of the vehicle or another person responsible for the oversight of the vehicle (hereinafter referred to in this Article as a "driver or other responsible person") to change how the vehicle is parked, move the vehicle from a place where parking is prohibited, or move the vehicle from the time-restricted parking zone.
(2) If it is found to be difficult for a driver or other responsible person to immediately comply with an order under the preceding paragraph due to a vehicle malfunction or other such circumstance, the officer may change how the vehicle is parked or move the vehicle, but only so far as is necessary to prevent road hazards and otherwise ensure the safety and fluidity of traffic.
(3) If unable to issue an order pursuant to paragraph (1) in a case as referred to in that paragraph (1) because the driver or other responsible person is not at the scene, the officer may change how a vehicle is parked or take other necessary measures, or may move a vehicle to another place on the road within 50 meters of the place where it is parked, but only so far as is necessary to prevent road traffic hazards or ensure that traffic runs smoothly.
(4) If an officer wishes to move a vehicle pursuant to the preceding paragraph but there is no place on the road to which it can be moved that is within 50 meters of where it is parked, the officer must report this to the chief of the police station having jurisdiction over the place where the vehicle is parked.
(5) Upon receiving a report as referred to in the preceding paragraph, the chief of the police station may move a vehicle to a parking spot, open space, place on a road other than as prescribed in paragraph (3), or other such place.
(6) After moving a vehicle pursuant to the preceding paragraph, the chief of the police station must store the vehicle as its custodian. In such a case, the chief of the police station must take the necessary measures to prevent theft and other accidents from befalling the vehicle, such as indicating the chief of the police station to be storing the vehicle or attaching a wheel-lock device to the vehicle, depending on the layout of the place where the vehicle is being kept, how the vehicle is being managed, and other considerations.
(7) After taking a vehicle into storage pursuant to the preceding paragraph, the chief of the police station must notify the user of the vehicle of the date on which it was taken into storage and the place where the vehicle is being stored, as well as indicating that the user must promptly collect the vehicle.
(8) If the chief of a police station cannot ascertain the name and address of the user of a vehicle or if it is found to be difficult to return a vehicle to the user in a case as referred to in the preceding paragraph, the chief must notify the owner of the vehicle as prescribed in that paragraph.
(9) If the chief of a police station cannot ascertain the name and address of the owner of a vehicle in a case as referred to in the preceding paragraph, the chief must issue public notice giving the place where the vehicle is being stored and any other information that Cabinet Order prescribes, pursuant to Cabinet Order.
(10) After issuing public notice under the preceding paragraph, the chief of the police station must publicly announce the date and details of the public notice via the Internet and through other means, pursuant to Cabinet Office Order.
(11) Beyond what is prescribed in paragraphs (7) through (10), Cabinet Order provides for the necessary particulars concerning the return of a vehicle that the chief of a police station has taken into storage pursuant to paragraph (6).
(12) If a vehicle that the chief of a police station has taken into storage pursuant to paragraph (6) remains unreturned one month after the date of a notification as under paragraph (8) or public notice as under paragraph (9), and the cost required to store the vehicle is unreasonable compared to the value of the vehicle as appraised pursuant to Cabinet Order, the chief of the police station may sell the vehicle and store the proceeds of the sale as the custodian thereof, pursuant to Cabinet Order.
(13) If there is no purchaser for a vehicle in a sale as under the preceding paragraph and the value of the vehicle as prescribed in that paragraph is extremely low, the chief of the police station may dispose of it.
(14) The proceeds of a sale undertaken pursuant to paragraph (12) may be allocated to cover the expenses required to conduct that sale.
(15) The expenses required for moving and storing a vehicle, issuing public notice with regard to it, and other measures under paragraph (2) or (3) or paragraphs (5) through (11), are borne by the driver or other responsible person or by either theuser or the owner of the vehicle (hereinafter referred to through Article 51-2-2 as the "user or owner").
(16) The chief of the police station must set the amount, due date, and place for payment of the charges payable by the driver or other responsible person or by theuser or owner pursuant to the preceding paragraph, and must issue a written order to that person to pay them. In such a case, if the amount of expenses provided for in that paragraph is specified by prefectural regulations in consideration of actual costs, the amount payable is the amount prescribed therein.
(17) If a person ordered to make a payment pursuant to the preceding paragraph fails to do so before the due date, the chief of the police station must issue a written demand that fixes the due date for payment. In such a case, the chief of the police station may collect a fine for delinquency of up to the amount calculated as representing 14.5 percent per annum of the charges payable, and may collect a fee for the necessary costs of issuing the demand.
(18) If a person subject to a demand under the preceding paragraph fails to pay the charges, fines for delinquency, or fees referred to in the second sentence of that paragraph (hereinafter referred to in this Article as "charges, fines, or fees") by the fixed due date, the chief of the police station may collect the charges, fines, or fees based on the rules governing measures to collect local tax arrears. In such a case, charges, fines, or fees follow national taxes and local taxes in order of priority as concerns statutory liens.
(19) Charges, fines, and fees paid and collected are the revenue of the prefecture where the police station is located.
(20) If a vehicle stored pursuant to paragraph (6) (or the proceeds of a sale under paragraph (12); the same applies hereinafter in this paragraph) remains unreturned three months after the date of a notification as under paragraph (8) or public notice as under paragraph (9), ownership of the vehicle vests in the prefecture where the police station is located.
(21) Following the sale of a vehicle as under paragraph (12) (but only one that constitutes a motor vehicle registered under the Act on Vehicles for Road Transportation (Act No. 185 of 1951); the same applies hereinafter in this paragraph), the disposal of a vehicle as under paragraph (13), or the vesting of ownership in a vehicle in the prefecture as under the preceding paragraph, the chief of the police station, pursuant to Cabinet Order, must commission a person delegated by the Minister of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism or a person delegated pursuant to Article 105, paragraph (1) or (2) of that Act to undertake the registration under that Act that is associated with the measure taken as regards the vehicle.
(22) Paragraphs (6), (7), and (9) through (20) apply mutatis mutandis to any load in a vehicle that is taken into storage pursuant to paragraph (6). In such a case, the phrase "the user of the vehicle" in paragraph (7) is deemed to be replaced with "the owner or person in possession of the vehicle or the holder of title to the load (hereinafter referred to in this Article as the 'owner or other such person')"; the phrase "the preceding paragraph" in paragraph (9) is deemed to be replaced with "paragraph (7) as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to paragraph (22)" and the phrase "paragraph, the chief" in that paragraph is deemed to be replaced with "paragraph, and it is found to be difficult to return the load to a person other than its owner, the chief"; the phrase "paragraphs (7) through (10)" in paragraph (11) is deemed to be replaced with "paragraphs (7), (9), and (10) as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to paragraph (22)"; the phrase "remains unreturned one month after the date of a notification as under paragraph (8) or" in paragraph (12) is deemed to be replaced with "is likely to spoil or deteriorate, remains unreturned one month after the day on which the owner of the load has been notified pursuant to paragraph (7) as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to paragraph (22), or remains unreturned one month after the" and the term "cost" in that paragraph is deemed to be replaced with "cost or effort"; the phrase "taking measures pursuant to paragraph (2) or (3) or paragraphs (5) through (11), including moving and storing the vehicle, and issuing public notice" in paragraph (15) is deemed to be replaced with "taking measures pursuant to paragraph (6), (7), or (9) through (11) as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to paragraph (22), including storing the load and issuing public notice" and "the driver or other responsible person or by either theuser or the owner of the vehicle (hereinafter referred to through Article 51-2-2 as the 'user or owner')" in that paragraph is deemed to be replaced with "the owner or other such person"; the phrase "the driver or other responsible person or by the user or owner" in paragraph (16) is deemed to be replaced with "the owner or other such person"; and the phrase "the date of a notification as under paragraph (8)" in paragraph (20) is deemed to be replaced with "the date that the owner of the load was notified as under paragraph (7) as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to paragraph (22)".
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 119, paragraph (1), item (iii) applies to paragraph (1) of this Article.)
Article 51-2 (1) An area of road where drivers habitually engage in conduct due to which their vehicles are found to have been parked illegally (this conduct is referred to in this Article and Article 51-4 as "illegal parking") and where it is appropriate to attach wheel-lock devices as under the following paragraph in order to deter illegal parking, the public safety commission may designate that section of a road to be an area where wheel-lock devices are employed. In such a case, the public safety commission must indicate in the area of road it has so designated that the area is one where wheel-lock devices are employed, pursuant to Cabinet Office Order.
(2) On finding that, based on road or traffic conditions, circumstances compel the use of a wheel-lock device in order to deter illegal parking in an area where wheel-lock devices are employed, the chief of the police station may attach a wheel-lock device to a vehicle that has been illegally parked in that area.
(3) Notwithstanding the preceding paragraph, a wheel-lock device may not be attached to one of the following vehicles:
(i) a vehicle with regard to which an order may be issued pursuant to paragraph (1) of the preceding Article;
(ii) a vehicle from which the chief of the police station has removed a wheel-lock device pursuant to paragraph (7) less than four hours previously (but only if the vehicle has continued to be illegally parked in the same way since its removal).
(4) Before attaching a wheel-lock device to a vehicle pursuant to paragraph (2), the chief of the police station must endeavor to inform the public, pursuant to Cabinet Office Order, that wheel-lock devices will be attached to vehicles.
(5) When attaching a wheel-lock device to a vehicle pursuant to paragraph (2), the chief of a police station must affix, in an easily visible location on the vehicle, a mark giving the information that a person wishing to move the vehicle may apply to the chief of the police station for removal of the wheel-lock device from the vehicle, and giving the other information that Cabinet Office Order prescribes.
(6) Upon receiving an application for removal of a wheel-lock device from the user or owner or person otherwise affiliated with a vehicle to which a wheel-lock device has been attached pursuant to paragraph (2) who wishes to move that vehicle, the chief of the police station must remove the wheel-lock device.
(7) Beyond as prescribed in the preceding paragraph, within 24 hours of attaching a wheel-lock device to a vehicle pursuant to paragraph (2), the chief of the police station must remove that device from the vehicle.
(8) Beyond as prescribed in paragraph (6), on finding that the compelling circumstances referred to in paragraph (2) that were found to exist no longer exist, or if it becomes necessary to do so in order to prevent a road hazard or otherwise ensure the safety and fluidity of traffic, the chief of the police station is to remove a wheel-lock device attached to a vehicle pursuant to paragraph (2).
(9) When removing a wheel-lock device attached pursuant to paragraph (2), the chief of the police station must also remove the mark attached to the vehicle pursuant to paragraph (5).
(10) It is prohibited for any person to damage a wheel-lock device attached to a vehicle pursuant to paragraph (2) or to damage or deface a mark attached to a vehicle pursuant to paragraph (5); and it is prohibited for any person to remove such a wheel-lock device or mark unless it is the chief of the police station that removes them.
(11) Cabinet Office Order provides for the format of the mark prescribed in paragraph (5) and other necessary particulars concerning marks as prescribed in that paragraph.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 117-5, item (ii) and Article 121, paragraph (1), item (ix) apply to paragraph (10) of this Article.) 
(Requests to Report; Other Measures)
Article 51-2-2 (1) On finding it to be necessary to do so to enforce Article 51, the chief of a police station may request the user or owner or person otherwise affiliated with a vehicle being stored pursuant to paragraph (6) of that Article; or the owner or person in possession of a load being stored pursuant to paragraph (6) of that Article as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to paragraph (22) of that Article or a person holding title to or otherwise affiliated with such a load, to report as necessary or submit the necessary materials in connection with that vehicle or load.
(2) On finding it to be necessary to do so to enforce Article 51, the chief of the police station may make inquiries with or ask for cooperation from government agencies, public bodies, and other persons.
(Asking Others to Handle Administrative Functions Involved in Moving and Storing Vehicles)
Article 51-3 (1) The chief of a police station may ask a corporation that Cabinet Office Order prescribes to handle all or part of the administrative functions involved in moving and storing vehicles (including their loads; the same applies hereinafter in this paragraph) pursuant to Article 51, paragraphs (5) and (6) (including as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to paragraph (22) of that Article) (such functions exclude the decision to move, return, sell, or dispose of a vehicle, the issuance of orders under paragraph (16) of that Article, measures to collect arrears, and other functions that Cabinet Order prescribes).
(2) It is prohibited for the current or former officer or employee of a corporation that has been asked to handle administrative processes by the chief of the police station pursuant to the preceding paragraph to divulge confidential information learned in connection with those processes.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 117-4, item (i) applies to paragraph (2) of this Article.) 
(Abandonment Penalty)
Article 51-4 (1) The chief of the police station may have an officer check for whether there is any vehicle (or a light road vehicle, but only if it has a structure and equipment that allows it to be towed, and only if it has a gross weight (meaning a gross weight as prescribed in Article 40, item (iii) of the Act on Vehicles for Road Transportation) exceeding 750 kilograms (hereinafter referred to as a "heavy towable vehicle"); the same applies hereinafter in this Article) that can be found to have been parked illegally and that cannot be driven immediately because driver has left the vicinity (such a vehicle is hereinafter referred to as an "abandoned vehicle"), and attach a mark in an easily visible place on the abandoned vehicle pursuant to Cabinet Office Order, providing notice that the officer has confirmed the vehicle to have been parked illegally and that, if the person that parked the abandoned vehicle illegally does not fall under the case referred to in the proviso to paragraph (4), the user of the abandoned vehicle may be ordered to pay an abandonment penalty pursuant to the main clause of that paragraph.
(2) It is prohibited for any person to damage or deface a mark attached to a vehicle pursuant to the preceding paragraph or to remove the same; provided, however, that this does not apply to the removal of such a mark by the user or driver of the vehicle or any other person responsible for the management of that vehicle.
(3) Having caused a mark to be attached to a vehicle pursuant to paragraph (1), the chief of the police station must report how the vehicle is parked to the public safety commission.
(4) Upon receiving a report under the preceding paragraph, if the public safety commission finds that the vehicle to which the report pertains is an abandoned vehicle, it may order the user of the vehicle to pay an abandonment penalty; provided, however, that this does not apply if the person that has illegally parked the vehicle pays a penalty pursuant to Article 128, paragraph (1) within 30 days, counting from the day following that on which a mark is attached to the vehicle pursuant to paragraph (1), nor does it apply if a case that is connected with that instance of illegal parking becomes subject to prosecution or is brought before the family court for trial.
(5) An order under the main clause of the preceding paragraph (hereinafter referred to as a "payment order") is to be issued in writing through a document that gives the amount, due date, and place for payment of the abandonment penalty.
(6) Prior to issuing a payment order, the public safety commission must notify theuser of the vehicle of the following information in writing and give the user an opportunity to submit a written explanation of the matter at issue (hereinafter referred to in this paragraph and paragraph (9) as an "explanatory statement") and evidence in theuser's favor within a reasonable timeframe:
(i) the facts constituting the grounds for the payment order;
(ii) the address and due date for submission of an explanatory statement.
(7) If the whereabouts of the person that should be issued a payment order are unknown, the public safety commission may notify the person as under the preceding paragraph by making a posting on its notice board indicating the person's name, the information set forth in item (ii) of that paragraph, and that the public safety commission will issue a document to the person giving the information set forth in the items of that paragraph at any time. In such a case, the notice is deemed to have reached the person two weeks after its posting.
(8) Cabinet Order provides for the amount of abandonment penalties within the scope of the amount prescribed in Schedule I.
(9) A person notified as under paragraph (6) may make a provisional payment in an amount equivalent to the abandonment penalty by the due date for submission of the explanatory statement, pursuant to Cabinet Order.
(10) A payment order may be issued by public notice against a person making a provisional payment under the preceding paragraph, pursuant to Cabinet Order.
(11) If a payment order is issued in connection with a notice referred to in paragraph (9) against a person that has made a provisional payment as under that paragraph (9), the provisional payment in the amount equivalent to the relevant abandonment penalty is deemed to constitute the payment of the abandonment penalty as under that payment order.
(12) If the public safety commission decides not to issue a payment order in connection with a notice referred to in paragraph (9) against a person that has made a provisional payment as under that paragraph, it must promptly notify that person in writing, giving a clear indication of the reasons for this and returning the provisional payment.
(13) If a person issued a payment order fails to pay the abandonment penalty by its due date, the public safety commission must issue a written demand that fixes the due date for payment. In such a case, the public safety commission may collect a fine for delinquency of up to the amount calculated as representing 14.5 percent per annum of the abandonment penalty, and may collect a fee for the necessary costs of issuing the demand.
(14) If a person subject to a demand under the preceding paragraph fails to pay the abandonment penalty, fines for delinquency, or fees referred to in the second sentence of that paragraph (hereinafter referred to in this Article and Article 51-7 as an "abandonment penalty, fines, or fees") by the fixed due date, the public safety commission may collect the abandonment penalty, fines, or fees based on the rules governing measures to collect local tax arrears. In such a case, the abandonment penalty, fines, or fees follow national taxes and local taxes in order of priority as concerns statutory liens.
(15) Abandonment penalties, fines, and fees paid and collected are the revenue of the prefecture where the public safety commission is located.
(16) The public safety commission must revoke a payment order it has issued if the person illegally parking a vehicle and thereby giving grounds for the payment order pays a penalty for having parked illegally as under Article 128, paragraph (1), or if the case involving that instance of illegal parking becomes subject to prosecution or is brought before the family court for trial.
(17) Having revoked a payment order pursuant to the preceding paragraph, a public safety commission must promptly notify the person subject to it of this, clearly indicating the reason for the revocation. In such a case, if the abandonment penalty, fines, or fees to which the payment order pertained have been paid or collected, the public safety commission must refund an equivalent amount.
(18) Service of documents and service by publication in connection with the collection and refunding of the abandonment penalty, fines, or fees are governed by the rules governing local taxes.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 121, paragraph (1), item (ix) applies to paragraph (2) of this Article.) 
(Requests to Report; Other Measures)
Article 51-5 (1) On finding it to be necessary to do so to enforce the preceding Article, a public safety commission may request theuser, the owner, or a person otherwise affiliated with a vehicle on which a mark has been attached pursuant to paragraph (1) of that Article to report as necessary or submit the necessary materials in connection with the use of the vehicle.
(2) On finding it to be necessary to do so to enforce the preceding Article, a public safety commission may make inquires with or ask for cooperation from government agencies, public bodies, and other persons.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 119-3, paragraph (1), item (v) and Article 123 apply to paragraph (1) of this Article.) 
(Reporting to the National Public Safety Commission; Other Actions)
Article 51-6 (1) Having issued a payment order, made a demand pursuant to Article 51-4, paragraph (13) or revoked a payment order pursuant to paragraph (16) of that Article or when any other reason that Cabinet Office Order prescribes has been found to exist with respect to the user of a vehicle that has been the cause of a payment order, a public safety commission must report this, the name and address of theuser, the plate number of the vehicle, and the information that Cabinet Office Order prescribes to the National Public Safety Commission. In such a case, the National Public Safety Commission must report the information given in the report to each public safety commission in order to ensure the appropriateness of measures for abandoned vehicles.
(2) When the National Public Safety Commission receives a report that a demand has been issued pursuant to the first sentence of the preceding paragraph, it must notify the Minister of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism or other relevant authority (meaning the Minister of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism; or the Director of the District Transportation Bureau, the Director of Transportation Administration Department, or the Transportation Bureau Chief to whom the authority of the Minister has been delegated; or the Light Motor Vehicle Inspection Organization (meaning the Light Motor Vehicle Inspection Organization established pursuant to Chapter V-2 of the Road Transportation Vehicle Act); the same applies in the following Article) of the information given in the report (but only the information that Cabinet Office Order prescribes). The same applies if the National Public Safety Commission receives a report that a payment order for which a demand has been issued has been revoked.
(Presentation of Documents Evidencing Payment or Collection of Abandonment Penalties, Fines, and Fees)
Article 51-7 (1) If a person seeking the return of a motor vehicle inspection certificate (meaning the return of a motor vehicle inspection certificate pursuant to Article 62, paragraph (2) of the Act on Vehicles for Road Transportation (including as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to Article 67, paragraph (4) of that Act) or Article 22-2, paragraph (3) of the Comprehensive Special Zones Act (Act No. 81 of 2011); the same applies hereinafter in this Article) has become subject to a demand under Article 51-4, paragraph (13) (but only one connected with a payment order (other than one that has been revoked pursuant to paragraph (16) of that Article) of which the motor vehicle in question was the cause) after a motor vehicle inspection certificate was last issued as under Article 60, paragraph (1) or Article 71, paragraph (4) of that Act or after a motor vehicle inspection certificate was last returned for that vehicle (meaning a motor vehicle as prescribed in Article 58, paragraph (1) of the Act on Vehicles for Road Transportation), the person must present a document to the Minister of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism or other relevant authority evidencing that the abandonment penalty, fines, or fees subject to the demand have been paid or collected.
(2) If a person (but only one notified as referred to in the first sentence of paragraph (2) of the preceding Article) that the preceding paragraph requires to present the document prescribed in that paragraph fails to do so, the Minister of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism or other relevant authority must not return the motor vehicle inspection certificate.
(Asking Others to Handle Checking and Confirmation Processes)
Article 51-8 (1) The chief of the police station may ask a corporation registered by the public safety commission to handle all or part of the administrative processes involved in checking for abandoned vehicles, confirming that vehicles have been abandoned, and attaching marks to them as prescribed in Article 51-4, paragraph (1) (hereinafter these actions are referred to as "checking for, confirming, and marking abandoned vehicles") (hereinafter these administrative processes are referred to as "checking and confirmation processes").
(2) Registration as referred to in the preceding paragraph (hereinafter referred to from this Article through Article 51-11 as "registration") is carried out at the application of a corporation that has been asked to handle the checking and confirmation processes and that seeks to handle them.
(3) A corporation as referred to in one of the following items may not be registered:
(i) a corporation whose registration has been revoked pursuant to Article 51-10 and it has been less than two years since the date of the revocation;
(ii) a corporation with an officer (meaning an employee engaged in the executive management of its operations, a director, an executive, or a person equivalent to any of these persons, including one that is found to have a measure of control over the corporation that is equal to or greater than an employee engaged in the executive management of its operations, director, executive, or equivalent person, whether this is in the capacity of an adviser or consultant, or under any other designation) as referred to in one of the following:
(a) an adult ward, person under curatorship, or undischarged bankrupt;
(b) a person who has been sentenced to imprisonment or a heavier punishment, or who has been sentenced for committing a crime as referred to in Article 119-2, paragraph (1), item (iii), if it has been less than two years since the day on which the person completed the sentence or ceased to be subject to its execution;
(c) a person whom there are reasonable grounds to find likely of engaging concertedly or regularly in violent unlawful activities or other illegal activities constituting a crime provided for by Rules of the National Public Safety Commission;
(d) a person who has been subject to an order pursuant to Article 12 or Article 12-6 of the Act on the Prevention of Unlawful Activities by Members of Organized Crime Groups (Act No. 77 of 1991) or an instruction pursuant to Article 12-4, paragraph (2) of that Act, if it has been less than less than two years since the day on which the person became subject to that order or instruction;
(e) an alcohol, narcotics, marijuana, opium, or stimulants addict;
(f) a person provided for by Rules of the National Public Safety Commission as one who cannot appropriately undertake the checking and confirmation processes due to a mental or physical disorder.
(4) The public safety commission must register a corporation that has applied for the registration pursuant to paragraph (2) if it conforms to all of the following requirements:
(i) the checking and confirmation processes will be carried out using vehicles, cellular telephones and other portable wireless telephones, maps, cameras, and computers;
(ii) parking inspectors as referred to in Article 51-12, paragraph (3) will be the ones checking for, confirming, and marking abandoned vehicles;
(iii) the corporation has an office within the boundaries of the prefecture where the public safety commission is located.
(5) A registration must give the name of the registered corporation, the name of its representative, the locality of its principal office, the date of the registration, and the registration number.
(6) Unless a registration is renewed by the end of each period as prescribed by Cabinet Order, it becomes invalid once that period passes.
(7) The provisions of paragraphs (2) through (5) apply mutatis mutandis to the renewal of a registration as referred to in the preceding paragraph.
(Conformance Orders)
Article 51-9 If a public safety commission finds that a registered corporation has ceased to conform to one of the items under paragraph (4) of the preceding Article, it must order that corporation to take necessary measures to conform to that item.
(Rescission of Registration)
Article 51-10 If one of the following items applies to a registered corporation, the public safety commission may revoke its registration:
(i) it comes to fall under Article 51-8, paragraph (3), item (ii);
(ii) it violates an order under the preceding Article;
(iii) it fails to report or falsely reports as under paragraph (1) of the following Article; or it refuses, obstructs, or avoids an inspection under that paragraph;
(iv) it violates Article 51-12, paragraphs (2) through (4);
(v) it was registered through deception or other wrongful means.
(Reporting and Inspection)
Article 51-11 (1) A public safety commission may have a registered corporation report on its operational or accounting status or have a police official enter the office of a registered corporation and inspect its operational status, books, documents and other articles, but only so far as is necessary for enforcing Article 51-8 through the preceding Article.
(2) Police officials conducting on-site inspections pursuant to the preceding paragraph must carry identification and present it at the request of a relevant person.
(3) The authority for an on-site inspection under paragraph (1) must not be construed as authorizing a criminal investigation.
(Agency in Charge of Checking for Abandoned Vehicles)
Article 51-12 (1) Having asked a person to handle the checking and confirmation processes pursuant to Article 51-8, paragraph (1), the chief of a police station must issue public notice giving the name of the person undertaking to handle these processes (hereinafter referred to as the "agency in charge of checking for abandoned vehicles"), the locality of its principal office, and the information that Cabinet Order prescribes.
(2) An agency in charge of checking for abandoned vehicles must undertake the checking and confirmation processes fairly and in a way that conforms to the requirements set forth in Article 51-8, paragraph (4), items (i) and (ii).
(3) An agency in charge of checking for abandoned vehicles must not allow a person other than a parking inspector selected from among parking inspectors that have been issued certificates as referred to in paragraph (1) of the following Article to check for, confirm, or mark abandoned vehicles.
(4) An agency in charge of checking for abandoned vehicles must not have parking inspectors check for, confirm, or mark abandoned vehicles unless they are made to wear uniforms or otherwise indicate that they are parking inspectors, and unless they are made to wear badges in the form prescribed by Rules of the National Public Safety Commission.
(5) A parking inspector must carry a parking inspector certificate as referred to in paragraph (1) of the following Article when checking for, confirming, or marking abandoned vehicles, and must present it at the request of an officer.
(6) It is prohibited for a current or former officer or employee of the agency in charge of checking for abandoned vehicles (including parking inspectors; the same applies in the following paragraph) to divulge confidential information learned in connection with the checking and confirmation processes.
(7) To apply the Penal Code (Act No. 45 of 1907) and the penal provisions of any other laws and regulations, officers and staff members of the agency in charge of checking for abandoned vehicles that are engaged in checking and confirmation processes are deemed to be officials engaged in public service pursuant to laws and regulations.
(8) To apply Article 51-4, paragraph (1) pursuant to Article 51-8, paragraph (1) if a person has been asked to handle checking and confirmation processes, the term "an officer" in that paragraph is deemed to be replaced with "an officer or an agency in charge of checking for abandoned vehicles as prescribed in Article 51-12, paragraph (1)".
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 117-4, item (i) applies to paragraph (6) of this Article.) 
(Parking Inspector Certificates)
Article 51-13 (1) The public safety commission issues a parking inspector certificate to a person falling under both of the following items:
(i) one who is either of the following:
(a) a person who has taken and completed a training course implemented by the public safety commission in accordance with Rules of the National Public Safety Commission, to learn the skills and knowledge involved in checking for, confirming, and marking abandoned vehicles;
(b) a person whom the public safety commission finds, pursuant to Rules of the National Public Safety Commission, has at least the same level of skills and knowledge as regards checking for, confirming, and marking abandoned vehicles, as a person set forth in (a).
(ii) one who is none any of the following:
(a) under 18 years of age;
(b) a person falling under any one of Article 51-8, paragraph (3), item (ii), subitems (a) through (f);
(c) a person to whom item (ii) or (iii) of the following paragraph applies, who has been ordered to return a parking inspector certificate pursuant to that paragraph, if it has been less than two years since the date of its return.
(2) If a public safety commission finds that any one of the following items applies to a person who has been issued a parking inspector certificate, it may order the person to return the parking inspector certificate issued thereto:
(i) the person has come to fall under one of Article 51-8, paragraph (3), item (ii), subitems (a) through (f);
(ii) the person was issued the parking inspector certificate through deception or other wrongful means;
(iii) the person has violated paragraph (5) of the preceding Article or acted unlawfully in checking for, confirming, or marking an abandoned vehicle, and is found to be unfit to be a parking inspector in light of the circumstances of those actions.
(Delegation to Rules of the National Public Safety Commission)
Article 51-14 Beyond what is prescribed in Article 51-8 through the preceding Article, the Rules of the National Public Safety Commission provide for the necessary particulars concerning the procedure for asking others to handle checking and confirmation processes and parking inspector certificates.
(Asking Others to Handle Administrative Processes Related to Abandonment Penalties)
Article 51-15 (1) A public safety commission may ask a company or other corporation to handle all or part of the administrative processes related to abandonment penalties as prescribed in Article 51-4 (other than checking and confirmation processes, payment orders, demands, and measures to collect arrears).
(2) It is prohibited for the current or former officer or employee of a corporation that has been asked to handle administrative processes by the public safety commission pursuant to the preceding paragraph to divulge confidential information learned in connection with those processes.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 117-4, item (i) applies to paragraph (2) of this Article.) 
(Asking Others to Handle Administrative Processes Involved in Receiving Abandonment Penalties)
Article 51-16 The prefectural government may ask private citizens to handle administrative processes involved in the receipt of abandonment penalties pursuant to Cabinet Order, but only if it finds that doing so would contribute to the fulfillment of payment obligations by persons receiving payment orders and to ensuring revenue.
Section 10 Lights and Signals
(Vehicle and Streetcar Lights)
Article 52 (1) When traveling on a road at night (meaning the period from sunset to sunrise; the same applies hereinafter in this Article and Article 63-9, paragraph (2)), a vehicle must have its headlights, road lights, taillights, and other lights turned on pursuant to Cabinet Order. The same applies at times other than night in cases that Cabinet Order prescribes.
(2) The driver of a vehicle or streetcar must turn off or reduce the brightness of its lights or otherwise operate them in accordance with Cabinet Order at night (or in a case as referred to in second sentence of the preceding paragraph) when there is an oncoming vehicle or streetcar and when traveling behind another vehicle or streetcar, if the brightness of those lights are likely to interfere with vehicle or streetcar traffic.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 120, paragraph (1), item (v) and paragraph (2) of that Article apply to paragraph (1) of this Article. Article 120, paragraph (1), item (viii) and paragraph (2) of that Article apply to paragraph (2) of this Article.) 
(Signals)
Article 53 (1) When turning left, turning right, making a U-turn, driving slowly, stopping, backing up, or changing course while proceeding in the same direction, the driver of a vehicle (other than a light road vehicle that is not a bicycle; the same applies in paragraphs (2) and (4)) must signal by hand, turn signal, or turn light, and must continue to signal until the action is completed.
(2) Notwithstanding the preceding paragraph, when leaving a roundabout or when slowing down, stopping, or backing up in a roundabout, the driver of a vehicle in the roundabout must signal by hand, turn signal, or turn light and must continue to give the signal until the action is completed.
(3) Cabinet Order provides for the necessary particulars as regards when and how to signal as referred to in the preceding two paragraphs.
(4) Having completed an action provided for in paragraph (1) or (2), the driver of a vehicle must stop signaling; the driver of a vehicle must not signal if not taking the action for which one of those paragraphs prescribes that signal.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 120, paragraph (1), item (viii) and paragraph (2) apply to paragraphs (1), (2), and (4) of this Article.) 
(Using the Horn)
Article 54 (1) The driver of a vehicle or streetcar (other than a light road vehicle that is not a bicycle; the same applies hereinafter in this Article) must sound the horn:
(i) when about to proceed through a blind intersection, around a blind curve, or over a blind summit at a place designated by a road sign or marking;
(ii) when about to proceed through a blind intersection, around a blind curve, or over a blind summit when on a stretch of road designated by a road sign or marking as a mountain road or road with many curves.
(2) The driver of a vehicle or streetcar must not sound the horn unless required to do so pursuant to laws and regulations; provided, however, that this does not apply if sounding the horn is necessary in order to prevent a hazard.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 120, paragraph (1), item (viii) and paragraph (2) apply to paragraph (1) of this Article. Article 121, paragraph (1), item (vi) apply paragraph (2) of this Article.) 
Section 11 Riding, Loading, and Towing
(Riding and Loading)
Article 55 (1) The driver of a vehicle must not drive while allowing a passenger to ride in a place not meant to carry a passenger, and must not drive while carrying a load in a place not meant to carry a passenger or a load; provided, however, that, in a motor vehicle built exclusively to transport cargo (hereinafter referred to in the following Article and Article 57 as a "truck") which is carrying cargo, the driver may drive while allowing the minimum number of personnel necessary to guard the cargo to ride on the loading platform.
(2) The driver of a vehicle must not drive while allowing a person to ride or carrying a load in a way that could obstruct the driver's field of vision, the steering wheel, or the operation of other instruments, or diminish the effectiveness of the rearview mirrors, harm the stability of the vehicle, or obscure the vehicle's turn signals, license plates, brake lights, taillights, or rear reflectors when viewed from the outside of the vehicle.
(3) The passenger of a vehicle must not ride in or on a vehicle in a way that causes the driver to violate the preceding two paragraphs.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 120, paragraph (1), item (x) and Article 123 apply to paragraph (1) and (2) of this Article. Article 121, paragraph (1), item (vi) apply to paragraph (3) of this Article.) 
(Special Rules on Riding and Loading)
Article 56 (1) Notwithstanding paragraph (1) of the preceding Article, if the chief of the police station having jurisdiction over the place of departure of a vehicle (hereinafter referred to through Article 58 as "police chief of the place of departure") grants permission for a specific place in which a load may be carried, having found that there is nothing to prevent this in terms of the structure of a vehicle or road or traffic conditions, the driver may drive that vehicle while carrying a load in a specific place other than one that is meant to carry a passenger or a load.
(2) Notwithstanding paragraph (1) of the preceding Article, if the police chief of the place of departure grants permission for a limited number of personnel to be carried, having found that there is nothing to prevent this in terms of the structure of a truck or the road or traffic conditions, the driver of the truck may drive while carrying a number of personnel on its loading platform that falls within the scope of that permission.
(Restrictions on Riding and Loading; Related Considerations)
Article 57 (1) The driver of a vehicle (other than a light road vehicle; the same applies hereinafter in this paragraph and in Articles 58-2 through 58-5) must not drive a vehicle while carrying a number of personnel or a load that exceeds the restrictions on the number of accompanying personnel or the weight, size, and way of carrying cargo (hereinafter referred to in this Article as "weight, size, and way of carrying cargo") that Cabinet Order prescribes for that vehicle; provided, however, that a driver may drive a vehicle while carrying a number of personnel exceeding those restrictions if they are carried on the loading platform of a truck pursuant to the proviso to Article 55, paragraph (1) or after obtaining permission pursuant to paragraph (2) of the preceding Article.
(2) On finding it to be necessary to do so in order to prevent a road hazard or otherwise ensure traffic safety, a public safety commission may prescribe restrictions on the number of accompanying personnel or the weight, size, and way of carrying cargo for light road vehicles.
(3) Notwithstanding paragraph (1) or the preceding paragraph, if cargo cannot be divided and for this reason exceeds the restrictions on the weight, size, and way of carrying cargo that Cabinet Order prescribes which are referred to in paragraph (1) or exceeds the restrictions on this that are prescribed by the public safety commission pursuant to the preceding paragraph, but the police chief of the place of departure grants permission for a limited weight, size, and way of carrying cargo, having found that there is nothing to prevent this in terms of the structure of the vehicle or the road or traffic conditions, the driver may drive that vehicle while carrying a load in excess of the restrictions, within the scope of the permission.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 118, paragraph (1), item (ii), Article 119, paragraph (1), item (iii)-2, Article 120, paragraph (1), item (x)-2 and Article 123 apply to paragraph (1) of this Article. Article 121, paragraph (1), item (vii) and Article 123 apply to paragraph (2) of this Article.) 
(Issuance of Permit to Exceed Restrictions; Related Considerations)
Article 58 (1) Having granted permission pursuant to Article 56 or paragraph (3) of the preceding Article (hereinafter referred to in this Article as "permission to exceed restrictions"), the police chief of the place of departure must issue a permit.
(2) A driver of a vehicle issued a permit pursuant to the preceding paragraph must carry the permit at all times while driving the vehicle for which the permission has been given.
(3) On finding that it is necessary to do so when granting permission to exceed restrictions, the chief of police of the place of departure may attach conditions to that permission as necessary to prevent hazards, pursuant to Cabinet Order.
(4) Cabinet Office Order provides for the format of permits as referred to in paragraph (1) and the necessary particulars concerning procedures for permission to exceed restrictions.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 121, paragraph (1), item (viii) and Article 123 apply to paragraph (3) of this Article.) 
(Measuring Weight of Loads; Related Measures)
Article 58-2 When a vehicle is being driven that could be found to exceed the weight restrictions on loads prescribed in Article 57, paragraph (1), a police officer may stop it, require the driver to present a motor vehicle inspection certificate (meaning a motor vehicle inspection certificate as referred to in Article 60 of the Act on Vehicles for Road Transportation; the same applies in Article 63, paragraph (1)) and other documents that Cabinet Order prescribes, and measure the weight of the vehicle's load.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 119, paragraph (1), item (iii)-3) 
(Order to Take Measures for Overloaded Vehicles)
Article 58-3 (1) A police officer may order the driver of a vehicle carrying an excessive load (meaning a load carried by a vehicle which exceeds the weight prescribed in Article 57, paragraph (1) (or that exceeds the permitted weight, if the permission under paragraph (3) of that Article has been granted); the same applies hereinafter) to take the necessary stop-gap measures so that the vehicle is no longer carrying an excessive load.
(2) Notwithstanding Article 57, paragraph (1), if it is found that an order under the preceding paragraph is insufficient to stop a vehicle from carrying an excessive load, and if a police officer finds that, in light of the degree to which the vehicle is overloaded and road or traffic conditions, there is nothing to prevent the driver from driving the vehicle while abiding by the instructions that the officer gives, the officer may order the driver of the vehicle to drive in compliance with measures that need to be taken in order to prevent hazards on a section of road for vehicle traffic, route, or road, to abide by other instructions that the police officer gives, and to take other necessary measures so that the vehicle is no longer carrying an excessive load. In such a case, the police officer must issue written road use instructions to the driver of the vehicle.
(3) A driver of a vehicle who has been issued written road use instructions pursuant to the preceding paragraph must carry the instructions at all times while driving the vehicle based on an order under that paragraph.
(4) Cabinet Office Order provides for the format of, and other necessary particulars concerning, the written road use instructions referred to in paragraph (2).
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 119, paragraph (1), item (iii)-4 applies to paragraphs (1) and (2) of this Article.) 
(Instructions for Overloaded Vehicles)
Article 58-4 When an order under paragraph (1) or (2) of the preceding Article is issued, if the user of the vehicle subject to the order (other than the selfsame driver of the vehicle; the same applies hereinafter in this Article) is found not to be undertaking the necessary operational management to prevent drivers from carrying excessive loads in that vehicle, the public safety commission with jurisdiction over the vehicle's base of operations may instruct the user to direct or advise drivers to check the weight of the load before allowing them to drive its vehicles, and may instruct the user to take other necessary measures to prevent its vehicles from carrying excessive loads.
(Prohibition on Requiring or Otherwise Compelling Drivers to Drive Overloaded Vehicles)
Article 58-5 (1) It is prohibited for a person other than a user or an owner as prescribed in Article 75, paragraph (1) to do the following:
(i) to require the driver of a vehicle to drive while carrying an excessive load in the vehicle;
(ii) to sell or deliver to the driver of a vehicle a load exceeding the weight subject to the restrictions referred to in Article 57, paragraph (1) so that the load can be loaded onto the vehicle, while knowing that the load exceeds those restrictions.
(2) If a person violates the preceding paragraph and the chief of the police station finds that the violator is likely to violate that paragraph again, the chief may order the violator not to violate that paragraph, pursuant to Cabinet Office Order.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 118, paragraph (1), item (iii) and Article 123 apply to paragraph (2) of this Article.) 
(Restrictions on Towing Motor Vehicles)
Article 59 (1) The driver of a motor vehicle must not tow another vehicle unless the motor vehicle doing the towing has the structure and equipment necessary for towing and the towed vehicle has the structure and equipment necessary for being towed; provided, however, that this does not apply to the towing of a motor vehicle pursuant to Cabinet Order when a malfunction or other such circumstance compels this.
(2) When towing another vehicle with a standard motorcycle, large motorcycle, or special small motor vehicle, the driver of that motor vehicle must not tow more than one other vehicle, and when towing another vehicle with any other type of motor vehicle, the driver of that motor vehicle must not tow more than two other vehicles; the driver of a motor vehicle must not tow another vehicle if the length from the front end of the towing motor vehicle to the rear end of the towed vehicle (or to the rear end of the second towed vehicle, if towing two vehicles) would exceed 25 meters; provided, however, that this does not apply if the public safety commission grants permission for the motor vehicle to do so, specifying the road or limiting the timeframe for towing.
(3) When the public safety commission grants permission pursuant to the proviso of the preceding paragraph, it must issue a permit.
(4) The driver of a motor vehicle issued a permit pursuant to the preceding paragraph must carry the permit at all times while undertaking the permitted towing.
(5) Cabinet Office Order provides for the format of permits as referred to in paragraph (3) and other necessary particulars concerning the procedures for the permission prescribed in the proviso to paragraph (2).
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 120, paragraph (1), item (x) and Article 123 apply to paragraphs (1) and (2) of this Article.) 
(Restrictions on Towing by Vehicles Other Than Motor Vehicles)
Article 60 On finding it to be necessary to do so in order to prevent road hazards and otherwise ensure traffic safety, a public safety commission may establish restrictions on towing by vehicles other than motor vehicles.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 121, paragraph (1), item (vii) and Article 123 apply.) 
(Hazard Prevention Measures)
Article 61 Beyond as provided for in Article 58-3, paragraphs (1) and (2), a police officer may order the driver of a vehicle or streetcar to stop and take the necessary stop-gap measures to prevent a hazard in connection with the vehicle's or streetcar's carrying of passengers, carrying of loads, or towing of vehicles, on finding it to be particularly necessary to do so in order to prevent that hazard.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 119, paragraph (1), item (iv)) 
Section 12 Prohibition against Driving Improperly Maintained Vehicles; Related Considerations
(Prohibition against Driving Improperly Maintained Vehicles)
Article 62 It is prohibited for a vehicle or streetcar user or any other person responsible for maintaining its equipment to allow a person to drive that vehicle or streetcar if its equipment fails to conform to Chapter III of the Act on Vehicles for Road Transportation or an order issued thereunder (or whose equipment fails to conform to what is established by the Minister of Defense under Article 114, paragraph (2) of the Self Defense Forces Act (Act No. 165 of 1954), for a motor vehicle used by the Self-Defense Forces to which the Act on Vehicles for Road Transportation do not apply; the same applies hereinafter), or fails to conform to Article 14 of the Railway Track Act or an order issued thereunder, as a result of which the vehicle or streetcar is likely to cause a traffic hazard or be a nuisance to others (referred to in paragraph (1) of the following Article as an "improperly maintained vehicle"); and it is also prohibited for the driver of a vehicle or streetcar to drive an improperly maintained vehicle.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 119, paragraph (1), item (v), and paragraph (2), Article 120, paragraph (1), item (viii)-2 and paragraph (2) and Article 123) 
(Vehicle Inspections; Other Measures)
Article 63 (1) When a vehicle (other than a light road vehicle; the same applies hereinafter in this Article) is being driven that could be found to constitute an improperly maintained vehicle, a police officer may stop the vehicle, ask the driver of the vehicle to present a motor vehicle inspection certificate and other documents that Cabinet Order prescribes, and inspect the vehicle's equipment.
(2) In a case as referred to in the preceding paragraph, a police officer may order the driver of the vehicle to take the necessary stop-gap measures to prevent a road hazard or otherwise ensure traffic safety or to prevent the vehicle from being a nuisance to others; if it is found not to be possible to effect the necessary maintenance on a vehicle through stop-gap measures alone (hereinafter such a vehicle is referred to in this Article as a "malfunctioning vehicle"), the police officer may issue an order prohibiting the driver from continuing to drive the malfunctioning vehicle.
(3) Notwithstanding the preceding Article, a police officer may grant permission for a person to drive a malfunctioning vehicle on a specified section and route of travel on finding, in a case as referred to in the preceding paragraph, that there is nothing to prevent this in terms of the degree of improper maintenance on the malfunctioning vehicle and road or traffic conditions, but only so far as is necessary for the malfunctioning vehicle to undergo maintenance, and may attach other conditions necessary to prevent road hazards or to prevent the malfunctioning vehicle from being a nuisance to others. In such a case, a police officer must issue a permit.
(4) Having taken a measures under paragraph (2), a police officer must issue a document to the driver of the malfunctioning vehicle showing the things on the malfunctioning vehicle that require maintenance, and must attach a mark in an easily visible place on the front end of the malfunctioning vehicle.
(5) Having taken a measure under the preceding paragraph, a police officer must report this to the competent police station chief over the place where the measure was taken.
(6) Upon receiving a report as referred to in the preceding paragraph, the chief of the police station must notify the Director of the District Transport Bureau with jurisdiction over the base of operations of the malfunctioning vehicle of the information that Cabinet Office Order/Order of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism prescribes.
(7) It is prohibited for any person to damage or deface a mark attached pursuant to paragraph (4); it is also prohibited for any person to remove such a mark until after the chief of the nearest police station or the administrative agency with authority over vehicle maintenance confirms, through procedures that Cabinet Office Order/Order of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism prescribes, that the malfunctioning vehicle has undergone the necessary maintenance.
(8) Cabinet Office Order/Order of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism provides for the format of permits as referred to in paragraph (3), the format of documents issued to the driver of a malfunctioning vehicle pursuant to paragraph (4), and the format of marks as referred to in that paragraph.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 119, paragraph (1), item (vi) applies to paragraph (1) of this Article. Article 119, paragraph (1), item (vii) applies to paragraph (2) of this Article. Article 121, paragraph (1), item (ix) applies to paragraph (2) of this Article.) 
(Tachograph Records; Related Considerations)
Article 63-2 (1) It is prohibited for the user of a motor vehicle or any other person responsible for maintaining its equipment to allow a person to drive that motor vehicle if it is required to be equipped with a tachograph pursuant to Chapter III of the Act on Vehicles for Road Transportation or an order based on the same, but is either not equipped with a tachograph or is equipped with one that is uncalibrated and therefore unable to record the information prescribed in that Chapter; and it is also prohibited for a driver to drive such a motor vehicle.
(2) The user of a motor vehicle required to be equipped with a tachograph as referred to in the preceding paragraph must keep the records made by the tachograph regarding that motor vehicle on file for a period of one year, pursuant to Cabinet Office Order.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 121, paragraph (1) item (ix)-2 and Article 123) 
Section 13 Special Rules for Bicycle Traffic
(Traffic Distribution on Bicycle Paths)
Article 63-3 When on a road with a bicycle path, a person riding a two-wheeled or three-wheeled bicycle whose body size and structure conforms to the standards that Cabinet Office Order prescribes (hereinafter referred to in this Section as "standard bicycle") and that is not towing another vehicle must proceed down the bicycle path, except when crossing a part of the roadway other than the bicycle path or unless road conditions or other circumstances compel the rider to do otherwise.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 121, paragraph (1), item (v)) 
(Riding Standard Bicycles on Sidewalks)
Article 63-4 (1) Notwithstanding Article 17, paragraph (1), a standard bicycle may be ridden on a sidewalk in the following cases; provided, however, that this does not apply if an officer instructs a person riding a standard bicycle not to ride on the sidewalk, having found it necessary to do so in order ensure the safety of pedestrians:
(i) if standard bicycles are permitted by road signs or markings to be ridden on the sidewalk;
(ii) if the person riding the standard bicycle is an elementary schooler, child not yet of school age, or any other person that Cabinet Order prescribes for whom riding a standard bicycle on a roadway is considered to be dangerous;
(iii) if, beyond as set forth in the preceding two items, roadway or traffic conditions are found to provide compelling circumstances for the person riding the standard bicycle to ride on the sidewalk so as to ensure safe progress.
(2) In a case as referred to in the preceding paragraph, a person riding a standard bicycle must ride at reduced speed when on the part of the sidewalk between the center and the roadway (or the part of the sidewalk that road signs or markings designate as that on which standard bicycles are required to be ridden (hereinafter referred to in this paragraph as the "part of the sidewalk for use by standard bicycles"), if any), and must come to a stop if the bicycle's progress would prevent pedestrians from proceeding; provided, however, that, if there are no pedestrians proceeding down or about to enter the part of the sidewalk for use by standard bicycles, the person riding a standard bicycle may travel down that part of the sidewalk at a safe speed and in a safe manner, in keeping with sidewalk conditions.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 121, paragraph (1), item (v) applies to paragraph (2) of this Article.) 
(Standard Bicycles Traveling Abreast of Each Other)
Article 63-5 Notwithstanding Article 19, if permitted by road signs or markings, a person riding a standard bicycle may ride abreast of a person riding another standard bicycle; provided, however, that this does not apply it would result in three or more standard bicycles riding abreast of one another.
(Crossing Roads on a Bicycle)
Article 63-6 When crossing the road in the vicinity of a bicycle crossing lane, a person riding a bicycle must use the bicycle crossing lane.
(Traffic Rules for Bicycles at Intersections)
Article 63-7 (1) Notwithstanding Article 17, paragraph (4), Article 34, paragraphs (1), and (3) and Article 35, paragraph (2), and beyond as prescribed in the preceding Article, when proceeding through an intersection in the vicinity of a bicycle crossing lane, a person riding a bicycle must use the bicycle crossing lane.
(2) If there are road markings at or immediately in front of an intersection prohibiting standard bicycles from proceeding into the intersection, a person riding a standard bicycle must not go past those road markings and enter that intersection.
(Bicycle Traffic Instructions)
Article 63-8 An officer may instruct a person riding a bicycle that is proceeding in violation of Article 63-6 or paragraph (1) of the preceding Article to comply with the traffic rules prescribed therein, and may instruct a person riding a standard bicycle that is proceeding in violation of paragraph (2) of that Article to travel on the sidewalk.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 121, paragraph (1), item (iv)) 
(Bicycle Braking Equipment; Other Equipment)
Article 63-9 (1) A person must not ride a bicycle that is likely to pose a traffic hazard because it lacks braking equipment that conforms to the standards Cabinet Office Order prescribes.
(2) A person must not ride a bicycle at night (or as prescribed in the second sentence of Article 52, paragraph (1)) if it lacks reflective equipment that conforms to the standards Cabinet Office Order prescribes; provided, however, that this does not apply if a bicycle has taillights turned on pursuant to the first sentence of Article 52, paragraph (1).
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 120, paragraph (1), item (viii)-2 and paragraph (2) apply to paragraph (1) of this Article.) 
(Bicycle Inspections; Other Measures)
Article 63-10 (1) When a bicycle is being ridden that could be found likely to cause a traffic hazard due to the absence of braking equipment that complies with the standards Cabinet Office Order prescribes which are referred to in paragraph (1) of the preceding Article, a police officer may stop that a bicycle and inspect its braking equipment.
(2) In a case as referred to in the preceding paragraph, a police officer may order the person riding the bicycle to take the necessary stop-gap measures to prevent a road hazard or otherwise ensure traffic safety; if it is found not to be possible to effect the necessary maintenance on the bicycle through stop-gap measures alone, a police officer may issue an order prohibiting the person riding the bicycle from continuing to ride it.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 120, paragraph (1), item (viii)-3 applies to paragraph (1) of this Article. Article 120, paragraph (1), item (viii)-4 applies to paragraph (2) of this Article.) 
(Rules to Be Observed by Persons Responsible for the Protection of Elementary Schoolers and Children Not Yet of School Age)
Article 63-11 Persons responsible for the protection of elementary schoolers and children not yet of school age must endeavor to make them wear helmets when allowing them to ride bicycles.
Chapter IV Driver and User Responsibilities
Section 1 Driver Responsibilities
(Prohibition against Unlicensed Driving and Related Conduct)
Article 64 (1) It is prohibited for any person to drive a motor vehicle or ride a motorized bicycle without being licensed to drive by a public safety commission as under Article 84, paragraph (1) (this includes if the person's driver's license has been suspended pursuant to the Article 90, paragraph (5), Article 103, paragraph (1) or (4), Article 103-2, paragraph (1), Article 104-2-3, paragraph (1) or (3), or Article 103, paragraph (4) as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to Article 104-2-3, paragraph (5)).
(2) It is prohibited for any person to provide a person who is likely to drive a motor vehicle or ride a motorized bicycle in violation of the preceding paragraph with a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle.
(3) It is prohibited for any person to ask or rely on a driver to transport that person in a motor vehicle (other than a motor vehicle used for passenger motor carrier services as prescribed in Article 2, paragraph (3) of the Road Transportation Act (hereinafter simply referred to as "passenger motor carrier services") while it is in service; and other than any other motor vehicles that Cabinet Order prescribes; the same applies hereinafter in this paragraph) or on a motorized bicycle for which the person knows that the driver has not been licensed by a public safety commission as under Article 84, paragraph (1) (this includes if the driver's license has been suspended pursuant to Article 90, paragraph (5), Article 103, paragraph (1) or (4), Article 103-2, paragraph (1), Article 104-2-3, paragraph (1) or (3), or Article 103, paragraph (4) as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to Article 104-2-3, paragraph (5)), and then get into or onto a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle that the driver will drive in violation of paragraph (1) together with the driver.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 117-2-2, item (i) applies to paragraph (2) of this Article. Article 117-2-2, item (ii) applies to paragraph (2) of this Article. Article 117-3-2, item (i) applies to paragraph (3) of this Article.) 
(Prohibition against Driving Under the Influence of Alcohol and Related Conduct)
Article 65 (1) It is prohibited for any person to drive a vehicle or streetcar while under the influence of alcohol.
(2) It is prohibited for any person to provide a vehicle or streetcar to a person under the influence of alcohol who is likely to drive it in violation of the preceding paragraph.
(3) It is prohibited for any person to provide an alcoholic beverage to or encourage the consumption of alcohol by a person who is likely to drive a vehicle or streetcar in violation of paragraph (1).
(4) It is prohibited for any person to request or rely on a driver to transport that person in a vehicle (other than a trolleybus or motor vehicle used for passenger motor carrier services that is in service at the time, or any other motor vehicle that Cabinet Order prescribes; the same applies hereinafter in this paragraph, item (vi) of Article 117-2-2 and item (iii) of Article 117-3-2) with the knowledge that the driver is under the influence of alcohol, and then get into a vehicle that the driver is driving in violation of paragraph (1) together with the driver.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 117-2, item (i) and Article 117-2-2, item (iii) apply to paragraph (1) of this Article. Article 117-2, item (ii) and Article 117-2-2, item (iv) apply to paragraph (2) of this Article. Article 117-2-2, item (v) and Article 117-3-2, item (ii) apply to paragraph (3) of this Article. Article 117-2-2, item (vi) and Article 117-3-2, item (iii) apply to paragraph (4) of this Article.) 
(Prohibition against Driving While Overworked or Otherwise Compromised)
Article 66 It is prohibited for any person to drive a vehicle or streetcar while in a state in which overwork, illness, the influence of drugs, or any other circumstances is likely to make the person unable to drive safely, beyond as provided in paragraph (1) of the preceding Article. Inability to drive safely because the person is
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 117-2, item (iii) and Article 117-2-2, item (vii)) 
(Issuing Instructions to Users of Vehicles Being Driven While the Driver Is Overworked)
Article 66-2 (1) If a driver violates the preceding Article by driving a vehicle while in a state in which overwork is likely to make the driver unable to drive safely (hereinafter referred to as "driving while overworked" in this Article and Article 75-2, paragraph (1)) in connection with the services of the user of the vehicle (other than the selfsame driver of the vehicle; the same applies hereinafter in this Article), and the user of the vehicle that the driver has driven while overworked is found not to be undertaking the necessary operational management to prevent drivers from driving while overworked in that vehicle, the public safety commission with jurisdiction over the vehicle's base of operations may instruct the user of the vehicle to give its drivers directions or advice so that they will not drive while overworked, and may instruct the user to take other necessary measures to prevent drivers from driving while overworked.
(2) Article 22-2, paragraph (2) applies mutatis mutandis to instructions given pursuant to the preceding paragraph.
(Hazard Prevention Measures)
Article 67 (1) On finding that the driver of a vehicle or streetcar is driving the vehicle or streetcar in violation of Article 64, paragraph (1), Article 65, paragraph (1), Article 66, Article 71-4, paragraphs (3) through (6) or Article 85, paragraphs (5) through (7) (other than item (ii)), a police officer may stop the vehicle or streetcar and demand that the driver present a driver's license as referred to in Article 92, paragraph (1) or an international driving permit or foreign driver's license as referred to in Article 107-2.
(2) Beyond as prescribed in the preceding paragraph, if the driver of a vehicle or streetcar, in driving a vehicle or streetcar, violates this Act (other than Article 64, paragraph (1), Article 65, paragraph (1), Article 66, Article 71-4, paragraphs (3) through (6) and Article 85, paragraphs (5) through (7) (other than item (ii))), an order under this Act, or a measure under this Act; or causes injury or death to a person or damage to object with a moving vehicle or streetcar (hereinafter this is referred to as causing a "traffic accident"), and a police officer finds it to be necessary to do so in order to determine whether it would be appropriate to allow the driver to continue driving the vehicle or streetcar, the police officer may demand that the driver present a driver's license as referred to in Article 92, paragraph (1) or an international driving permit or foreign driver's license as referred to in Article 107-2.
(3) If it is found to be likely that a person who is inside of or about to enter a vehicle or streetcar will drive the vehicle or streetcar in violation of Article 65, paragraph (1), a police officer may test that person's breath pursuant to Cabinet Order to determine the level of alcohol in the person's system, in connection with the measures under the following paragraph.
(4) In a case as referred to in one of the preceding three paragraphs, if the driver of the vehicle or streetcar is likely to drive the vehicle or streetcar in violation of Article 64, paragraph (1), Article 65, paragraph (1), Article 66, Article 71-4, paragraphs (3) through (6) or Article 85, paragraphs (5) through (7) (other than item (ii)), a police officer may take the necessary stop-gap measures to prevent a road traffic hazard , such as instructing the driver not to drive the vehicle or streetcar until able to drive safely.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 119, paragraph (1), item (viii) applies to paragraph (1) of this Article. Article 118-2 applies to paragraph (3) of this Article.) 
(Prohibition against Acting in Concert with Another Person in a Dangerous or Annoying Manner)
Article 68 When the drivers and riders of any combination of at least one motor vehicle and at least one motorized bicycle are traveling down a road two or more in a row or abreast of each other, they must not act in concert in a way that gives rise to a serious road traffic hazard or causes a serious nuisance to others.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 117-3)
Article 69 Deleted
(Safe Driving Obligation)
Article 70 The driver of a vehicle or streetcar must work the vehicle's or streetcar's steering wheel, brakes, and other equipment in a consistent manner, and must drive at a speed and in a manner that poses no hazard to others in consideration of road conditions, traffic conditions, and the condition of the vehicle or streetcar.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 119, paragraph (1), item (ix) and paragraph (2)) 
(Rules to Be Observed by Drivers)
Article 71 The driver of a vehicle or streetcar must observe the following rules:
(i) to have mudflaps on the vehicle or streetcar, drive at a reduced speed, or take other measures so as not to cause a nuisance to others by scattering mud, dirty water, and other materials when driving through mud or puddles;
(ii) to come to a stop or drive at reduced speed so as not to obstruct the progress of a wheelchair being used by a person with a physical disability, a blind person using a Cabinet-Order-prescribed cane or guide dog referred to in Article 14, paragraph (1), a deaf person, or any other person with a Cabinet-Order-prescribed degree of physical disability referred to in paragraph (2) who is walking with a Cabinet-Order-prescribed cane as referred to in that paragraph, or so as not to obstruct the progress of an elementary schooler or child not yet of school age who is walking without a custodian;
(ii)-2 to come to a stop or drive at reduced speed so as not to prevent an elderly pedestrian, a pedestrian with a physical disability, or a pedestrian with difficulty using the road from proceeding, beyond as set forth in the preceding item;
(ii)-3 to drive at a reduced speed and confirm that it is safe before overtaking a school bus (meaning a motor vehicle as prescribed by Cabinet Order which is exclusively used to transport persons such as elementary schoolers and children not yet of school age to places such as elementary schools and preschools) that has stopped pursuant to Cabinet Order to load or unload persons such as elementary schoolers and children not yet of school age;
(iii) to drive at a reduced speed when going past the edge of a safety zone on the left side of a road in which there is a pedestrian;
(iv) to take the necessary measures to prevent persons riding in the vehicle or streetcar from falling from it and to prevent loaded objects from falling or scattering from it, such as closing the doors of the vehicle or streetcar and loading cargo properly onto the vehicle or streetcar;
(iv)-2 to take the necessary measures to prevent a road hazard in the event that an object loaded onto the vehicle or streetcar has fallen or been scattered from it, such as removing the fallen or scattered object promptly;
(iv)-3 to not open one of the vehicle's or streetcar's doors or get out of the vehicle or streetcar without confirming the safety of doing so, and to take the necessary measures to prevent others riding in the vehicle or streetcar from causing a traffic hazard by unsafely opening the doors or getting out of the vehicle;
(v) to take the necessary measures to keep the vehicle or streetcar stopped when leaving the vicinity of a vehicle or streetcar, such as turning off the motor or engine and fully engaging the brakes;
(v)-2 to take the necessary measures when leaving the vicinity of a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle, in keeping with the vehicle's equipment, to prevent the vehicle from being driven or ridden by someone without permission to do so;
(v)-3 to not suddenly put the motor vehicle or motorized bicycle in motion, suddenly increase its speed, or increase its engine speed without transferring the power of the engine to its wheels in a manner that makes a noise causing an extreme nuisance to others, without a legitimate reason for doing so;
(v)-4 to not drive a motor vehicle alongside a moving motor vehicle bearing a mark indicating that it is being driven by a person as prescribed in Article 71-5, paragraphs (2) through (4) or Article 71-6, paragraphs (1) through (3) or a person who has been issued a provisional driver's license as prescribed in Article 84, paragraph (2) (meaning a standard motor vehicle bearing a mark as prescribed in Article 71-5, paragraphs (2) through (4), Article 71-6, paragraph (2) or (3), or Article 87, paragraph (3) or semi-mid-sized motor vehicle bearing a mark as prescribed in Article 71-6, paragraph (1); the same applies hereinafter in this item), and to not change course if doing so would mean that the driver of a marked motor vehicle that would be approaching from behind on the same course that the driver changing course would be on after changing course could not maintain the necessary distance as prescribed in Article 26 between the marked motor vehicle and the motor vehicle changing course, unless circumstances compel the driver to take such an action in order to prevent a hazard;
(v)-5 to neither use a cellular telephone, car phone, or other wireless telephone (but only one that cannot be used to transmit or receive communications unless all or part of it is held in the hand; referred to as a "wireless telephone" in Article 120, paragraph (1), item (xi)) to make telephone calls (other than essential emergency calls to aid injured or sick persons or to maintain public safety while a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle is in motion; the same applies in Article 120, paragraph (1), item (xi)) nor focus attention on the screen of a device (other than one as prescribed in Article 41, item (xvi) or (xvii) or Article 44, item (xi) of the Act on Vehicles for Road Transportation; the same applies in Article 120, paragraph (1), item (xi)) installed or carried into a motor vehicle or onto a motorized bicycle (hereinafter referred to in this item as a "motor-powered vehicle") while driving that motor-powered vehicle, except when it is at a stop;
(vi) rules that a public safety commission establishes in consideration of road or traffic conditions, having found it to be necessary to do so in order to prevent road hazards or otherwise ensure traffic safety, beyond as set forth in the preceding items.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 120, paragraph (1), item (ix) applies to items (i), (iv), (v), (v)-3, (v)-4 and (vi), of this Article. Article 119, paragraph (1), item (ix)-2 applies to items (ii), (ii)-3, and (iii) of this Article. Article 119, paragraph (1), item (ix)-3 and Article 120, paragraph (1), item (xi) apply to item (v)-5 of this Article.) 
(Rules to Be Observed by Drivers of Motor Vehicles and Motorized Bicycles)
Article 71-2 It is prohibited for the driver of a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle (other than a machine that Cabinet Office Order prescribes; the same applies hereinafter in this Article) to drive the motor vehicle or ride the motorized bicycle if it is not equipped with a muffler as prescribed in Article 41, item (xi) or Article 44, item (viii) of the Act on Vehicles for Road Transportation (this includes a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle whose muffler has been cut or which are equipped with a muffler to which other Cabinet-Order-prescribed modifications causing a serious hindrance to its function have been made).
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 120, paragraph (1), item (ix)) 
(Rules to Be Observed by Drivers of Standard Motor Vehicles and Other Motor Vehicles)
Article 71-3 (1) The driver of a motor vehicle (other than a standard or large motorcycle; the same applies hereinafter in this Article) must not drive without fastening the seatbelt that is required to be installed in the motor vehicle pursuant to Chapter III of the Act on Vehicles for Road Transportation and pursuant to orders based upon that Act (hereinafter referred to as a "seatbelt"); provided, however, that this does not apply if the driver's restraint by a seatbelt is not appropriate in light of the medical treatment that the driver is receiving for an illness, if the driver in question is the driver of an emergency motor vehicle and is driving that emergency motor vehicle, or if there are any other compelling circumstances that Cabinet Order prescribes.
(2) The driver of a motor vehicle must not carry a person unrestrained by a seatbelt on equipment, other than the driver's seat, that is meant to carry a person (but only in a motor vehicle in which such equipment must be equipped with seatbelts; the same applies hereinafter in this paragraph) as a passenger in the motor vehicle; provided, however, that this does not apply if the driver is carrying a child not yet of school age (other than one that is of sufficient height when seated for a seatbelt to be fastened appropriately; the same applies hereinafter in this Article) on such equipment, if the driver is carrying a person whose restraint by a seatbelt is not appropriate in light of the medical treatment that the person is receiving for an illness on such equipment, or if there are any other compelling circumstances that Cabinet Order prescribes.
(3) The driver of a motor vehicle must not carry a child not yet of school age unrestrained by child restraints (meaning restraints fixed to a seat and used to replace the functions of a seatbelt when a child not yet of school age is on board, which comply with Chapter III of the Act on Vehicles for Road Transportation and orders given under that Chapter and which are configured for the size of a child not yet of school age; the same applies hereinafter in this paragraph) as a passenger in the motor vehicle; provided, however, that this does not apply if the driver is carrying a child not yet of school age whose restraint by child restraints is not appropriate in light of the medical treatment that the child is receiving for an illness or if there are any other compelling circumstances that Cabinet Order prescribes.
(Rules to Be Observed by Riders of Large Two-Wheeled Vehicles and Other Vehicles)
Article 71-4 (1) A person riding a standard or large motorcycle must not ride that vehicle without wearing a motorcycle helmet, and must not carry a passenger who is not wearing a motorcycle helmet.
(2) A person riding a motorized bicycle must not ride that vehicle without wearing a motorcycle helmet.
(3) A person holding a large motorcycle license as referred to in Article 84, paragraph (3) who is under 20 years of age or who has not held that license for at least three years in total (not counting any period during which it was suspended) (other than a person currently holding a standard motorcycle license as referred to in that paragraph who has held that license for at least three years in total (not counting any period during which the person's license was suspended) and other persons that Cabinet Order prescribes) must not carry a passenger while driving a standard or large motorcycle (other than one with a sidecar; the same applies hereinafter in this Article) on a national expressway or limited highway.
(4) A person holding a standard motorcycle license as referred to in Article 84, paragraph (3) (other than a person also holding a large motorcycle license as referred to in that paragraph) who is under 20 years of age or who has not held that license for at least three years in total (not counting any period during which the person's license was suspended) (other than a person who has held a standard motorcycle license at some point within the six months before the day on which the person came to hold the current license and other persons that Cabinet Order prescribes) must not carry a passenger while driving a standard motorcycle on a national expressway or limited highway.
(5) A person holding a large motorcycle license as referred to in Article 84, paragraph (3) who has not held that license for at least one year in total (not counting any period during which the person's license was suspended) (other than a person currently holding a standard motorcycle license as referred to in that paragraph who has held that license for at least one year in total (not counting any period during which the person's license was suspended) and other persons that Cabinet Order prescribes) must not carry a passenger while driving a standard or large motorcycle.
(6) A person holding a standard motorcycle license as referred to in Article 84, paragraph (3) (other than a person also holding a large motorcycle license as referred to in that paragraph) who has not held that license for at least one year in total (not counting any period during which the person's license was suspended) (other than a person who has held a standard motorcycle license at some point within the six months before the day on which the person came to hold the current license and other persons that Cabinet Order prescribes) must not carry a passenger while driving a standard motorcycle.
(7) Cabinet Office Order provides for the standards for motorcycle helmets as referred to in paragraphs (1) and (2).
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 119-3, paragraph (1), item (vi) applies to paragraphs (3) through (6) of this Article.) 
(Obligation to Display a Novice Driver Mark or Other Mark)
Article 71-5 (1) A person holding a semi-mid-sized motor vehicle license as referred to in Article 84, paragraph (3) who has not held that license for at least one year in total (not counting any period during which the person's license was suspended) (other than a person who has held a semi-mid-sized motor vehicle license at some point within the six months before the day on which the person came to hold the current license and other persons that Cabinet Order prescribes, and other than a person who currently holds a standard motor vehicle license as referred to in that paragraph and who held that license for at least two years in total (not counting any period during which the person's license was suspended) before the day on which the person came to hold the current semi-mid-sized motor vehicle license) must not drive a semi-mid-sized motor vehicle without displaying a mark in the format that Cabinet Office Order prescribes on the front and rear of that vehicle pursuant to Cabinet Office Order.
(2) A person holding a standard motor vehicle license as referred to in Article 84, paragraph (3) who has not held that license for at least one year in total (not counting any period during which the person's license was suspended) (other than a person who has held a standard motor vehicle license at some point within the six months before the day on which the person came to hold the current license; other than a person that, after coming to hold the standard motor vehicle license that the person currently holds, has come to hold a license of a higher grade than this (meaning a different type of driver's license (other than a provisional driver's license as referred to in Article 84, paragraph (2)) with which a person may also drive the motor vehicles and motorized bicycles that, pursuant to Article 85, paragraph (2), may be driven by a person who is permitted to drive a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle of a category that the Table following Article 85, paragraph (1) sets forth for a given type of driver's license (hereinafter the category of motor vehicle or motorized bicycle that the Table sets forth for a given type of driver's license is referred to as a "vehicle the person is licensed to drive"); hereinafter the same applies in Article 100-2, paragraph (1), items (i) and (iii)); and other than any other person that Cabinet Order prescribes) must not drive a standard motor vehicle without displaying a mark in the format that Cabinet Office Order prescribes on the front and rear of that vehicle pursuant to Cabinet Office Order.
(3) A person 75 years of age or older who holds a license that permits the person to drive a standard motor vehicle pursuant to Article 85, paragraph (1) or (2) or Article 86, paragraph (1) or (2) (hereinafter referred to as a "license for a standard motor vehicle") must not drive a standard motor vehicle without displaying a mark in the format that Cabinet Office Order prescribes on the front and rear of that vehicle pursuant to Cabinet Office Order.
(4) A person 70 years of age or older but under 75 who is licensed for a standard motor vehicle must endeavor to display a mark in the format that Cabinet Office Order prescribes on the front and rear pursuant to Cabinet Office Order when driving a standard motor vehicle if the person's age-related decline in physical ability is likely to affect the person's driving.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 121, paragraph (1), item (ix)-3 and paragraph (2) apply to paragraphs (1) through (3) of this Article.)
Article 71-6 (1) A person holding a license that permits the person to drive a semi-mid-sized motor vehicle pursuant to Article 85, paragraph (1) or (2) or Article 86, paragraph (1) or (2) must not drive a semi-mid-sized motor vehicle without displaying a mark in the format that Cabinet Office Order prescribes on the front and rear of that vehicle pursuant to Cabinet Office Order if any condition is attached to the license because the licensee has a hearing impairment to a degree that Cabinet Order prescribes.
(2) A person holding a license for a standard motor vehicle must not drive a standard motor vehicle without displaying a mark in the format that Cabinet Office Order prescribes on the front and rear of that vehicle pursuant to Cabinet Office Order if any condition is attached to the license because the licensee has a hearing impairment to a degree that Cabinet Order prescribes.
(3) A person holding a license for a standard motor vehicle to which any condition is attached because the licensee has an orthopedic impairment must endeavor to display a mark in the format that Cabinet Office Order prescribes on the front and rear of the vehicle pursuant to Cabinet Office Order when driving a standard motor vehicle if the orthopedic impairment is likely to affect the person's driving.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 121, paragraph (1), item (ix)-3 and paragraph (2) apply to paragraphs (1) and (2) of this Article.) 
Section 2 Measures in the Event of a Traffic Accident; Related Considerations
(Measures in the Event of a Traffic Accident)
Article 72 (1) In the event of a traffic accident, the drivers and staff members of the vehicles and streetcars involved in the traffic accident (hereinafter each such person is referred to in this Section as a "driver or staff member") must immediately stop driving and take the necessary measures, such as aiding injured persons and preventing road hazards. In such a case, the driver of a vehicle or streetcar (or a staff member, if the death or injury of the driver compels it; the same applies hereinafter in the following paragraph) must report to a police officer at the scene or at the nearest police station (including police booths and police satellite offices; the same applies hereinafter in the following paragraph) giving the date, time, and place where the traffic accident occurred; the number of injured persons and the extent of their injuries; damaged objects and the extent of the damage; the loads carried by the vehicles and streetcars involved in the accident; and measures taken in connection with the accident.
(2) On finding it to be necessary to do so in order to aid an injured person or prevent a road hazard, a police officer at the nearest police station who receives a report pursuant to the second sentence of the preceding paragraph may order the driver giving the report not to leave the scene until a police officer arrives.
(3) In a case as referred to in the preceding two paragraphs, a police officer at the scene may give necessary instructions to the driver or staff member of the vehicle or streetcar in order to aid injured persons, prevent road hazards, or otherwise ensure the safety and fluidity of traffic.
(4) Notwithstanding paragraph (1), if it is necessary for a vehicle or streetcar to continue in operation, the driver of an emergency vehicle, a vehicle carrying injured persons, or a bus, trolleybus, or streetcar that is in operation at the time of the accident may have another staff member take the measures prescribed in the first sentence of paragraph (1) or report as prescribed in the second sentence of that paragraph so that the driver may continue driving the vehicle or streetcar.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 117, paragraphs (1) and (2) and Article 117-5, item (i) apply to the first sentence paragraph (1) of this Article. Article 119, paragraph (1), item (x) apply to the second sentence of paragraph (1) of this Article. Article 120, paragraph (1), item (xi)-2 applies to paragraph (2) of this Article.)
Article 72-2 (1) In a case as referred to in paragraph (3) of the preceding Article, if it is found to be difficult for the driver or staff member of a vehicle or streetcar to immediately follow the instructions given pursuant to that paragraph due to injury or another reason, a police officer at the scene may physically move an object damaged in the traffic accident or a load being carried by a vehicle or streetcar involved in the traffic accident (hereinafter referred to in this Article as a "damaged object or load") and take other stop-gap measures, but only so far as is necessary to prevent road traffic hazards and otherwise ensure the safety and fluidity of traffic.
(2) In a case as referred to in the preceding paragraph, having moved a damaged object or load, a police officer must hand it over to the chief of the police station who has jurisdiction over the place where the damaged object or load was originally found. In such a case, the chief of the police station must store the damaged object or load as its custodian.
(3) Article 51, paragraph (7) and paragraphs (9) through (21) and Article 51-2-2 apply mutatis mutandis to damaged objects and loads subject to measures under the preceding two paragraphs. In such a case, the term " user" in Article 51, paragraph (7) is deemed to be replaced with "owner or person in possession of the vehicle or the holder of title to the damaged object or load (hereinafter referred to in this Article and Article 51-2-2 as the 'owner or other such person')"; the phrase "the preceding paragraph" in paragraph (9) of that Article is deemed to be replaced with "paragraph (7) as applied mutatis mutandis following a deemed replacement of terms pursuant to Article 72-2, paragraph (3)" and the phrase "paragraph, the chief" in that paragraph is deemed to be replaced with "paragraph, and it is found to be difficult to return the damaged object or load to a person other than its owner, the chief"; the phrase "paragraphs (7) through (10)" in paragraph (11) of that Article is deemed to be replaced with "paragraph (7) and the preceding two paragraphs as applied mutatis mutandis following a deemed replacement of terms pursuant to Article 72-2, paragraph (3)"; the phrase "remains unreturned one month after the date of a notification as under paragraph (8)" in paragraph (12) of that Article is deemed to be replaced with "is likely to spoil or deteriorate, remains unreturned one month after the day on which the owner of the damaged object or load has been notified pursuant to paragraph (7) as applied mutatis mutandis following a deemed replacement of terms pursuant to Article 72-2, paragraph (3), or remains unreturned one month after the" and the term "cost" is deemed to be replaced with "cost or effort"; the phrase "the driver or other responsible person, theuser, or the owner of the vehicle (hereinafter referred to through Article 51-2-2 as the "user or owner")" paragraph (15) of that Article is deemed to be replaced with "the owner or other such person"; the phrase "the driver or other responsible person or by the user or owner" in paragraph (16) of that Article is deemed to be replaced with "the owner or other such person"; the phrase "the date of a notification as under paragraph (8)" in paragraph (20) of that Article is deemed to be replaced with "the date that the owner of the damaged object or load was notified as under paragraph (7) as applied mutatis mutandis following a deemed replacement of terms pursuant to Article 72-2, paragraph (3)"; and the phrase "the user or owner or person otherwise affiliated with a vehicle being stored pursuant to paragraph (6) of that Article; or the owner or person in possession of a load being stored pursuant to paragraph (6) of that Article as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to paragraph (22) of that Article or a person holding title to or otherwise affiliated with such a load," in paragraph (1) of Article 51-2-2 is deemed to be replaced with "the owner or other such person or the person otherwise affiliated with the damaged object or load being stored pursuant to the second sentence of Article 72-2, paragraph (2)".
(Prohibition on Interfering)
Article 73 In the event of a traffic accident, if a person other than the driver or staff member of the vehicle or streetcar involved in the traffic accident is in the vehicle or streetcar, that person must not interfere with the driver's or staff member's taking the measures prescribed in the first sentence of Article 72, paragraph (1) or with the driver's or staff member's reporting as prescribed in the second sentence of that paragraph.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 120, paragraph (1), item (ix)) 
Section 3 User Responsibilities
(Responsibilities of theUsers of Vehicles and Streetcars)
Article 74 (1) When allowing persons to drive its vehicles or streetcars in connection with its business activities, a vehicle or streetcar user must endeavor to make the drivers of its vehicles or streetcars, its driving safety supervisors, deputy driving safety supervisors, and other persons in a position to directly manage the operations of its vehicles or streetcars observe the rules that this Act or an Order based on this Act prescribes with respect to vehicle and streetcar driving safety.
(2) The user of a vehicle must endeavor to make the drivers of that vehicle to observe the rules that this Act or an Order based on this Act prescribes with respect to the speed, parking, and loading of vehicles, and the mental and physical condition of drivers.
(3) Theusers of fire-services vehicles, ambulances, and other motor vehicles that Cabinet Order prescribes (other than users that have appointed a driving safety supervisor pursuant to Article 74-3, paragraph (1)) must endeavor to provide the drivers of its motor vehicles with the necessary traffic safety education to ensure that their motor vehicles are driven safely.
Article 74-2 The user of a vehicle must ensure that there is a place for its vehicles to be properly parked and take other necessary measures for the proper parking of its vehicles.
(Primary and Deputy Driving Safety Supervisors)
Article 74-3 (1) For each place serving as the base of operations for not less than the number of motor vehicles that Cabinet Office Order prescribes, a motor vehicleuser (other than a motor carrier under the Road Transportation Act (other than those engaged in cargo transportation services under the Act on Motor Vehicle Cargo Transportation Services (Act No. 83 of 1989); the same applies hereinafter) and persons engaged in Type II cargo transportation services under the Cargo Forwarder Service Act; the same applies hereinafter in this Article) must appoint a driving safety supervisor who meets the requirements that Cabinet Office Order prescribes with respect to age, experience in the management of motor vehicle driving, and other particulars to perform the duties referred to in the following paragraph.
(2) A driving safety supervisor must provide drivers engaged in the business activities of the user with the necessary traffic safety education to ensure that they drive motor vehicles safely, and undertake the necessary duties that Cabinet Office Order prescribes so that motor vehicles are driven safely (other than duties involved in the maintenance of motor vehicle equipment; the same applies in paragraph (1) of Article 75-2-2).
(3) The traffic safety education referred to in the preceding paragraph must be provided in accordance with the traffic safety education guidelines referred to in Article 108-28, paragraph (1).
(4) For each place serving as the base of operations for not less than the number of motor vehicles that Cabinet Office Order prescribes, a motor vehicle user must appoint a deputy driving safety supervisor, pursuant to Cabinet Office Order, as a person to support the duties of the driving safety supervisor, from among those who meet the requirements that Cabinet Office Order prescribes with respect to age, experience in motor vehicle driving, and other particulars.
(5) Within 15 days of appointing a driving safety supervisor or deputy driving safety supervisor (hereinafter referred to as a "primary or deputy driving safety supervisor"), a motor vehicle user must file the information that Cabinet Office Order prescribes with the public safety commission with jurisdiction over the motor vehicles' base of operations. The same applies if the user dismisses a primary or deputy driving safety supervisor.
(6) If a primary or deputy driving safety supervisor no longer meets one of the requirements that Cabinet Office Order prescribes which is referred to in paragraph (1) or (4) or if the public safety commission finds that the driving safety supervisor has not ensured that the relevant motor vehicles will be driven safely because the supervisor has failed to observe paragraph (2), the public safety commission may order the motor vehicle user to dismiss the relevant primary or deputy driving safety supervisor.
(7) A motor vehicle user must grant its driving safety supervisor the necessary authority to perform the duties referred to in paragraph (2).
(8) If a motor vehicle user is notified by a public safety commission that it will hold the training set forth in Article 108-2, paragraph (1), item (i) for primary or deputy driving safety supervisors appointed by the user, the user must have its primary or deputy driving safety supervisor undergo that training.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 120, paragraph (1), item (xi)-3 and Article 123 apply to paragraphs (1), (4), and (6) of this Article. Article 121, paragraph (1), item (ix)-2 and Article 123 apply to paragraph (5) of this Article.) 
(Responsibilities of Motor Vehicle Users; Related Considerations)
Article 75 (1) It is prohibited for a motor vehicle user (including the user of heavy towable vehicles; the same applies hereinafter in this Article, paragraph (1) of the following Article, and Article 75-2-2, paragraph (2)) (or the primary or deputy driving safety supervisor or any other person in a position to directly manage the operations of its motor vehicles; referred to as a " user, supervisor, or manager" in the following paragraph) to order or allow a driver of its motor vehicles to engage in the conduct set forth in one of the following items in connection with the business of theuser:
(i) to drive a motor vehicle that it has been established may be driven only by a person holding a public-safety-commission driver's license as under Article 84, paragraph (1) (or by a person with an international driving permit or foreign driver's license, if it has been decided that such a person may drive a motor vehicle pursuant to Article 107-2; the same applies hereinafter in this paragraph), if the person in question has not been issued such a driver's license (this includes a person whose driver's license has been suspended pursuant to Article 90, paragraph (5), Article 103, paragraph (1) or (4), Article 103-2, paragraph (1), Article 104-2-3, paragraph (1) or (3) or Article 103, paragraph (4) as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to Article 104-2-3, paragraph (5));
(ii) to drive a motor vehicle in violation of Article 22, paragraph (1);
(iii) to drive a motor vehicle in violation of Article 65, paragraph (1);
(iv) to drive a motor vehicle in violation of Article 66;
(v) to drive a large, mid-sized, or semi-mid-sized motor vehicle in violation of Article 85, paragraph (5); to drive a mid-sized or semi-mid-sized motor vehicle in violation of paragraph (6) of that Article; to drive a semi-mid-sized or standard motor vehicle in violation of paragraph (7) of that Article; to drive a standard motor vehicle in violation of paragraph (8) of that Article; to drive a standard or large motorcycle in violation of paragraph (9) of that Article; or to drive a standard motorcycle in violation of paragraph (10) of that Article;
(vi) to drive a motor vehicle carrying a load in violation of Article 57, paragraph (1); or
(vii) to make it so that a motor vehicle cannot be driven immediately by leaving the vicinity (limited to conduct causing a motor vehicle to be parked in violation of Article 44, Article 45, paragraph (1) or (2), Article 47, paragraph (2) or (3), Article 48, Article 49-3, paragraph (3), Article 49-4, or Article 75-8, paragraph (1)).
(2) If auser, supervisor, or manager of motor vehicles violates the preceding paragraph thereby causing the driver of a motor vehicle to engage in conduct set forth in one of the items of that paragraph, and the public safety commission with jurisdiction over the base of operations of the motor vehicle connected with the violation finds that the operator's use of its motor vehicles in connection with its business activities is likely to cause an extreme traffic hazard on a road or an extreme obstruction to traffic, it may issue an order to the user , in accordance with the standards that Cabinet Order prescribes, not to drive or allow any person to drive the motor vehicles connected with the violation for a period of up to six months that it fixes.
(3) Before issuing an order pursuant to the preceding paragraph, a public safety commission must hear the as of the supervising administrative agency for the relevant services if theuser of a motor vehicle that would be subject to the order is a passenger motor carrier under the Road Transportation Act or a person engaged in Type II cargo transportation services under the Cargo Forwarder Service Act.
(4) Irrespective of the category of proceedings for hearing statements of opinion under Article 13, paragraph (1) of the Administrative Procedure Act (Act No. 88 of 1993), a public safety commission seeking to issue an order pursuant to paragraph (2) must hold a hearing.
(5) To hold a hearing as referred to in the preceding paragraph, a public safety commission must notify the relevant persons as under Article 15, paragraph (1) of the Administrative Procedure Act and issue public notice of the date and place of the hearing, by one week prior to the hearing date.
(6) If a person is notified as referred to in the preceding paragraph in the way that Article 15, paragraph (3) of the Administrative Procedure Act prescribes, the reasonable period of time to be set aside before the hearing date pursuant to paragraph (1) of that Article must not be less than two weeks.
(7) The proceedings on the hearing date referred to in paragraph (4) must be open to the public.
(8) On finding it to be necessary to do so, the person presiding over the hearing referred to in paragraph (4) may request the appearance of witnesses who have expert knowledge about road traffic or persons connected with the matter at issue so as to hear their opinions or circumstances.
(9) A public safety commission that has issued an order pursuant to paragraph (2) must issue a document to the user of the motor vehicle subject to the order giving the information that Cabinet Office Order prescribes, including the number of the identification plate of any motor vehicle that the user may neither drive nor allow others to drive, and must affix a mark in the format that Cabinet Office Order prescribes in a conspicuous place on the front of any such motor vehicle.
(10) A person purchasing a motor vehicle to which a mark has been affixed pursuant to the preceding paragraph from auser or from a third party who holds title to its use may apply to a public safety commission, pursuant to Cabinet Office Order, for removal of that mark. In such a case, the public safety commission must remove the mark.
(11) It is prohibited for any person to damage or deface a mark affixed pursuant to paragraph (9); and it is prohibited for any person to remove such a mark until after the end of the period during which the motor vehicle is prohibited from being driven.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 117-2-2, item (viii) and Article 123 apply to paragraph (1), item (i) of this Article. Article 118, paragraph (1), item (iv) and Article 123 apply to paragraph (1), items (ii) and (v) of this Article. Article 117-2, item (iv), Article 117-2-2, item (ix) and Article 123 apply to paragraph (1), item (iii) of this Article. Article 117-2, item (v), Article 117-2-2, item (x), and Article 123 apply to paragraph (1), item (iv) of this Article. Article 118, paragraph (1), item (v), Article 119, paragraph (1), item (xi) and Article 123 apply to paragraph (1), item (vi) of this Article. Article 119-2, paragraph (1), item (iii) and Article 123 apply to paragraph (1), item (vii) of this Article. Article 119, paragraph (1), item (xii) and Article 123 apply to paragraph (2) of this Article. Article 121, paragraph (1), item (ix) applies to paragraph (11) of this Article.)
Article 75-2 (1) If a public safety commission issues an instruction as set forth in the left-hand column of the following Table to the user of a motor vehicle and if a violation set forth in the corresponding right-hand column of that Table is committed in a motor vehicle operated thereby within one year after the user is issued that instruction and the commission finds that the user's operation of such a motor vehicle is likely to cause an extreme traffic hazard, the public safety commission with jurisdiction over the motor vehicle's base of operations may order the user, in accordance with the standards that Cabinet Order prescribes, not to drive or allow any person to drive the motor vehicle for a period of up to three months that it fixes:
Instructions issued to the commercial operator of the motor vehicle
Violation
Instructions under Article 22-2, paragraph (1)
Speed limit violation
Instructions under Article 58-4
Driving a motor vehicle with an excessive load
Instructions under Article 66-2, paragraph (1)
Driving while overworked
(2) If a public safety commission issues a payment order to the user of a vehicle to which a mark has been affixed pursuant to Article 51-4, paragraph (1) and if the operator had been issued any other payment order (other than one revoked pursuant to paragraph (16) of that Article) because of that vehicle within six months before the date on which the mark was affixed and the commission finds that the operator's operation of such a vehicle is likely to cause an extreme hazard or an obstruction to traffic, the public safety commission with jurisdiction over the vehicle's base of operations may order the operator, in accordance with the standards that Cabinet Order prescribes, not to drive or allow any other person to drive the vehicle for a period of up to three months that it fixes.
(3) Paragraphs (3) through (11) of the preceding Article apply mutatis mutandis to orders issued pursuant to the preceding two paragraphs.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 119, paragraph (1), item (xii) and Article 123 apply to paragraphs (1) and (2) of this Article. Article 121, paragraph (1), item (ix) applies to paragraph (3) of this Article.) 
(Reporting; Submission of Materials)
Article 75-2-2 (1) On finding it to be necessary to do so for a base of motor vehicle operations at which a driving safety supervisor has been appointed in order to facilitate the needed traffic safety education to ensure that motor vehicles are driven safely and to otherwise facilitate the needed business activities for motor vehicles to be driven safely, a public safety commission may ask either the user of motor vehicles that has appointed the driving safety supervisor or the driving safety supervisor to report as necessary or submit the necessary materials.
(2) On finding it to be necessary to do so in order to facilitate the proper operation of motor vehicles in terms of speed, parking, or loading, or the mental and physical condition of the driver, a public safety commission may ask a user of a motor vehicle to report as necessary or submit the necessary materials.
Chapter IV-2 Special Rules for Motor Vehicle Traffic on National Expressways and Limited Highways
Section 1 General Rules
(General Rules)
Article 75-2-3 Beyond what is prescribed in the preceding four Chapters, the rules for motor vehicle traffic over national expressways and limited highways and other such considerations are governed by this Chapter.
(Hazard Prevention and Other Such Measures)
Article 75-3 Notwithstanding Article 17, paragraph (1) and Cabinet Order under Article 47, paragraph (4) of the Road Act, on finding a compelling reason to do so in order to prevent a road hazard or otherwise ensure the safety and fluidity of traffic on a national expressway or limited highway (hereinafter referred to as a "national expressway or limited highway") on which road damage, a traffic accident, or other circumstances are likely to cause a traffic hazard or traffic congestion, a police officer may prohibit or restrict road use by motor vehicles arriving at the scene or order the drivers of motor vehicles at the scene to travel on the shoulder or a side strip of the road or to comply with different traffic rules than the traffic rules for motor vehicles that are prescribed in paragraph (1) of Article 8, Chapter III, Section 1, and Section 6 or this Chapter, but only so far as is necessary.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 119, paragraph (1) item (xii)-2) 
Section 2 Motor Vehicle Traffic Rules
(Minimum Speed Limit)
Article 75-4 On the main roadway of a national expressway (other than one that Cabinet Order prescribes), it is prohibited for a motor vehicle to travel at a speed below the posted minimum speed limit in a section of road where this is designated by road signs or markings or to travel at a speed below the minimum speed limit that Cabinet Order prescribes in any other section of road, unless the driver is decreasing the speed of the motor vehicle pursuant to laws and regulations or is compelled to drive below the minimum speed limit in order to prevent a hazard.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 120, paragraph (1), item (xii)) 
(Prohibition on Cutting Across Roads and Other Such Maneuvers)
Article 75-5 A motor vehicle must not cross over to the other side of a road, make a U-turn, or reverse direction on any main roadway.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 119, paragraph (1), item (ii)-2) 
(Interacting with Other Motor Vehicles When Entering Main Roadways and at Other Times)
Article 75-6 (1) A motor vehicle (other than an emergency motor vehicle) attempting to enter a main roadway (if attempting to enter a main roadway from another main roadway, this is limited to when the main roadway that the motor vehicle is attempting to enter is designated by road signs or markings) must not obstruct the progress of any other motor vehicle proceeding down the main roadway; provided, however that this does not apply if traffic controls are in place at the intersection.
(2) A motor vehicle other than an emergency motor vehicle must not prevent an emergency motor vehicle that is attempting to enter a main roadway or exit a main roadway on which it is traveling from proceeding.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 120, paragraph (1), item (ii)) 
(Entering and Exiting Main Roadways)
Article 75-7 (1) A motor vehicle attempting to enter a main roadway with an acceleration lane must use the acceleration lane.
(2) A motor vehicle attempting to exit a main roadway on which it is traveling must travel in the vehicle traffic lane connected to the exit before exiting the main roadway. In such a case, if the main roadway has a deceleration lane, the motor vehicle must use the deceleration lane.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 121, paragraph (1), item (v)) 
(Prohibition against Stopping and Parking)
Article 75-8 (1) A motor vehicle (including a vehicle with the necessary structure and equipment to allow them to be towed by a motor vehicle; the same applies hereinafter in this Article) must not be stopped or parked on a national expressway or limited highway unless the driver has come to a stop pursuant to laws and regulations, in compliance with a police officer's orders, or in order to prevent a hazard; provided, however, that this does not apply if:
(i) a driver stops or parks a motor vehicle in a place demarked for parking;
(ii) a malfunction or other such circumstance compels the driver to stop or park a motor vehicle, and the driver stops or parks on a shoulder or side strip that is wide enough for stopping or parking;
(iii) a driver stops a bus to load or unload passengers or parks a bus to adjust its timing so that operations can get back on schedule, at a bus stop that is part of the bus's transit system; or
(iv) a driver stops a motor vehicle at a tollgate in order to pay a toll.
(2) Article 50-2, Article 51 and Article 51-2-2 apply mutatis if a motor vehicle is found to have been stopped or parked in violation of the preceding paragraph. In such a case, the phrase "another place on a road within 50 meters of the place where it is parked" in Article 51, paragraph (3) is deemed to be replaced with "a place that Cabinet Order prescribes", the phrase "but there is no place on the road to which it can be moved that is within 50 meters of where it is parked" in paragraph (4) of that Article is deemed to be replaced with "but it cannot be moved to a place that Cabinet Order prescribes which is referred to in the preceding paragraph" and the phrase "a parking spot, open space, place on a road other than as prescribed in paragraph (3), or other such place" in paragraph (5) of that Article is deemed to be replaced with "a place on a road other than as prescribed in paragraph (3)".
(3) A motor vehicle that is found to have been parked on a national expressway or limited highway in violation of paragraph (1) and which cannot be driven immediately because the driver has left the vicinity is deemed to be an abandoned vehicle as prescribed in paragraph (1) of Article 51-4, and that Article applies.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 119-2, paragraph (1), item (ii) and Article 119-3, paragraph (1), item (iv) apply to paragraph (1) of this Article. Article 119, paragraph (1), item (iii) apply to paragraph (2) of this Article.) 
(Traffic Distribution for Motor Vehicles Towing Heavy Towable Vehicles)
Article 75-8-2 (1) Article 20 does not apply to lanes for standard, mid-sized, semi-mid-sized, large, and special large motor vehicles with the structure and equipment for towing (hereinafter referred to as a "motor vehicle equipped for towing") that are towing heavy towable vehicles, when the motor vehicle equipped for towing is traveling on the main roadway of a limited highway (but only one as prescribed in the following paragraph) or national expressway with vehicle traffic lanes. In such a case, the following paragraph through paragraph (4) applies
(2) On the main roadway of a limited highway with vehicle traffic lanes (but only on sections designated by road signs or markings), a motor vehicle equipped for towing as referred to in the preceding paragraph must travel in the far left-hand vehicle traffic lane.
(3) On the main roadway of a national expressway with vehicle traffic lanes, a motor vehicle equipped for towing as referred to in paragraph (1) must travel in the far left-hand vehicle traffic lane (or in the vehicle traffic lane that is designated by road signs or markings).
(4) It is permissible for a motor vehicle equipped for towing as referred to in paragraph (1) not to observe the preceding two paragraphs when passing a motor vehicle traveling at a speed below the minimum speed limit as prescribed in Article 23 or Article 75-4; when continuing to travel in the vehicle traffic lane in which it has been traveling pursuant to Article 26-2, paragraph (3); when temporarily yielding the right-of-way pursuant to Article 40, paragraph (2); or when road conditions or other circumstances compel this. In such a case, the motor vehicle equipped for towing must use the vehicle traffic lane to the immediate right of any motor vehicle it is passing in order to pass that motor vehicle.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 120, paragraph (1), item (iii) and paragraph (2) of that Article apply to paragraphs (2) through (4) of this Article.) 
(Special Rules for Emergency Motor Vehicles and Other Vehicles)
Article 75-9 (1) Article 75-5, Article 75-7, and the preceding Article do not apply to an emergency motor vehicle or to a motor vehicle engaged exclusively in traffic control that Cabinet Office Order prescribes which is referred to in Article 41, paragraph (3).
(2) Article 75-4, Article 75-5, and the preceding Article do not apply to a motor vehicle designed for road maintenance work when that motor vehicle is being employed in a work such as the maintenance or repair of a road pursuant to Cabinet Order.
Section 3 Driver Responsibilities
(Rules to Be Observed by Drivers of Motor Vehicles)
Article 75-10 Before driving a motor vehicle on a national expressway or limited highway, the driver must inspect the motor vehicle's amount of fuel, coolant, and motor oil and the condition of loaded cargo and, if necessary, take measures to prevent the motor vehicle from becoming undriveable due to a shortage of fuel, coolant, or motor oil, and to prevent loaded cargo from falling or scattering from the motor vehicle on the national expressway or limited highway
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 119, paragraph (1), item (xii)-3 and paragraph (2) of that Article) 
(Measures for Malfunctions and Other Such Circumstances)
Article 75-11 (1) If, due to a malfunction or other such circumstance, the driver of a motor vehicle has become unable to drive that motor vehicle on a main roadway or in an acceleration lane, deceleration lane, or climbing lane adjoining a main roadway (hereinafter referred to as the "main roadway or adjoining lane"), or on a shoulder or side strip adjoining a main roadway or adjoining lane, the driver must indicate that the motor vehicle is stopped due to a malfunction or other such circumstance, pursuant to Cabinet Order.
(2) If, due to a malfunction or other such circumstance, the driver of a motor vehicle has become unable to drive that motor vehicle on a main roadway or adjoining lane, the driver must promptly take the necessary measures to relocate the motor vehicle to a place other than the main roadway or adjoining lane.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 120, paragraph (1), item (xii)-2 applies to paragraph (1) of this Article.) 
Chapter V Road Use; Related Considerations
Section 1 Activities Prohibited on Roads; Related Considerations
(Prohibited Activities)
Article 76 (1) It is prohibited for any person to install a traffic light, a road sign or marking, or any similar structure or object on any road without due cause.
(2) It is prohibited for any person to install any structure or object that impairs the utility of traffic lights or road signs or markings on a road.
(3) It is prohibited for any person to place an object on a road in a manner that obstructs traffic, without due cause.
(4) It is prohibited for any person to:
(i) wander around drunk on a road to an extent that obstructs traffic;
(ii) lie down, sit down, crouch, or stand on a road in a manner that obstructs traffic;
(iii) play with a ball or roller-skates or engage in any similar activity on a road with a large amount of traffic;
(iv) throw or launch a stone, glass bottle, piece of metal, or other object likely to harm a person or a vehicle or streetcar that is on a road;
(v) throw an object from a vehicle or streetcar traveling down a road, other than as set forth in the preceding item;
(vi) jump into or out of or onto or off of the exterior of a motor vehicle, trolleybus, or streetcar that is traveling down the road at the time; and
(vii) engage in any conduct specified by a public safety commission as likely to cause a road traffic hazard or an extreme obstruction to traffic due to road or traffic conditions, other than as set forth in the preceding items.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 118, paragraph (1), item (vi) and Article 123 apply to paragraphs (1) and (2) of this Article. Article 119, paragraph (1), item (xii)-4 and Article 123 apply to paragraph (3) of this Article. Article 120, paragraph (1), item (ix) apply to paragraph (4) of this Article.) 
(Permission for Road Use)
Article 77 (1) A person as referred to in one of the following items must obtain permission from the chief of the police station with jurisdiction over the place where the activity set forth in the relevant item would take place (hereinafter referred to as the "competent police station chief" in this Section; if the location of the activity would be under the jurisdiction of two or more chiefs of police under the management of the same public safety commission, the person must obtain permission from one of the competent police station chiefs; the same applies hereinafter in this Section):
(i) a person seeking to do road construction or roadwork, or the contractor for that construction or work;
(ii) a person seeking to erect a stone monument, bronze statue, advertising board, arch, or similar structure on a road;
(iii) a person seeking to open an outdoor booth, food stall, or similar shop on a road in a permanent location; and
(iv) a person, other than as set forth in the preceding items, seeking to undertake an activity such as holding a festival or filming on location on a road which would involve persons using the road by passing down it in a configuration or manner that would have a serious effect on public traffic, or seeking to undertake an activity that would cause people to gather and thereby have a serious effect on public traffic, if the public safety commission prescribes that activity as one for which a person must obtain permission, having found that this is necessary, based on area road or traffic conditions, in order to prevent road hazards or to otherwise ensure the safety and fluidity of traffic.
(2) If a person has applied for the permission referred to in the preceding paragraph and the activity that the application is for is as referred to in one of the following items, the competent police station chief must permit the activity:
(i) it is found to be unlikely to obstruct traffic;
(ii) it is found to be unlikely to obstruct traffic if it is undertaken in accordance with conditions attached to the permission; or
(iii) it is likely to obstruct traffic, but the public interest or custom serves as a compelling circumstance.
(3) On finding it to be necessary to do so, the competent police station chief who gives permission under paragraph (1) may attach to the permission the necessary conditions to prevent road hazards or otherwise ensure the safety and fluidity of traffic, unless the activity to which the permission pertains falls under item (i) of the preceding paragraph.
(4) The competent police station chief may make changes or add to the conditions attached pursuant to the preceding paragraph, if it becomes particularly necessary to do so in order to prevent road hazards or otherwise ensure the safety and fluidity of traffic.
(5) If a person that has obtained the permission under paragraph (1) violates a condition under the preceding two paragraphs or if it becomes particularly necessary to do so in order to prevent road hazards or otherwise ensure the safety and fluidity of traffic, the competent police station chief may revoke the permission or suspend its validity.
(6) Before taking a measure under the preceding paragraph with regard to a person that has violated a condition under paragraph (3) or (4), the competent police station chief must first notify the person of the date, time, and place for giving an explanation and the reason that the measure would be taken, as well as providing the person with an opportunity to submit an explanation of the matter at issue and evidence in the person's favor; provided, however, that this does not apply if circumstances urgently compel that the competent police station chief do otherwise in order to prevent a traffic hazard.
(7) A person that has obtained permission pursuant to paragraph (1) must promptly remove the structure or take other measures to restore the road to its original state if the period of the permission is of limited duration and expires, or if the permission is revoked pursuant to paragraph (5).
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 119, paragraph (1), item (xii)-4 and Article 123 apply to paragraph (1) of this Article. Article 119, paragraph (1), item (xiii) and Article 123 apply to paragraphs (3) and (4) of this Article. Article 120, paragraph (1), item (xiii) and Article 123 apply to paragraph (7) of this Article.) 
(Procedures for Permission)
Article 78 (1) A person seeking the permission under paragraph (1) of the preceding Article must submit a written application to the competent police station chief, giving the information that Cabinet Office Order prescribes.
(2) If the activity to which permission under paragraph (1) of the preceding Article pertains is subject to Article 32, paragraph (1) or (3) of the Road Act, the written application referred to in the preceding paragraph may be submitted via the administrator of the road in question. In such a case, the administrator of the road in question must promptly send the written application to the competent police station chief.
(3) The competent police station chief must issue a permit upon granting the permission under paragraph (1) of the preceding Article.
(4) A person issued a permit under the preceding paragraph must file with the competent police station chief if a piece of information written on the permit changes, and have the chief enter the information following the change on the permit.
(5) A person issued a permit pursuant to paragraph (3) may apply to the competent police station chief for its reissuance if it is lost, damaged, or defaced.
(6) Cabinet Office Order provides for the format for written applications as referred to in paragraph (1), the format for permits as referred to in paragraph (3), and other necessary details of the procedures for permission referred to in paragraph (1) of the preceding Article.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 121, paragraph (1), item (ix) applies to paragraph (4) of this Article.) 
(Consultation with Road Administrators)
Article 79 Before granting the permission under Article 77, paragraph (1), if the activity to which the permission pertains is subject to Article 32, paragraph (1) or (3) of the Road Act, the competent police station chief must first consult with the administrator of the road in question.
(Special Rules for Road Administrators)
Article 80 (1) Notwithstanding Article 77, paragraph (1), before undertaking construction or work to maintain, repair, or otherwise manage a road, it is sufficient for a road administrator under the Road Act to hold consultations with the competent police station chief.
(2) Cabinet Office Order/Order of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism prescribes the necessary particulars regarding the consultations referred to in the preceding paragraph.
Section 2 Hazard Prevention and Other Such Measures
(Measures for Illegal Structures and Objects)
Article 81 (1) The chief of a police station may order a person as referred to in one of the following items to remove, move, or repair the structure or object (hereinafter referred to in this Section as a "structure or object") that is involved in the referenced violation, discontinue the construction or work (hereinafter referred to in this Section as "construction or work") that is involved in the referenced violation, or take other necessary measures in connection with the structure or object or construction or work that is involved in the referenced violation, in order to prevent a road hazard or eliminate a traffic obstruction:
(i) a person erecting or placing a structure or object in violation of Article 76, paragraph (1) or (2);
(ii) a person placing an object in violation of Article 76, paragraph (3);
(iii) a person erecting or placing a structure or object or undertaking construction or work in violation of Article 77, paragraph (1);
(iv) a person violating a condition attached by the competent police station chief under Article 77, paragraph (3) or (4); or
(v) a person failing to remove a structure or object or to take other measures to restore the road to its original state, in violation of Article 77, paragraph (7).
(2) If unable to ascertain the name and address of the person set forth in item (i), (ii), or (iii) of the preceding paragraph, and if therefore unable to order that person to take the measures under the preceding paragraph, the chief of the police station may personally take the measures. In such a case, if the chief of the police station removes a structure or object, the chief must store it as its custodian.
(3) Having come to store a structure or object pursuant to the second sentence of the preceding paragraph, the chief of a police station must issue public notice of the information that Cabinet Order prescribes or take other necessary measures that Cabinet Order prescribes to return the structure or object to the person in possession or owner of the structure or object or to any other person holding title to the structure or object (hereinafter referred to in this Article and Article 82 as the "person in possession, owner, or holder of title").
(4) If a structure or object stored pursuant to paragraph (2) is likely to be lost or damaged, or if such a structure or object remains unreturned three months after the date of public notice as under the preceding paragraph and the cost or effort required to store it is unreasonable compared to its value as appraised pursuant to Cabinet Order, the chief of the police station may sell the structure or object and store the proceeds of the sale as the custodian thereof, pursuant to Cabinet Order.
(5) If there is no purchaser for a structure or object in a sale as under the preceding paragraph and the value of the structure or object as prescribed in that paragraph is very low, the chief of the police station may dispose of it.
(6) The proceeds of a sale undertaken pursuant to paragraph (4) may be allocated to cover the expenses required to conduct that sale.
(7) The expenses required for things such as the removal, moving, repair, retention, sale, and public notice in connection with a structure or object as prescribed in paragraphs (2) through (4) are borne by the person in possession, owner, or holder of title to whom the structure or object should be returned.
(8) The chief of the police station must set the amount, due date, and place for payment of the charges payable by the person in possession, owner, or holder of title pursuant to the preceding paragraph, and must issue a written order to that person to pay them.
(9) If a person ordered to make a payment pursuant to the preceding paragraph fails to do so before the due date, the chief of the police station must issue a written demand that fixes the due date for payment. In such a case, the chief of the police station may collect a fine for delinquency of up to the amount calculated as representing 14.5 percent per annum of the charges payable, and may collect a fee for the necessary costs of issuing the demand.
(10) If a person subject to a demand under the preceding paragraph fails to pay the charges, fines for delinquency, or fees referred to in the second sentence of that paragraph (hereinafter referred to in this Article as "charges, fines, or fees") by the fixed due date, the chief of the police station may collect the charges, fines, or fees based on the rules governing measures to collect local tax arrears. In such a case, the charges, fines, or fees follow national taxes and local taxes in order of priority as concerns statutory liens.
(11) Charges, fines, and fees paid and collected are the revenue of the prefecture where the police station is located.
(12) If a structure or object stored pursuant to paragraph (2) (or the proceed of its sale pursuant to paragraph (4); the same applies hereinafter in this paragraph) remains unreturned six months after the date of the public notice prescribed in paragraph (3), ownership of the structure or object vests in the prefecture where the police station is located.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 119, paragraph (1), item (xiv) and Article 123 apply to paragraph (1) of this Article.) 
(Measures for Spilled Loads)
Article 81-2 (1) If a load carried by a vehicle or streetcar that falls or is scattered onto a road (hereinafter referred to in this Article and Article 83 as a "spilled load") is likely to cause a traffic hazard on the road or a serious obstruction to traffic, the chief of a police station may order the person in possession or owner of the spilled load or any other person holding title to the spilled load (referred to as "person in possession, owner, or holder of title to the spilled load" in the following paragraph) to remove the spilled load or to take other necessary measures with the spilled load to prevent a road hazard or ensure that traffic runs smoothly.
(2) If unable to ascertain the name and address of the person in possession, owner, or holder of title to a spilled load in a case as referred to in the preceding paragraph, and if therefore unable to order that person to take the measures under that paragraph, the chief of the police station may personally take those measures. In such a case, if the chief of the police station removes the spilled load, the chief must retain it as its custodian.
(3) The provisions of paragraphs (3) through (12) of the preceding Article apply mutatis mutandis to spilled loads subject to measures under the preceding paragraph.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 119, paragraph (1), item (xiv) and Article 123 apply to paragraph (1) of this Article.) 
(Measures to Prevent Hazards Posed by Roadside Structures and Objects)
Article 82 (1) If a structure or object erected or placed on roadside land is likely to pose a road traffic hazard or a serious obstruction to traffic, the chief of a police station may order the person in possession, owner, or holder of title to the structure or object to remove it or take other necessary measures to prevent road traffic hazards or ensure that traffic runs smoothly.
(2) If unable to ascertain the name or address of the person in possession, owner, or holder of title to the structure or object in a case as referred to in the preceding paragraph, and if therefore unable to take the measures under that paragraph, the chief of the police station may personally take the measures. In such a case, if the chief of the police station removes the structure or object, the chief must store it as its custodian.
(3) Article 81, paragraphs (3) through (12) apply mutatis mutandis to the retention prescribed in the second sentence of the preceding paragraph.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 119, paragraph (1), item (xiv) and Article 123 apply to paragraph (1) of this Article.) 
(Stop-Gap Measures for Structures and Objects)
Article 83 (1) If a structure or object erected or placed on a road or roadside land or a spilled load is likely to cause a serious toad traffic hazard or an obstruction to traffic, and if a police officer finds it to be urgently necessary to do so, that officer may remove, move, or take other stop-gap measures regarding the structure or object or the spilled load, but only so far as is necessary to prevent a road traffic hazard or eliminate a traffic obstruction.
(2) In a case as referred to in the preceding paragraph, having removed the structure or object or spilled load, a police officer must hand it over to the chief of the police station with jurisdiction over the place where the structure or object was erected or placed or where the spilled load was located. In such a case, the chief of the police station must store the structure or object or spilled load as its custodian.
(3) Article 81, paragraphs (3) through (12) apply mutatis mutandis to the storage prescribed in the preceding paragraph.
Chapter VI Driver Licensing for Motor Vehicles and Motorized Bicycles
Section 1 General Rules
(Driver's Licenses)
Article 84 (1) A person seeking to drive a motor vehicle or ride a motorized bicycle (hereinafter referred to as a "motor vehicle or motorized bicycle") must obtain a driver's license (hereinafter referred to as a "license" or "licensing") from a public safety commission in order to do so.
(2) A license is classified as either a class 1 driver's license (hereinafter referred to as a "class 1 license"), a class 2 driver's license (hereinafter referred to as a "class 2 license"), or a provisional driver's license (hereinafter referred to as a "provisional license").
(3) Class 1 licenses are classified into 10 categories: large motor vehicle licenses (hereinafter referred to as "L-MVL"); mid-sized motor vehicle licenses (hereinafter referred to as "M-MVL"); semi-mid-sized motor vehicle licenses (hereinafter referred to as "SM-MVL"); standard motor vehicle licenses (hereinafter referred to as "S-MVL"); special large motor vehicle licenses (hereinafter referred to as "SL-MVL"); large motorcycle licenses (hereinafter referred to as "L-ML"); standard motorcycle licenses (hereinafter referred to as "S-ML"); special small motor vehicle licenses (hereinafter referred to as "SS-MVL"); motorized bicycle licenses (hereinafter referred to as "MBL"); and towing licenses.
(4) Class 2 licenses are classified into five categories: class 2 large motor vehicle licenses (hereinafter referred to as "class 2 L-MVL"); class 2 mid-sized motor vehicle licenses (hereinafter referred to as "class 2 M-MVL"); class 2 standard motor vehicle licenses (hereinafter referred to as "class 2 S-MVL"); class 2 special large motor vehicle license (hereinafter referred to as "class 2 SL-MVL"); and class 2 towing licenses.
(5) Provisional licenses are classified into four categories: provisional large motor vehicle licenses (hereinafter referred to as "provisional L-MVL"); provisional mid-sized motor vehicle licenses (hereinafter referred to as "provisional M-MVL"); provisional semi-mid-sized motor vehicle licenses (hereinafter referred to as "provisional SM-MVL"); and provisional standard motor vehicle licenses (hereinafter referred to as "provisional S-MVL").
(Class 1 Licenses)
Article 85 (1) A person seeking to drive a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle as set forth in the left-hand column of the following Table must obtain the corresponding class 1 license set forth in the right-hand column of that Table in order to do so:
Type of motor vehicle or motorized bicycle
Type of class 1 license
Large motor vehicle
L-MVL
Mid-sized motor vehicle
M-MVL
Semi-mid-sized motor vehicle
SM-MVL
Standard motor vehicle
S-MVL
Speical large motor vehicle
SL-MVL
Large motorcycle
L-ML
Standard motorcycle
S-ML
Special small motor vehicle
SS-MVL
Motorized bicycle
MBL
(2) In addition to its being permissible for a person holding a class 1 license as set forth in the right-hand column of the Table following the preceding paragraph to drive a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle of the category that the Table sets forth for that type of license, it is also permissible for such a person to drive motor vehicles and motorized bicycles of the types set forth in the right-hand column of the following Table, with the type of license set forth in the corresponding left-hand column of that Table:
Type of class 1 license
Types of motor vehicles and motorized bicycles that may be driven
L-MVL
Mid-sized motor vehicles, semi-mid-sized motor vehicles, standard motor vehicles, special small motor vehicles, and motorized bicycles
M-MVL
Semi-mid-sized motor vehicles, standard motor vehicles,special small motor vehicles, and motorized bicycles
SM-MVL
Standard motor vehicles, special small motor vehicles, and motorized bicycles
S-MVL
Special small motor vehicles and motorized bicycles
SL-MVL
Special small motor vehicles and motorized bicycles
L-ML
Standard motorcycles, special small motor vehicles, and motorized bicycles
S-ML
Special small motor vehicles and motorized bicycles
(3) In addition to obtaining a license (other than a provisional license) for a motor vehicle equipped for towing, a person seeking to drive that motor vehicle equipped for towing in order to tow a heavy towable vehicle must obtain a towing license.
(4) A person holding a towing license who also holds an L-MVL, M-MVL, SM-MVL, S-MVL, SL-MVL, class 2 L-MVL, class 2 M-MVL, class 2 S-MVL, or class 2 SL-MVL at the time in question may tow a heavy towable vehicle while driving a motor vehicle equipped for towing that the license permits the licensee to drive.
(5) Notwithstanding paragraph (2), it is not permissible for a person holding an L-MVL who is under 21 years of age or who has not held an L-MVL, M-MVL, SM-MVL, S-MVL, or SL-MVL for at least three years in total (not counting any period during which the person's license was suspended) to drive a large motor vehicle, mid-sized motor vehicle, or semi-mid-sized motor vehicle that Cabinet Order prescribes.
(6) Notwithstanding paragraph (2), it is not permissible for a person holding an M-MVL (other than a person also holding an L-MVL) who is under 21 years of age or who has not held an L-MVL, M-MVL, SM-MVL, S-MVL, or SL-MVL for at least three years in total (not counting any period during which the person's license was suspended) to drive a mid-sized motor vehicle or semi-mid-sized motor vehicle that Cabinet Order prescribes.
(7) Notwithstanding paragraph (2), it is not permissible for a person holding an SM-MVL (other than a person also holding an L-MVL or M-MVL) who is as set forth in one of the following items to drive a motor vehicle as provided in the item:
(i) a person under 21 years of age or who has not held an L-MVL, M-MVL, SM-MVL, S-MVL, or SL-MVL for at least three years in total (not counting any period during which the person's license was suspended): a semi-mid-sized motor vehicle that Cabinet Order prescribes; and
(ii) a person who has not held an L-MVL, M-MVL, SM-MVL, S-MVL, or SL-MVL for at least two years in total (not counting any period during which the person's license was suspended); a standard motor vehicle that Cabinet Order prescribes.
(8) Notwithstanding paragraph (2), it is not permissible for a person holding an S-MVL (other than a person also holding an SM-MVL) who has not held a L-MVL, M-MVL, SM-MVL, S-MVL, or SL-MVL for at least two years in total (not counting any period during which the person's license was suspended) to drive a standard motor vehicle that Cabinet Order prescribes.
(9) Notwithstanding paragraph (2), it is not permissible for a person holding an L-ML who has not held a L-ML or S-ML for at least two years in total (not counting any period during which the person's license was suspended) to drive a large motorcycle or standard motorcycle that Cabinet Order prescribes.
(10) Notwithstanding paragraph (2), it is not permissible for a person holding an S-ML (other than a person also holding an L-ML) who has not held an L-ML or S-ML for at least two years in total (not counting any period during which the person's license was suspended) to drive a standard motorcycle that Cabinet Order prescribes.
(11) Notwithstanding paragraph (2) or (4), if a motor vehicle that a person may drive pursuant to paragraph (2) is a motor vehicle used for passenger motor carrier services (hereinafter referred to as a "motor vehicle used for passenger services"), or if a heavy towable vehicle towed by a motor vehicle equipped for towing that a person may drive pursuant to paragraph (4) is a heavy towable vehicle used for passenger motor carrier services (hereinafter referred to as a "vehicle used for passenger services"), it is not permissible for a person holding a class 1 license to drive the motor vehicle used for passenger services or the motor vehicle towing the vehicle used for passenger services in order to transport passengers as a part of passenger motor carrier services.
(12) Notwithstanding paragraph (2), it is not permissible for a person holding an S-MVL, SM-MVL, M-MVL, or L-MVL to drive a motor vehicle that is to be driven by a professional designated driver as prescribed in paragraph (6) of Article 2 of the Act on Regulation of Professional Designated Driving Services (Act No. 57 of 2001) (limited to standard motor vehicles; hereinafter referred to as a "standard motor vehicle that is to be driven by a professional designated driver").
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 118, paragraph (1), item (vii) apply to paragraphs (5) through (10) of this Article.) 
(Class 2 Licenses)
Article 86 (1) A person seeking to drive a motor vehicle as set forth in the left-hand column of the following Table as a motor vehicle used for passenger services, to transport passengers as a part of passenger motor carrier services must obtain the corresponding class 2 license set forth in the right-hand column of that Table:
Type of motor vehicle
Type of class 2 license
Large motor vehicle
Class 2 L-MVL
Mid-sized or semi-mid-sized motor vehicle
Class 2 M-MVL
Standard motor vehicle
Class 2 S-MVL
Special large motor vehicle
Class 2 SL-MVL
(2) In addition to its being permissible for a person holding a class 2 license set forth in the right-hand column of the Table following the preceding paragraph to drive, for the referenced purpose, a motor vehicle of the category that the Table sets forth for that type of license; it is also permissible for such a person to drive the motor vehicles and motorized bicycles that, pursuant to paragraph (2) of the preceding Article, it is permissible to drive for a person holding the class-1-license equivalent of the class 2 license that the relevant person holds (and it is also permissible for a person holding a class 2 L-MVL to drive, for the referenced purpose, a mid-sized, semi-mid-sized, or standard motor vehicle as a motor vehicle used for passenger services; and for a person holding a class 2 M-MVL to drive, for the referenced purpose, a standard motor vehicle as a motor vehicle used for passenger services).
(3) In addition to obtaining a license (other than a provisional license) for a motor vehicle equipped for towing, a person seeking to drive that motor vehicle to tow a vehicle used for passenger services in order to transport passengers as a part of passenger motor carrier services must obtain a class 2 towing license.
(4) In addition to its being permissible for a person holding a class 2 towing license who also holds an L-MVL, M-MVL, SM-MVL, S-MVL, SL-MVL, class 2 L-MVL, class 2 M-MVL, class 2 S-MVL, or class 2 SL-MVL to drive any of the motor vehicles equipped for towing that the license permits the person to drive while towing a vehicle used for passenger services to transport passengers as a part of passenger motor carrier services, it is also permissible for that person to drive any of the motor vehicles equipped for towing that the license permits the person to drive while towing a heavy towable vehicle.
(5) A person seeking to drive a standard motor vehicle that is to be driven by a professional designated driver must obtain a class 2 S-MVL.
(6) A person holding a class 2 M-MVL or a class 2 L-MVL may drive a standard motor vehicle that is to be driven by a professional designated driver in addition to what is provided for in paragraph (2).
(Provisional Licenses)
Article 87 (1) A person who, without obtaining a class 1 or class 2 license permitting the person to drive a standard motor vehicle, seeks to drive such a motor vehicle for practice, for a driver's license test administered to test the person on the points set forth in Article 97, paragraph (1), item (ii), or for a skills evaluation to evaluate the person's motor vehicle driving skills at a designated driving school as prescribed in Article 99, paragraph (1) (referred to as a "test or evaluation" in the following paragraph) must obtain a provisional S-MVL; a person seeking to drive a semi-mid-sized motor vehicle for practice or for a test or evaluation without obtaining a class 1 or class 2 license permitting the person to drive it must obtain a provisional SM-MVL; a person seeking to drive a mid-sized motor vehicle for practice or for a test or evaluation without obtaining a class 1 or class 2 license permitting the person to drive it must obtain a provisional M-MVL; and a person seeking to drive a large motor vehicle for practice or for a test or evaluation without obtaining a class 1 or class 2 license permitting the person to drive it must obtain a provisional L-MVL.
(2) A person holding a provisional L-MVL may drive a large, mid-sized, semi-mid-sized, or standard motor vehicle; a person holding a provisional M-MVL may drive a mid-sized, semi-mid-sized, or standard motor vehicle; a person holding a provisional SM-MVL may drive a semi-mid-sized or standard motor vehicle; and a person holding a provisional S-MVL may drive a standard motor vehicle for practice or for a test or evaluation. In such a case, a person holding a provisional license and seeking to drive the motor vehicle for practice must do so under the guidance of a person who has held a class 1 license that permits that person to drive the motor vehicle for at least three years in total (not counting any period during which the person's license was suspended) (other than one whose license is suspended at the time), a person holding a class 2 license that permits that person to drive the motor vehicle (other than one whose license is suspended at the time), or a person that Cabinet Order prescribes, who is riding next to the driver's seat on equipment meant to carry a person.
(3) A person holding a provisional license who seeks to drive a motor vehicle for practice must display a mark in the format that Cabinet Office Order prescribes on the front and rear of that vehicle, pursuant to Cabinet Office Order.
(4) Notwithstanding paragraph (2), it is not permissible for a person holding a provisional license to drive a motor vehicle used for passenger services to transport passengers as a part of passenger motor carrier services.
(5) Notwithstanding paragraph (2), it is not permissible for a person holding a provisional license to drive a standard motor vehicle that is to be driven by a professional designated driver.
(6) The valid period of a provisional license is six months, counting from the date on which the person takes a provisional driver's license test administered to test the person on the points set forth in Article 97, paragraph (1), item (i) (referred to in Articles 90 and 92-2 as "fitness screening"); provided, however, that if a person holding a provisional L-MVL obtains an L-MVL or class 2 L-MVL; if a person holding a provisional M-MVL obtains a class 1 license or class 2 license that permits the person to drive a large or mid-sized motor vehicle; if a person holding a provisional SM-MVL obtains a class 1 or class 2 license that permits the person to drive a large, mid-sized, or semi-mid-sized motor vehicle; or if a person holding a provisional S-MVL obtains a class 1 or class 2 license that permits the person to drive a large, mid-sized, semi-mid-sized, or standard motor vehicle, and does so before the end of the valid period, the provisional license loses its validity.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 118, paragraph (1), item (viii) applies to paragraph (2) of this Article. Article 120, paragraph (1), item (xiv) and paragraph (2) of that Article apply to paragraph (3) of this Article.) 
Section 2 Applying for Licenses; Related Considerations
(Ineligibility for Licensing)
Article 88 (1) A class 1 or class 2 license is not granted to a person as referred to in one of the following items:
(i) a person under 21 years of age (or under 19 years of age, for persons that Cabinet Order prescribes) is not granted an L-MVL; a person under 20 years of age (or under 19 years of age, for persons that Cabinet Order prescribes) is not granted an M-MVL; a person under 18 years of age is not granted an SM-MVL, S-MVL, SL-MVL, L-ML, or towing license; and a person under 16 years of age is not granted an S-ML, SS-MVL, or MBL;
(ii) a person who has not yet had the amount of time specified pursuant to Article 90, paragraph (9) pass following the date on which that person was denied a license as under the proviso of paragraph (1) of that Article (other than on the grounds that the person falls under item (iii) or (vii) of that paragraph); a person whose license is being withheld; a person who has not yet had the amount of time specified pursuant to paragraph (10) of that Article pass following the date on which that person was denied a license pursuant to paragraph (2) of that Article; a person who has not yet had the amount of time specified pursuant to paragraph (9) of that Article pass following the date on which that person's license was revoked pursuant to paragraph (5) of that Article; a person whose license is suspended; or a person who has not yet had the amount of time specified pursuant to paragraph (10) of that Article pass following the date on which that person's license was revoked pursuant to paragraph (6) of that Article;
(iii) a person who has not yet had the amount of time specified pursuant to Article 103, paragraph (7) pass following the date on which the person's license was revoked pursuant to paragraph (1) or (4) of that Article (this is limited to a revocation in connection with what is provided in paragraph (1) of that Article (other than in item (iv))) (the amount of time so specified excludes any period of time during which the person's license was suspended pursuant to Article 103-2, paragraph (1) during the specified period, if that person's license has been revoked due to the matter at issue which resulted in the suspension); a person who has not yet had the amount of time specified pursuant to Article 103, paragraph (8) pass following the date on which the person's license was revoked pursuant to paragraph (2) or (4) of that Article (this is limited to a revocation in connection with what is provided in paragraph (2) of that Article, if the person's license has been revoked as under paragraph (4) of that Article); or a person whose license is suspended pursuant to paragraph (1) or (4) of that Article, Article 103-2, paragraph (1), Article 104-2-3, paragraph (1) or (3), or Article 103, paragraph (4) as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to paragraph (5) of that Article; or
(iv) a person prohibited from driving a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle pursuant to Article 107-5, paragraph (1) or (2), Article 103, paragraph (4) as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to Article 107-5, paragraph (9), or Article 103-2, paragraph (1) as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to paragraph (10) of Article 107-5.
(2) A provisional L-MVL is not granted to a person under 21 years of age (or under 19 years of age, for persons that Cabinet Order prescribes); a provisional M-MVL is not granted to a person under 20 years of age (or under 19 years of age, for persons that Cabinet Order prescribes); and a provisional SM-MVL or S-MVL is not granted to a person under 18 years of age.
(3) A person currently holding a license may not obtain another license of the same type.
(Applying for a License; Related Considerations)
Article 89 (1) A person seeking a license must submit a written license application in the format that Cabinet Office Order prescribes (if a person is issued a questionnaire under the following paragraph, that person must submit the written application and the questionnaire filled out with the necessary information) to the public safety commission with jurisdiction over the person's domicile (or, if a person is seeking a provisional license and undergoing instruction on how to drive a motor vehicle at a driving school that has made a filing under Article 98, paragraph (2), the domicile of the person or the locality of the driving school) and take a driver's license test administered by the public safety commission.
(2) A public safety commission as prescribed in the preceding paragraph may issue a questionnaire in the format that Cabinet Office Order prescribes to a person seeking to submit a written license application under the paragraph, in order to ask the necessary questions to determine whether the person falls under any of the categories set forth in paragraph (1), item (i) through item (ii) of the following Article.
(3) If currently undergoing instruction on how to drive a motor vehicle at a driving school, a person who has submitted a written provisional license application to the public safety commission with jurisdiction over the locality of the driving school (other than the public safety commission with jurisdiction over the locality of the person's domicile) pursuant to paragraph (1) and who holds a provisional license granted by the public safety commission may undergo an assessment administered by the public safety commission pursuant to Cabinet Office Order to assess whether the person has the necessary skills to drive a motor vehicle. In such a case, if the public safety commission finds that the person has the necessary motor vehicle driving skills, it must issue a certificate indicating this to that person, pursuant to Cabinet Office Order.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 117-4, paragraph (1), item (ii)) 
(Denial of Licenses; Other Such Measures)
Article 90 (1) A public safety commission must grant a license to a person who has passed the driver's license test referred to in paragraph (1) of the preceding Article (but only one who has undergone fitness screening in connection with that driver's license test less than one year previously, in the case of a class 1 or class 2 license; or less than three months previously in the case of a provisional license); provided, however, that, if the person is as referred to in one of the following items, the public safety commission may refrain from granting the person a license (other than a provisional license; the same applies hereinafter in this paragraph through paragraph (12)), or may withhold a license from the person for a period not exceeding six months, in keeping with the criteria that Cabinet Order prescribes:
(i) a person with one of the following illnesses;
(a) a mental illness associated with hallucinations that Cabinet Order prescribes;
(b) an illness causing impaired awareness or motor disturbances that Cabinet Order prescribes;
(c) an illness other than as set forth in (a) or (b) that Cabinet Order prescribes as likely to interfere with the safe driving of a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle.
(i)-2 a person with dementia, as prescribed in Article 5-2 of the Long-Term Care Insurance Act (Act No. 123 of 1997) (hereinafter simply referred to as "dementia" in Article 102, paragraph (1), and Article 103, paragraph (1), item (i)-2);
(ii) an alcohol, narcotics, marijuana, opium, or stimulants addict;
(iii) a person who has violated an order under paragraph (8);
(iv) a person who has engaged in conduct involving the driving of a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle that violates this Act, an order under this Act, or a measure under this Act (other than as prescribed in items (i) through (iv) of the following paragraph);
(v) a person who has abetted the driver of a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle in the commission of a material violation of this Act that Cabinet Order prescribes (hereinafter referred to in this item as a "material violation") or who has aided the driver of a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle in committing a material violation (hereinafter referred to as "aiding or abetting a material violation");
(vi) a person who has used a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle, as it is meant to be used, in a place other than on a road, but in doing so has killed or injured a person (hereinafter referred to as causing "an off-road death or injury"), other than as prescribed in item (v) of the following paragraph; or
(vii) a person subject to an order under Article 102, paragraphs (1) through (3) or subject to a notice under Article 102, paragraph (6).
(2) Notwithstanding the main clause of the preceding paragraph, a public safety commission may refuse to grant a license, in accordance with the standards that Cabinet Order prescribes, to a person as referred to in one of the following items:
(i) one who has intentionally driven a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle in a way that killed or injured a person or damaged a building;
(ii) one who has engaged in conduct that qualifies as a crime referred to in Article 2 through Article 4 of the Act on Punishment for When a Motor Vehicle Is Driven in a Way That Results in a Death or Injury (Act No. 86 of 2013);
(iii) one who, in driving a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle, has committed a violation referred to in Article 117-2, item (i) or (iii) (other than a person falling under either of the preceding two items);
(iv) one who, in driving a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle, has committed a violation referred to in Article 117;
(v) one who has intentionally caused an off-road death or injury or engaged in conduct that qualifies as a crime as referred to in Article 2 through Article 4 of the Act on Punishment for When a Motor Vehicle Is Driven in a Way That Results in a Death or Injury.
(3) The proviso to paragraph (1) does not apply to a person falling under item (iv) of that paragraph to whom Article 102-2 applies (including as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to Article 107-4-2; the same applies in Article 108-2, paragraph (1) and Article 108-3-2) unless the period prescribed in Article 102-2 passes without the person undergoing the training prescribed in that Article.
(4) Before denying or withholding a license pursuant to the proviso to paragraph (1), or before denying a license pursuant to paragraph (2), a public safety commission must first notify the person who has passed the driver's license test of the date, time, and place for giving an explanation and the reason that the measure would be taken, and provide the person with an opportunity to submit an explanation of the matter at issue and evidence in the person's favor.
(5) If, after a public safety commission grants a person a license, it becomes clear that the person fell under paragraph (1), item (iv), (v), or (vi) before having been granted the license, the commission may revoke that license or suspend it for a period of up to six months that it fixes, in accordance with the standards that Cabinet Order prescribes.
(6) If, after a public safety commission grants a person a license, it becomes clear that the person fell under one of the items of paragraph (2) before having been granted the license, the commission may revoke that license.
(7) The provisions of paragraphs (3) and (4) apply mutatis mutandis to measures taken pursuant to paragraph (5) and the preceding two paragraphs. In such a case, the phrases "the proviso to paragraph (1)" and "item (iv) of that paragraph" in paragraph (3) are deemed to be replaced with "paragraph (5)" and "paragraph (1), item (iv)", respectively, and the phrases "the proviso to paragraph (1)" and "paragraph (2)" in paragraph (4) are deemed to be replaced with "the following paragraph" and "paragraph (6)", respectively.
(8) If a public safety commission withholds a license pursuant to the proviso to paragraph (1) on the grounds that the person to whom the license would be granted falls under items (i), (ii), or (iii) of that paragraph, and if it finds that it is necessary to do so, it may order the person to undergo fitness screening on a date and at a place it designates or to submit a medical certificate that meets the requirements that Cabinet Office Order prescribes by the deadline it designates.
(9) Having denied a person a license pursuant to the proviso to paragraph (1) (other than on the grounds that the person falls under item (iii) or (vii) of that paragraph) or revoked a license pursuant to paragraph (5), a public safety commission is to fix a period not exceeding five years, in accordance with the standards that Cabinet Order prescribes, during which the person subject to those measures may not be granted a license.
(10) Having denied a person a license pursuant to paragraph (2) or revoked a license pursuant to paragraph (6), a public safety commission is to fix a period not exceeding 10 years, in accordance with the standards that Cabinet Order prescribes, during which the person subject to those measures may not be granted a license.
(11) If, at the time a person's license is revoked or suspended pursuant to paragraph (5) or at the time a person's license is revoked pursuant to paragraph (6), the person's address is within the jurisdictional district of a public safety commission other than the one taking those measures, the public safety commission taking the measures must promptly notify the public safety commission with jurisdiction over the person's domicile that it has done so.
(12) If a person whose license has been withheld pursuant to the proviso to paragraph (1) (but only if the license is withheld on the grounds that the person falls under any of items (iv) through (vi) of that paragraph) or suspended pursuant to paragraph (5) completes the training set forth in Article 108-2, paragraph (1), item (iii), the public safety commission may shorten the withholding or suspension period within the scope that Cabinet Order prescribes.
(13) Notwithstanding the main text of paragraph (1), a public safety commission, in accordance with the standards that Cabinet Order prescribes, may refuse to grant a provisional license to a person who has passed a provisional driver's license test if that person falls under paragraph (1), item (i) or (ii).
(14) The provisions of paragraph (4) apply mutatis mutandis if a public safety commission denies a person a provisional license pursuant to the preceding paragraph. In such a case, the phrase "the proviso to paragraph (1)" in paragraph (4) is deemed to be replaced with "paragraph (13)".
(Responsibilities of a Person Seeking an L-MVL or Other Type of License)
Article 90-2 (1) A person seeking a type of license set forth in one of the following items must undergo the training prescribed in the item; provided, however, that this does not apply to a person that Cabinet Order prescribes as not needing the training:
(i) for an S-MVL, SM-MVL, M-MVL, or L-MVL: the training provided for in Article 108-2, paragraph (1), items (iv) and (viii);
(ii) for an S-ML or L-ML: the training provided for in Article 108-2, paragraph (1), items (v) and (viii);
(iii) for an MBL: the training provided for in Article 108-2, paragraph (1), item (vi); or
(iv) for a class 2 S-MVL, class 2 M-MVL, or class 2 L-MVL: the training provided for in Article 108-2, paragraph (1), items (vii) and (viii).
(2) If a person who has passed a driver's license test for one of the types of license set forth in the items under the preceding paragraph (other than a person that Cabinet Order prescribes as referred to in the proviso to that paragraph) has not undergone the training prescribed in the relevant item, the public safety commission may deny the person the license.
(License Conditions)
Article 91 If a public safety commission finds it to be necessary to do so in order to prevent road hazards or otherwise ensure traffic safety, it may attach conditions to a license limiting the types of motor vehicle or motorized bicycle that the licensee may drive, attach other necessary conditions as regards the person's driving of a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle, or change those conditions, based on the licensee's physical condition or driving skills, but only so far as is necessary.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 119, paragraph (1), item (xv)) 
Section 3 Licenses; Related Considerations
(Issuance of Licenses)
Article 92 (1) Licensing is done by issuing a person a driver's license (hereinafter referred to as a "license"). In such a case, if two or more types of licensing that fall under the categories of class 1 or class 2 licenses are granted to the same person on the same day, a license for one type of licensing is to be issued with information about the other type of licensing inscribed on it, instead of separate licenses being issued for each type of licensing.
(2) If a person who is already licensed is granted a different type of licensing, a license for the different type of licensing is to be issued to the person with information about the person's currently licensing inscribed on it, in exchange for the license that the person holds at the time.
(License Validity)
Article 92-2 A class 1 or class 2 license (other than one issued pursuant to Article 107, paragraph (2); the same applies hereinafter in this paragraph) is valid until the day provided for in the right-hand column of the following Table for persons of the corresponding ages set forth in the middle column of that Table, for the corresponding categories set forth in the left-hand column of that Table:
Category of persons being issued or renewing a license
Age as of the date of renewal or reference date
Last day of validity
A driver with an exemplary record or a driver with a satisfactory record
Under 70 years of age
The final day in the one month period beginning on the driver's fifth birthday after the previous expiration date or current reference date
70 years of age
The final day in the one month period beginning on the driver's fourth birthday after the previous expiration date or current reference date
71 years of age or older
The final day in the one month period beginning on the driver's third birthday after the previous expiration date or current reference date
A driver with a violation or a short record
The final day in the one month period beginning on the driver's third birthday after the previous expiration date or current reference date
Notes:
Notes:
(i) The meanings of the terms set forth in this Table are as follows:
1. date of renewal or reference date: the date of renewal, for a license being renewed pursuant to Article 101, paragraph (6); the date that the person undergoes fitness screening pursuant to Article 101-2, paragraph (3), for a license being renewed pursuant to Article 101-2, paragraph (4); or the day before the issuee's most recent birthday prior to fitness screening (or the day on which the issuee undergoes that fitness screening, if that day is also the issuee's birthday), for a license being issued pursuant to paragraph (1) of the preceding Article to a person who was unable to renew a license as referred to in Article 101, paragraph (1) due to overseas travel, a disaster, or other compelling circumstances that Cabinet Order prescribes (but only if it has been less than six months since the day that the person's license ceased to be valid pursuant to Article 105, as a result (or only if it has been less than one month since the aforementioned compelling circumstances came to an end, if the person was unable to obtain licensing during that six-month period due to those circumstances, but only it has been less than three years since the date the license ceased to be valid)) or for a license being issued pursuant to paragraph (1) of the preceding Article to a person whose license has been revoked as under Article 103, paragraph (1) or (4) (but only if it has been revoked in connection with one of the things provided in Article 103, paragraph (1), item (i) through item (ii)) (this is limited to a person whose license was revoked less than three years prior, and excludes a person who has violated Article 117-4, item (ii) in connection with the most recent questionnaire under Article 89, paragraph (1), Article 101, paragraph (1), or Article 101-2, paragraph (1) that the person submitted before the date of revocation, and also excludes a person violating Article 107-4, item (ii) in connection with the most recent report under Article 101-5 that the person made before that date); or the date of fitness screening, for other licenses;
2. driver with an exemplary record: a person who, by the date of renewal or reference date (or by the final day of validity of a now invalid license that was issued pursuant to paragraph (1) of the preceding Article to a person who was unable to renew a license as referred to in Article 101, paragraph (1) due to overseas travel, a disaster, or other compelling circumstances that Cabinet Order prescribes (but only if it has been less than six months since the day that the person's license ceased to be valid pursuant to Article 105, as a result (or only if it has been less than one month since the aforementioned compelling circumstances came to an end, if the person was unable to obtain licensing during that six-month period due to those circumstances, but only if it has been less than three years since the date the license ceased to be valid))) or by the date of revocation, for a license being issued pursuant to paragraph (1) of the preceding Article to a person whose license has been revoked as under Article 103, paragraph (1) or (4) (but only if it has been revoked in connection with one of the things provided in Article 103, paragraph (1), item (i) through item (ii)) (this is limited to a person whose license was revoked less than three years prior, and excludes a person violating Article 117-4, item (ii) in connection with the most recent questionnaire under Article 89, paragraph (1), Article 101, paragraph (1), or Article 101-2, paragraph (1) that the person submitted before the date of revocation, and also excludes a person violating Article 107-4, item (ii) in connection with the most recent report under Article 101-5 that the person made before that date); the same applies in 4.), has been licensed (other than under a provisional license; the same applies in 4.) for a continuous period of at least five years, and who meets the criteria that Cabinet Order prescribes as a person with an exemplary record of observing the provisions of this Act and orders under this Act on the driving of motor vehicles and motorized bicycles; an exemplary record of observing measures under this Act; and an exemplary record of observing legal provisions on the aiding and abetting of material violations and on conduct causing off-road deaths and injuries;
3. driver with a satisfactory record: a person other than a driver with an exemplary record or a driver with a violation or a short record;
4. driver with a violation or a short record: a person who, by the date of renewal or reference date, has been licensed for a continuous period of at least five years, and who meets the criteria that Cabinet Order prescribes as a person with a poor record of observing the provisions of this Act and orders under this Act on the driving of motor vehicles and motorized bicycles, of observing measures under this Act, or of observing legal provisions on the aiding and abetting of material violations or on conduct causing off-road deaths and injuries; or a person who has been licensed for less than a continuous period of five years;
5. previous expiration date or current reference date: the day on which the validity of the previous license expires, for a license being renewed pursuant to Article 101, paragraph (6); the day on which the person undergoes fitness screening under paragraph (3) of that Article, for a license being renewed pursuant to Article 101-2, paragraph (4); or the day on which the person undergoes fitness screening for the license in question, for any other license.
(ii) To apply this Table if the date of renewal or reference date falls on the licensee's birthday, the phrase "the date of renewal or reference date" is deemed to be replaced with "the day before the date of renewal or reference date".
(iii) To apply this Table if the date of renewal or reference date falls during the period that runs from the day after the licensee's most recent birthday prior to the last day of validity up until the last day of validity, the phrase "the date of renewal or reference date" is deemed to be replaced with "the day before the licensee's most recent birthday before the date of renewal or reference date".
(iv) To apply Notes (i)-2 and 4 of this Table to a person who has been unable to renew a license pursuant to Article 101, paragraph (1) due to overseas travel, a disaster, or other compelling circumstances that Cabinet Order prescribes (but only if the person is being issued a new license less than six months after the day that the previous license ceased to be valid pursuant to Article 105, as a result (or only if the person is being issued a new license less than one month after the aforementioned compelling circumstances came to an end, if the person was unable to obtain licensing during that six-month period due to those circumstances, but only if it has been less than three years since the date the license ceased to be valid)), the period during which the person held the expired license and the period during which the person has held the new license is deemed to be one continuous period.
(v) To apply Notes (i)-2 and 4 of this Table to a person whose license has been revoked pursuant to Article 103, paragraph (1) or (4) (this is limited to a revocation in connection with what is provided in paragraph (1), items (i) through (ii) of that Article) (this is limited to a person obtaining a new license less than three years after the date of revocation of the previous license, and excludes a person violating Article 117-4, item (ii) in connection with the most recent questionnaire under Article 89, paragraph (1), Article 101, paragraph (1), or Article 101-2, paragraph (1) that the person submitted before the date of revocation, and also excludes a person violating Article 107-4, item (ii) in connection with the most recent report under Article 101-5 that the person made before that date), the period running from the date that the person obtained the revoked license up until the date of revocation and the period during which the person has held the new license are deemed to be one continuous period.
(vi) To apply this Table if the birthday of the licensee falls on February 29, in non-leap years, the licensee's birthday is deemed to fall on February 28.
(2) A license granted pursuant to Article 104-4, paragraph (3) is valid until the day on which the validity of a license being revoked pursuant to paragraph (2) of that Article would have expired.
(3) A license (other than as prescribed in the preceding paragraph) issued pursuant to Article 107, paragraph (2) is valid until the day on which the validity of the license that has been returned in connection with it pursuant to paragraph (1) of that Article would have expired.
(4) If the last day of one of the periods prescribed in the preceding three paragraphs falls on a Sunday or any other day that Cabinet Order prescribes, the following day is deemed to be the last day of that period.
(Information Included on a License)
Article 93 (1) The following information (other than that which Cabinet Office Order prescribes, if recording under the following Article is undertaken) is to be included on a license:
(i) license number;
(ii) licensing dates and license issuance and expiration dates;
(iii) type of license;
(iv) the licensee's registered domicile, name, address, and date of birth; and
(v) if applicable, the fact that the licensee is a driver with an exemplary record as prescribed in Note (i), 2. of the Table that follows paragraph (1) of the preceding Article (referred to simply as a "driver with an exemplary record" in Article 101, paragraph (3) and Article 101-2-2, paragraph (1)).
(2) Beyond as provided in the preceding paragraph, if a public safety commission attaches conditions to a license or changes them pursuant to Article 91, it must include information about those conditions on the license.
(3) Beyond what is prescribed in the preceding two paragraphs, Cabinet Office Order provides for license formats, information that must be included on licenses, and other necessary particulars concerning licenses.
(Recording Information on Licenses by Electronic or Magnetic Means)
Article 93-2 A public safety commission may record part of the information set forth in the items under paragraph (1) of the preceding Article or information included or displayed pursuant to paragraph (2) or (3) of that Article electronically or magnetically (meaning by electronic means, magnetic means, or any other means that cannot be perceived by the human senses), pursuant to Cabinet Office Order.
(Filing to Change Information Included on Licenses; Related Considerations)
Article 94 (1) If a piece of information set forth in one of the items of Article 93, paragraph (1) changes, the licensee must promptly file with the public safety commission with jurisdiction over the domicile thereof (if the licensee's address has changed to a different jurisdiction, the public safety commission with jurisdiction over the new domicile) and have it include (or record pursuant to the preceding Article) the current information on the license.
(2) If a license is lost, destroyed, defaced, or damaged, or if a record under the preceding Article is corrupted, the licensee may apply to the public safety commission with jurisdiction over the domicile thereof (for a provisional license, this means the domicile of the licensee or the locality of a driving school that has made a filing as under Article 98, paragraph (2) at which the licensee is undergoing instruction on how to drive a motor vehicle) for the reissuance of the license.
(3) Cabinet Office Order provides for the procedures for filing as under paragraph (1) and for the process of applying for the reissuance of a license as prescribed in the preceding paragraph.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 121, paragraph (1), item (ix) applies to paragraph (1) of this Article.) 
(Obligation to Carry and Present a License)
Article 95 (1) When driving a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle, a licensed driver must carry the license authorizing the driver to drive it.
(2) If asked by a police officer to present a license as under Article 67, paragraph (1) or (2) while operating a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle, a licensee must present this.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 121, paragraph (1), item (x) and paragraph (2) of that Article apply to paragraph (1) of this Article. Article 120, paragraph (1), item (ix) applies to paragraph (2) of this Article.) 
Section 4 Driver's License Tests
(Eligibility to Take Tests)
Article 96 (1) A person falling under one of the items of Article 88 may not take a driver's license test for a class 1 license; and a person as prescribed in paragraph (2) of that Article may not take a driver's license test for a provisional license.
(2) A person seeking to take a driver's license test for an L-MVL (other than persons that Cabinet Order prescribes) must currently hold an S-MVL, SM-MVL, M-MVL, or SL-MVL, and must have held any one of those licenses for at least three years in total (not counting any period during which the person's license was suspended).
(3) A person seeking to take a driver's license test for an M-MVL (other than persons that Cabinet Order prescribes) must currently hold an S-MVL, SM-MVL, or SL-MVL, and must have held any one of those licenses for at least two years in total (not counting any period during which the person's license was suspended).
(4) A person may not take a driver's license test for a towing license unless that person currently holds an S-MVL, M-MVL, SM-MVL, L-MVL, SL-MVL, class 2 S-MVL, class 2 M-MVL, class 2 L-MVL, or class 2 SL-MVL.
(5) A person other than as referred to in one of the following items may not take a driver's license test for a class 2 license:
(i) a person 21 years of age or older who currently holds an S-MVL, SM-MVL, M-MVL, L-MVL, or SL-MVL and has held any one of those licenses for at least three years (or two years, for persons that Cabinet Order prescribes) in total (not counting any period during which the person's license was suspended), if the test is for a class 2 license other than a class 2 towing license;
(ii) a person 21 years of age or older who currently holds an S-MVL, SM-MVL, M-MVL, L-MVL, or SL-MVL and also holds a towing license, and has held any one of those licenses for at least three years (or two years, for persons that Cabinet Order prescribes) in total (not counting any period during which the person's license was suspended), if the test is for a class 2 towing license; or
(iii) a person currently holding a different type of class 2 license from the type of class 2 license that the person is seeking.
(6) A person whose license is under suspension pursuant to Article 90, paragraph (5), Article 103, paragraph (1) or (4), Article 103-2, paragraph (1), Article 104-2-3, paragraph (1), or Article 103, paragraph (4) as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to paragraph (3) or (5) of that Article and persons that Cabinet Order prescribes as equivalent thereto are not included in the meaning of a person currently holding a license as prescribed in paragraphs (2) through (4) and in the items of the preceding paragraph.
Article 96-2 A person seeking to take a driver's license test for an S-MVL, SM-MVL, M-MVL, or L-MVL, or for a class 2 S-MVL, class 2 M-MVL, or class 2 L-MVL (other than persons that Cabinet Order prescribes) must currently hold a provisional license (meaning a provisional L-MVL, for a person seeking to take a driver's license test for an L-MVL or class 2 L-MVL; a provisional L-MVL or provisional M-MVL, for a person seeking to take a driver's license test for an M-MVL or class 2 M-MVL; or a provisional L-MVL, provisional M-MVL, or provisional SM-MVL, for a person seeking to take a driver's license test for an SM-MVL) and must have practiced driving a motor vehicle on the road on at least five days within the past three months, pursuant to Cabinet Office Order.
Article 96-3 (1) A person denied a license as under the proviso to Article 90, paragraph (1) or (2), a person whose license is revoked pursuant to paragraph (5) or (6) of that Article or Article 103, paragraph (1), (2), or (4), or a person who is prohibited from driving a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle for a period of over six months pursuant to Article 107-5, paragraph (1) or (2) or Article 103, paragraph (4) as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to Article 107-5, paragraph (9) (other than persons who have become subject to the measures in question on the grounds that they fall under Article 90, paragraph (1), item (i) through (iii) or item (vii), Article 103, paragraph (1), (i) through (iv), or Article 107-5, paragraph (1), item (i); referred to as a "person denied or stripped of driving privileges" in Article 108-2, paragraph (1), item (ii)) must have completed training as set forth in Article 108-2, paragraph (1), item (ii) within the previous one year's time (this does not include training undergone before the person became subject to the measures in question) in order to take a driver's license test (other than one for a provisional license; the same applies in the following paragraph); provided, however, that this does not apply to a person who obtains a license (other than a provisional license) after becoming subject to the relevant measures.
(2) The preceding paragraph applies mutatis mutandis to a person who has not had a license revoked as under Article 90, paragraph (5) or (6) or Article 103, paragraph (1), (2) or (4) and has not been prohibited from driving a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle for a period of over six months pursuant to Article 107-5, paragraph (1) or (2) or Article 103, paragraph (4) as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to Article 107-5, paragraph (9) (other than on the grounds that the person falls under one of Article 103, paragraph (1), items (i) through (iv) or Article 107-5, paragraph (1), item (i)) but who seeks to take a driver's license test because the person's license has ceased to be valid or because the person has ceased to hold an international driving permit or foreign driver's license (referred to as a "person who has lost driving privileges" in Article 108-2, paragraph (1), item (ii)). In such a case, in the preceding paragraph the phrase "training undergone before the person became subject to the measures in question" is deemed to be replaced with "training undergone before the license ceased to be valid or before the person ceased to hold an international driving permit or foreign driver's license" and the phrase "after becoming subject to the relevant measures" is deemed to be replaced with "after the license ceased to be valid or after the person ceased to hold an international driving permit or foreign driver's license".
(How Driver's License Tests Are Administered)
Article 97 (1) Driver's license tests are administered to test persons on the points set forth in the following items for each type of license (this means covering the points set forth in items (i) and (iii), in the case of a driver's license test for an SS-MVL or MBL, and the points set forth in items (i) and (ii), in the case of a driver's license test for a towing license):
(i) the fitness needed to drive a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle;
(ii) the skills needed to drive a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle; and
(iii) the knowledge needed to drive a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle.
(2) The part of a driver's license test for an S-MVL, SM-MVL, M-MVL, L-MVL, class 2 S-MVL, class 2 M-MVL, or class 2 L-MVL covering the point set forth in item (ii) of the preceding paragraph is to be administered on the road; provided, however, that this does not apply to any portion of a driver's license test that Cabinet Office Order prescribes as likely to hinder road traffic.
(3) The part of the driver's license test covering the point set forth in paragraph (1), item (iii) is administered within the scope of the rules of the road prepared by the National Public Safety Commission pursuant to Article 108-28, paragraph (4).
(4) Beyond what is prescribed in the preceding three paragraphs, Cabinet Office Order provides for the procedures for implementing driver's license tests, the way they are implemented, and other necessary particulars concerning them.
(Exemption from Driver's License Tests)
Article 97-2 (1) A person as referred to in one of the following items is exempt from taking the part of the driver's license test that is prescribed in that item:
(i) a person who has a certificate as prescribed in the second sentence of Article 89, paragraph (3), if it has been less than one year since the date on which the person underwent the assessment prescribed in that paragraph: the part of the driver's license test covering the point set forth in paragraph (1), item (ii) of the preceding Article for an S-MVL, SM-MVL, M-MVL, or L-MVL, as determined by the category of provisional license held by the person at the time of the test;
(ii) a person who has a certificate of graduation as prescribed in Article 99-5, paragraph (5) (but only one accompanied by a certificate prepared by a skills evaluator as prescribed in the second sentence of that paragraph), if it has been less than one year since the date on which the person underwent the skills evaluation in connection with which the certificate of graduation was issued, or a person who has a certificate of completion as prescribed in that paragraph (but only one accompanied by a certificate prepared by a skills evaluator as prescribed in the second sentence of that paragraph; this excludes one that Cabinet Order prescribes), if it has been less than three months since the date on which the person underwent the skills evaluation in connection with which the certificate of completion was issued: the part of the driver's license test covering the point set forth in paragraph (1), item (ii) of the preceding Article for the license in connection with which the certificate of graduation or certificate of completion was issued;
(iii) a person who has failed to renew a license as referred to in Article 101, paragraph (1) (other than persons that Cabinet Order prescribes), if it has been less than six months since the date on which the license ceased to be valid pursuant to Article 105 (or, for a person who was unable to take a driver's license test within that six-month period due to overseas travel, a disaster, or other compelling circumstances that Cabinet Order prescribes, if it has been less than one month since the date on which those compelling circumstances came to an end, but only if it has been less than three years since the expiration date) (such a person is referred to in Article 108-2, paragraph (1), items (xi) and (xii) as a "specified holder of an expired license"), and who has undergone the assessment and training that the following prescribes for each of the following categories, pursuant to Cabinet Office Order: the driver's license test for the license that the person held (other than the part of the driver's license test covering the point set forth in paragraph (1), item (i) of the preceding Article):
(a) a person 75 years of age or older as of the date of submitting the application for the license pursuant to Article 89, paragraph (1): assessment of the person's memory function and other cognitive functions prescribed in Article 5-2 of the Long-Term Care Insurance Act (hereinafter referred to as "cognitive functions") that is administered by a public safety commission pursuant to Cabinet Office Order (hereinafter such an assessment is referred to as a "cognitive assessment") and the training set forth in Article 108-2, paragraph (1), item (xii) that is implemented based on the results of the cognitive assessment;
(b) a person 70 years of age or older as of the date of submitting the application for the license pursuant to pursuant to Article 89, paragraph (1) (other than one as set forth in (a)): the training set forth in Article 108-2, paragraph (1), item (xii);
(c) a person other than as set forth in subitems (a) and (b) above: the training set forth in Article 108-2, paragraph (1), item (xi), or training under paragraph (2) of that Article that meets the criteria prescribed in Rules of the National Public Safety Commission.
(iv) a person who has failed to renew a license as referred to in Article 101, paragraph (1) that allowed the person to drive a standard, semi-mid-sized, mid-sized, or large motor vehicle (other than persons specified by the Cabinet Order referred to in the preceding item), if it has been more than six months but less than one year since the date on which the license ceased to be valid pursuant to Article 105: a driver's license test covering the points set forth in paragraph (1), items (ii) and (iii) of the preceding Article for the provisional S-MVL, provisional SM-MVL, provisional M-MVL, or provisional L-MVL in the same category as the license that the person had held; or
(v) a person whose license has been revoked as under Article 103, paragraph (1) or (4) (this is limited to a revocation in connection with what is provided in paragraph (1), item (i) through (ii) of that Article) (this excludes a person violating Article 117-4, item (ii) in connection with the most recent questionnaire under Article 89, paragraph (1), Article 101, paragraph (1), or Article 101-2, paragraph (1) that the person submitted before the date of revocation, a person violating Article 107-4, item (ii) in connection with the most recent report under Article 101-5 that the person made before that date, and other persons that Cabinet Order prescribes) if it has been less than 3 years since the day on which the person's license was revoked (referred to as a "specified person stripped of driving privileges" in Article 108-2, paragraph (1), items (xi) and (xii)), and who has undergone the relevant assessment and training prescribed in (a) through (c) of item (iii) for the category set forth in that item, pursuant to Cabinet Office Order: a driver's license test for the license that the person had held (other than the part of the test covering the point set forth in paragraph (1), item (i) of the preceding Article).
(2) Beyond what is prescribed in the preceding paragraph, if a person seeking a license holds a license to drive a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle from an administrative agency or authorized organization in a country or region outside Japan, a public safety commission may exempt the person, pursuant to Cabinet Office Order, from taking part of a driver's license test, after confirming that there is nothing to prevent that person from driving a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle that the license the person is seeking would be for.
(3) Beyond what is prescribed in the preceding two paragraphs, if a public safety commission, in accordance with the standards that Cabinet Order prescribes, finds that there is nothing to prevent that person from driving a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle, it may exempt the person from taking part of the driver's license test.
(Stopping Driver's License Tests; Related Considerations)
Article 97-3 (1) If a person has taken or begun to take a driver's license test by wrongful means, a public safety commission may stop the driver's license test or reverse its decision that the person has passed.
(2) A public safety commission that reverses its decision that a person has passed a driver's license test pursuant to the preceding paragraph must immediately notify that person. In such a case, the license that the driver's license test was for ceases to be valid on the date on which the person receives the notice.
(3) A public safety commission may prohibit a person subject to the measures under paragraph (1) from taking driver's license tests for a period of one year or less that it fixes, based on the circumstances.
Section 4-2 Driving Schools
(Driving Schools)
Article 98 (1) A person operating or managing a driving school (meaning a facility that provides instruction on motor vehicle driving skills and knowledge to persons seeking licenses; the same applies hereinafter) must endeavor to maintain and improve the standards of motor vehicle driving instruction provided at the driving school.
(2) A person operating or managing a driving school may file the following information with the public safety commission with jurisdiction over the location of the driving school, pursuant to Cabinet Office Order:
(i) the name and address of the person and, if it is a corporation, the name of its representative;
(ii) the name and location of the driving school; and
(iii) information that Cabinet Office Order prescribes beyond what is set forth in the preceding two items.
(3) A public safety commission must give the necessary guidance or advice to a person operating or managing a driving school that has made a filing as under the preceding paragraph, in keeping with the style of instruction at the driving school, in order to ensure that motor vehicle driving instruction meets the proper standards.
(4) If it finds it to be necessary, a public safety commission that has given the guidance or advice referred to in the preceding paragraph may request that the Japan Safe Driving Center give the necessary consideration to training employees in charge of instruction in motor vehicle driving skills or knowledge at the driving school in connection with the guidance or advice, and to other measures for improving the quality of those employees.
(5) Pursuant to Cabinet Office Order, a public safety commission may ask a person operating or managing a driving school that has made a filing as under paragraph (2) to report as necessary or submit the necessary materials, but only so far as is necessary to give the guidance or advice referred to in paragraph (3).
(Designation of Designated Driving Schools)
Article 99 (1) A public safety commission may designate, as a designated driving school, a driving school that has made a filing as under paragraph (2) of the preceding Article; that provides instruction in motor vehicle driving skills and knowledge to persons seeking certain types of licenses (limited to those that Cabinet Order prescribes); and that conforms to the following criteria for employees, installations, and the like with respect to instruction, at the application of the person operating or managing the driving school:
(i) the person managing the driving school meets the requirements that Cabinet Order prescribes;
(ii) the school has an employee who has been issued a skills evaluator certificate as referred to in paragraph (4) of the following Article, whom it will appoint as a skills evaluator pursuant to paragraph (1) of that Article;
(iii) the school has an employee who has been issued an instructor certificate as referred to in Article 99-3, paragraph (4), whom it will appoint as an instructor pursuant to paragraph (1) of that Article; and
(iv) the facilities for instruction in motor vehicle driving skills and knowledge, as well as for skills evaluations (meaning evaluations on motor vehicle driving skills conducted pursuant to Cabinet Office Order; the same applies hereinafter) meet the criteria that Cabinet Order prescribes;
(v) the driving school's operations meet the criteria that Cabinet Order prescribes.
(2) A public safety commission must not grant a designation under the preceding paragraph to a driving school that has filed an application as referred to in that paragraph if it has had its designation revoked pursuant to Article 100 and it has been less than three years since the date of revocation.
(Skills Evaluators)
Article 99-2 (1) A person managing a designated driving school must appoint a skills evaluator to conduct skills evaluations.
(2) A person who has not been issued a skills evaluator certificate as referred to in paragraph (4) may not become a skills evaluator.
(3) To apply the Penal Code and other penal provisions, skills evaluators are deemed to be employees engaged in public service pursuant to laws and regulations.
(4) A public safety commission issues a skills evaluator certificate to a person falling under both of the following items:
(i) one who is either of the following:
(a) a person who has passed a screening administered by a public safety commission on the skills and knowledge involved in undertaking skills evaluations, pursuant to Rules of the National Public Safety Commission;
(b) a person who has completed a course in motor vehicle driving instruction offered by the Japan Safe Driving Center as designated by the National Public Safety Commission;
(c) a person whom the public safety commission finds, pursuant to Rules of the National Public Safety Commission, has at least the same level of skills and knowledge as regards skills evaluations as a person set forth in (a) or (b). and
(ii) one who is none of the following:
(a) under 25 years of age;
(b) a person who has committed a wrongful act in connection with the issuance of a certificate of graduation or completion as prescribed in Article 99-5, paragraph (5) within the past three years;
(c) a person who been sentenced to a fine or heavier punishment for committing an offense as referred to in Article 117-2-2, item (xi), if it has been less than three years since the day on which the person completed the sentence or ceased to be subject to its execution;
(d) a person who has been sentenced to imprisonment without work or a heavier punishment for committing an offense as referred to in Article 2 through Article 6 of the Act on Punishment for When a Motor Vehicle Is Driven in a Way That Results in a Death or Injury or an offense prescribed in this Act (other than the offense referred to in Article 117-2-2, item (xi)) in connection with that person's driving of a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle, if it has been less than three years since the day on which the person completed the sentence or ceased to be subject to its execution;
(e) a person to whom item (ii) or (iii) of the following paragraph applies, who has been ordered to return a skills evaluator certificate pursuant to the following paragraph, if it has been less than three years since the date of return.
(5) A public safety commission, pursuant to Rules of the National Public Safety Commissions, may order a person who has been issued a skills evaluator certificate as referred to in the preceding paragraph to return that certificate if it finds that one of the following items applies:
(i) any of (b) through (d) of item (ii) of the preceding paragraph has come to apply to the person;
(ii) the person was issued the skills evaluator certificate through deception or other wrongful means; or
(iii) the person has committed a wrongful act in connection with the duties of a skills evaluator, under circumstances found to be unbecoming of a skills evaluator.
(6) Beyond what is prescribed in the preceding two paragraphs, Rules of the National Public Safety Commission provide for the necessary particulars in connection with skills evaluator certificates as referred to in paragraph (4).
(Instructors)
Article 99-3 (1) The person managing a designated driving school must appoint an instructor to provide instruction in motor vehicle driving skills and knowledge.
(2) A person who has not been issued an instructor certificate as referred to in paragraph (4) may not become an instructor.
(3) A person managing a designated driving school must not allow a person other than an instructor to provide instruction in motor vehicle driving skills or knowledge.
(4) A public safety commission issues an instructor certificate to a person falling under both of the following items:
(i) one who is either of the following:
(a) a person who has passed a screening administered by a public safety commission on the skills and knowledge involved in instructing persons on the skills and knowledge involved in driving motor vehicles, pursuant to Rules of the National Public Safety Commission;
(b) a person who has completed a course in motor vehicle driving instruction offered by the Japan Safe Driving Center as designated by the National Public Safety Commission;
(c) a person whom the public safety commission finds, pursuant to Rules of the National Public Safety Commission, has at least the same level of skills and knowledge in instructing persons on the skills and knowledge involved in driving motor vehicles as a person set forth in (a) or (b); and
(ii) one who is none of the following:
(a) under 21 years of age;
(b) a person to whom paragraph (5), item (ii) or (iii) of the preceding Article applies mutatis mutandis pursuant to the following paragraph, who has been ordered to return an instructor certificate pursuant to paragraph (5) of the preceding Article as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to the following paragraph, if it has been less than three years since the date of the return;
(c) a person to whom any of paragraph (4), item (ii), subitems (b) through (d) of the preceding Article applies.
(5) The provisions of paragraphs (5) and (6) of the preceding Article apply mutatis mutandis to instructor certificates. In such a case, the term "skills evaluator" in paragraph (5), item (iii) of that Article is deemed to be replaced with "instructor".
(Training for Employees)
Article 99-4 If a person managing a designated driving school is notified by a public safety commission that it will conduct training as set forth in Article 108-2, paragraph (1), item (ix) for the employees of the designated driving school, that person must have the employees undergo that training.
(Skills Evaluations)
Article 99-5 (1) A person managing a designated driving school must have a skills evaluator conduct a skills evaluation, pursuant to Cabinet Office Order, for each type of license as prescribed in Article 99, paragraph (1) for persons who have completed instruction in motor vehicle driving skills and knowledge.
(2) A person managing a designated driving school must not allow a skills evaluator to administer a skills evaluation for a person who has not completed the instruction prescribed in the preceding paragraph.
(3) A person managing a designated driving school must not allow a person other than a skills evaluator to administer a skills evaluation.
(4) A skills evaluator must certify that a person who has passed a skills evaluation, has passed a skills evaluation.
(5) Once a skills evaluator has certified that a person has passed a skills evaluation as referred to in the preceding paragraph, the designated driving school may issue a certificate of graduation (meaning a certificate showing that the person has completed instruction at the designated driving school; the same applies hereinafter) or a certificate of completion (meaning a certificate showing that the person has achieved a level of skills and knowledge that would allow the person to drive with a provisional license, as a result of receiving instruction at a designated driving school; the same applies hereinafter) to that person in the format that Cabinet Office Order prescribes,, pursuant to Cabinet Office Order. In such a case, the certificate of graduation or completion must be accompanied by a certificate prepared by the skills evaluator showing that the person whose certificate of graduation or completion it is has passed a skills evaluation, pursuant to Cabinet Office Order.
(Reporting and Inspection)
Article 99-6 (1) A public safety commission may ask a person operating or managing a designated driving school to report or submit materials on the business activities of the designated driving school or have a police official enter the designated driving school to inspect documents and other items or to question relevant persons, but only so far as is necessary to enforce this Section.
(2) Police officials conducting on-site inspections pursuant to the preceding paragraph must carry identification and present it at the request of a relevant person.
(3) The authority for an on-site inspection under paragraph (1) must not be construed as authorizing a criminal investigation.
(Orders for Conformity; Supervisory Orders)
Article 99-7 (1) If a public safety commission finds that a designated driving school no longer conforms to any of the criteria set forth in the items of Article 99, paragraph (1), it may order the person operating or managing the designated driving school to take the necessary measures to ensure that it conforms to that criteria.
(2) Beyond what is prescribed in the preceding paragraph, a public safety commission may issue orders that are necessary, from a supervisory perspective, with regard to the business activities of a designated driving school, to the person operating or managing the designated driving school, but only so far as is necessary to enforce this Section.
(Rescission of Designation as a Designated Driving School; Other Measures)
Article 100 (1) If a person managing a designated driving school violates Article 99-3, paragraph (3), Article 99-4, or Article 99-5, paragraph (2) or (3); if a designated driving school issues a certificate of graduation or completion in violation of Article 99-5, paragraph (5); or if a person operating or managing a designated driving school violates an order under the preceding Article, the public safety commission may revoke the designation of the designated driving school, or may prohibit it from issuing certificates of graduation or completion based on the instruction it provides for a period of up to six months that it fixes.
(2) If a designated driving school subject to measures that prohibit it from issuing certificates of graduation or completion pursuant to the preceding paragraph issues a certificate of graduation or completion in violation of those measures, the public safety commission may revoke its designation or may extend the period during which it is prohibited from issuing certificates of graduation or completion by up to six months.
Section 4-3 Retesting
(Retesting)
Article 100-2 (1) A person holding an S-MVL, SM-MVL, S-ML, L-ML, or MBL who, during the period (not counting any period during which the person's license is suspended) running from the date on which the person is licensed until the date that marks the passage of one year, in total, that the person has been licensed (hereinafter referred to as the "period during which the person is a novice driver"), engages in conduct that violates this Act, an order under this Act, or a measure under this Act when driving a vehicle that the person is licensed to drive with that license, and the violation falls under the criteria that Cabinet Order prescribes with respect to the person's license (hereinafter such a person is referred to as "target novice driver"), a public safety commission is to administer testing to check whether the target novice driver has the ability to safely drive vehicles the person is licensed to drive with that license (hereinafter referred to as "retesting"); provided, however, that this does not apply to the following persons:
(i) a person who has held a license of a higher grade at some point within the six months before the day on which the person came to hold the license in question;
(ii) a person who has held the same type of license (including a license that Cabinet Order prescribes as equivalent to the license in question and excluding a license revoked pursuant to Article 104-2-2, paragraph (1), (2), or (4) or a license that Cabinet Order prescribes as equivalent to such a revoked license) at some point within the six months before the day on which the person came to hold the license in question, and who held that license for at least one year in total (other than any period during which that license was suspended);
(iii) a person who has obtained a license of a higher grade than the license in question after the date on which the person obtained the license in question;
(iv) a person who completes the training set forth in Article 108-2, paragraph (1), item (x) (other than a person engaging in conduct that violates this Act, an order under this Act, or a measure under this Act when driving a vehicle that the person is licensed to drive with the license in question, between the completion of the training and the end of the period during which the person is a novice driver, if that violation falls under the criteria that Cabinet Order prescribes with regard to the license in connection with which the person has undergone the training); or
(v) if the license in question is an SM-MVL, a person who also holds an S-MVL, and who had held that S-MVL for a total period of at least two years before obtaining the SM-MVL (not counting any period during which that license was suspended).
(2) Once the period during which a target novice driver is a novice driver driving under the license in question has passed, the public safety commission with jurisdiction over the driver's domicile at the end of that period retests the driver for the necessary skills and knowledge (limited to the necessary knowledge, if it is an MBL) to drive a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle, for each type of license.
(3) Article 97, paragraphs (2) through (4) apply mutatis mutandis to retesting administered by public safety commissions.
(4) Before administering retesting pursuant to paragraph (1), a public safety commission must notify the target novice driver in writing that it will administer the retesting, giving the reasons for the retesting and other necessary information, promptly after the end of the period during which the person is a novice driver driving under the license in question, pursuant to Cabinet Office Order.
(5) Having been notified of retesting by a public safety commission (meaning having been notified as under the preceding paragraph; the same applies hereinafter), a target novice driver must submit the written application for retesting that Cabinet Office Order prescribes to the public safety commission and undergo retesting by the time that it has been a total of one month since the day following the date on which the person is so notified (other than any period during which the person has a compelling circumstance that Cabinet Order prescribes for not undergoing the retesting). Article 92-2, paragraph (4) applies mutatis mutandis in such a case.
Article 100-3 (1) If a public safety commission seeks to administer retesting but the target novice driver has changed addresses and resides within the jurisdictional district of a different public safety commission, it must promptly send a testing transfer notice as Cabinet Office Order prescribes to the public safety commission with jurisdiction over the target novice driver's new domicile.
(2) A public safety commission that has been sent a testing transfer notice as referred to in the preceding paragraph is to retest the target novice driver subject to the testing transfer notice. This being the case, a public safety commission sending a testing transfer notice as referred to in the preceding paragraph may not retest the target novice driver.
(3) The provisions of paragraph (4) of the preceding Article and paragraph (1) of this Article apply mutatis mutandis if a public safety commission administers retesting pursuant to the preceding paragraph. In such a case, the phrase "after the end of the period during which the person is a novice driver driving under the license in question" in paragraph (4) of the preceding Article is deemed to be replaced with "after having been sent a testing transfer notice".
(4) If a public safety commission seeks to implement retesting pursuant to paragraph (2) and the public safety commission sending the testing transfer notice under paragraph (1) has notified the target novice driver subject to the testing transfer notice of the retesting, the public safety commission seeking to implement the retesting pursuant to paragraph (2) is deemed to have notified the driver of the retesting.
Section 5 License Renewal; Related Considerations
(License Renewals and Periodic Screenings)
Article 101 (1) A person seeking to renew a license (hereinafter referred to as a "license renewal") must submit a written application for renewal in the format that Cabinet Office Order prescribes (if a person is issued a questionnaire under paragraph (4), that person must submit the written application for renewal and the questionnaire filled out with the necessary information; the same applies in paragraph (5) and Article 101-2-2, paragraphs (1) through (3)) to the public safety commission with jurisdiction over the person's domicile, during the period that runs from one month before the person's most recent birthday prior to the last day of the license's validity up until the last day of the license's validity (hereinafter referred to as the "renewal period").
(2) To apply the preceding paragraph if the birthday of a person seeking license renewal pursuant to that paragraph falls on February 29, in non-leap years, the person's birthday is deemed to fall on February 28.
(3) A public safety commission is to send a person currently holding a license a document specifying the renewal period and other necessary information to ensure the smooth implementation of administrative functions connected with applications for license renewals (if the person falls within the definition of a driver with an exemplary record (other than a person that Cabinet Office Order prescribes whose license is subject to a condition that has been attached pursuant to Article 91, or a person considered a driver with an exemplary record based on the application of Note (iv) of the Table following Article 92-2, paragraph (1)) as of the renewal date, an indication of this is to be included).
(4) A public safety commission as prescribed in paragraph (1) (or an intermediate public safety commission as prescribed in Article 101-2-2, paragraph (1), if an application for renewal under paragraph (1) is made through an intermediate public safety commission) may issue a questionnaire in the format that Cabinet Office Order prescribes to a person submitting an application for renewal pursuant to paragraph (1), in order to ask the necessary questions to determine whether the person falls under any of the categories set forth in Article 103, paragraph (1), item (i), (i)-2 or (iii).
(5) Upon receiving a written application for renewal pursuant to paragraph (1), a public safety commission must promptly administer the necessary fitness screening as regards the applicant's driving of motor vehicles or motorized bicycles (hereinafter referred to as "fitness screening").
(6) If a public safety commission finds that there is nothing to prevent a person seeking to renew a license from driving a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle, judging from the results of fitness screening as under the preceding paragraph or the contents of a document as prescribed in Article 101-2-2, paragraph (3) (or, if fitness screening is administered pursuant to paragraph (5) of that Article, the contents of the document and the results of the fitness screening), the public safety commission must renew the license.
(7) Beyond what is prescribed in the preceding paragraphs, Cabinet Office Order provides for the necessary particulars concerning applying for license renewal and fitness screening.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 117-4, item (ii) applies to paragraph (1) of this Article.) 
(Special Rules on License Renewal)
Article 101-2 (1) A person who is expected to have difficulty undergoing fitness screening within the renewal period due to overseas travel or any other compelling circumstance that Cabinet Order prescribes may apply to the public safety commission with jurisdiction over the domicile thereof for a license renewal before the beginning of the renewal period. In such a case, the person must submit a written application for renewal based on special rules in a format that Cabinet Office Order prescribes (if a person is issued a questionnaire under the following paragraph, that person must submit the written application for renewal based on special rules and the questionnaire filled out with the necessary information) to the public safety commission.
(2) A public safety commission as prescribed in the preceding paragraph may issue a questionnaire in the form that Cabinet Office Order prescribes to a person submitting a written application for renewal based on special rules pursuant to the second sentence of that paragraph, in order to ask the necessary questions to determine whether the person falls under any of the categories set forth in Article 103, paragraph (1), item (i), (i)-2 or (iii).
(3) When an application under paragraph (1) has been filed, the public safety commission must promptly administer a fitness screening for the applicant.
(4) On finding that there is nothing to prevent a person seeking to renew a license from driving a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle, judging from the results of a fitness screening under the preceding paragraph, a public safety commission must promptly renew the license.
(5) Beyond what is prescribed in the preceding paragraphs, Cabinet Office Order provides for the necessary particulars concerning applying for license renewal and fitness screenings before the beginning of the renewal period.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 117-4, item (ii) applies to paragraph (1) of this Article.) 
(Special Rules on Renewal Applications)
Article 101-2-2 (1) A person seeking license renewal who qualifies as a driver with an exemplary record as of the renewal date (but only one who has been sent a document indicating that person to qualify as a driver with an exemplary record as of the renewal date pursuant to Article 101, paragraph (3)) may submit a written application for renewal pursuant to paragraph (1) of that Article through a public safety commission other than the public safety commission with jurisdiction over the domicile thereof (hereinafter referred to in this Article and the following Article as an "intermediate public safety commission") if that person applies for a license renewal by the most recent birthday of that person before the expiration date of the license.
(2) An intermediate public safety commission accepts a written application for renewal pursuant to the preceding paragraph must promptly administer fitness screening for the applicant.
(3) An intermediate public safety commission must send the public safety commission with jurisdiction over the domicile of the applicant a document giving the results of the fitness screening under the preceding paragraph, together with the written application for renewal it accepted pursuant to paragraph (1). In such a case, the public safety commission with jurisdiction over the domicile of the applicant is not to conduct the fitness screening under paragraph (5) of Article 101.
(4) If a person seeking to renew a license has undergone training as set forth in Article 108-2, paragraph (1), item (xi) that is implemented by an intermediate public safety commission pursuant to paragraph (1) of the following Article, the intermediate public safety commission is to notify the public safety commission with jurisdiction over the person's domicile of this.
(5) If a public safety commission cannot determine solely from the contents of a document it has been sent pursuant to paragraph (3) whether there is anything to prevent a person seeking to renew a license from driving a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle, it is to administer fitness screening for that person. In such a case, the public safety commission must notify the person of the necessity to undergo fitness screening.
(Obligations of Persons Seeking Renewal)
Article 101-3 (1) A person seeking a license renewal must undergo the training set forth in Article 108-2, paragraph (1), item (xi) that is implemented by the public safety commission with jurisdiction over the person's domicile (or by the public safety commission with jurisdiction over the person's domicile or an intermediate public safety commission, in a case as referred to in paragraph (1) of the preceding Article; the same applies in paragraph (1) and (2) of the following Article); provided, however, that this does not apply to a person who has undergone the training set forth in Article 101-2, paragraph (1), item (xii) within six months before the final day in the renewal period (or by the application date, for a person seeking to apply for license renewal as under Article 101-2, paragraph (1); the same applies in paragraphs (1) and (2) of the following Article and Article 108-2, paragraph (1), item (xii)), nor does it apply to any other person that Cabinet Order prescribes as not needing to undergo the training set forth in item (xi) of that paragraph.
(2) Notwithstanding Article 101, paragraph (6) or Article 101-2, paragraph (4), if a person (other than one that Cabinet Order prescribes as referred to in the proviso to the preceding paragraph) whom a public safety commission finds there to be nothing to prevent from driving a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle based on the results of a fitness screening under Article 101, paragraph (5) or Article 101-2, paragraph (3), or based on the contents of a document as prescribed in paragraph (3) of the preceding Article (or, if fitness screening is administered pursuant to paragraph (5) of that Article, the contents of the document and the results of the fitness screening) does not undergo the training set forth in Article 108-2, paragraph (1), item (xi), the public safety commission may refuse to renew the license.
(Special Rules for Persons 70 Years of Age and Older)
Article 101-4 (1) A person seeking a license renewal who will be 70 years of age or older as of final day of the renewal period must undergo the training set forth in Article 108-2, paragraph (1), item (xii) that is implemented by the public safety commission with jurisdiction over the person's domicile, within six months before the final day of the renewal period; provided, however, that this does not apply to a person that Cabinet Order prescribes as not needing that training.
(2) Other than when as prescribed in the preceding paragraph, a person seeking a license renewal who is 75 years of age or older as of the final day of the renewal period must undergo a cognitive assessment administered by the public safety commission with jurisdiction over the person's domicile within six months before the final day in the renewal period. In such a case, the public safety commission must implement the training referred to in that paragraph for that person based on the results of the cognitive assessment.
(3) A public safety commission must send a person as set forth in one of the following items a document giving the information referred to in the relevant item:
(i) a person currently holding a license who will be 70 years of age or older but under 75 on the final day in the renewal period: an indication that the person must undergo training pursuant to paragraph (1) during the six months before the final day of the renewal period; the available dates, times, and places for that training; and other necessary information for ensuring the smooth implementation of administrative functions connected with that training; and
(ii) a person currently holding a license who will be 75 years of age or older on the final day of the renewal period: the information referred to in the preceding item; the requirement to take a cognitive assessment pursuant to the preceding paragraph during the six months before the final day in the renewal period; the available dates, times, and places for the cognitive assessment; and other necessary information for ensuring the smooth implementation of administrative functions connected with cognitive assessments.
(Requesting Licensees to Report)
Article 101-5 Pursuant to Cabinet Office Order, a public safety commission may ask a licensee to report as needed, upon finding this to be necessary in order to investigate whether the licensee falls under one of the categories set forth in Article 103, paragraph (1), item (i), (i)-2 or (iii) .
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 117-4, item (ii)) 
(Reporting by Medical Doctors)
Article 101-6 (1) If a medical doctor finds that a person whom the doctor has examined falls under one of the categories set forth in Article 103, paragraph (1), item (i), (i)-2 or (iii) and learns that the person has a license or holds an international driving permit or foreign driver's license as referred to in Article 107-2 (this excludes a person whose period of stay counting from the date of landing in Japan (meaning landing as prescribed in Article 107-2) is over one year in total), the doctor may report the results of the person's examination to a public safety commission.
(2) In a case as provided in the preceding paragraph, if the medical doctor asks a public safety commission to confirm whether a person examined thereby has a license, the public safety commission must respond to the inquiry.
(3) The provisions of the Penal Code dealing with criminal breach of confidence and other legal provisions on the duty of confidentiality must not be construed as preventing a person from submitting a report under paragraph (1).
(4) Having received a report under paragraph (1) regarding a person living outside the boundaries of the prefecture over which it has jurisdiction, a public safety commission must report the content of that report to the public safety commission with jurisdiction over the domicile of the person.
(Special Cognitive Assessments; Other Measures)
Article 101-7 (1) If a person 75 years of age or older (but only one who currently has a license) engages in conduct involving the driving of a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle that Cabinet Order prescribes as readily occurring when cognitive function has declined, and in doing so violates this Act, an order under this Act, or a measure under this Act, unless that person underwent a cognitive assessment pursuant to Article 97-2, paragraph (1), item (iii) or (v), Article 101-4, paragraph (2), or paragraph (3) of this Act within the three months before the day on which the person engaged in that conduct, or unless it is a case that Cabinet Office Order prescribes as one in which the person need not undergo a special cognitive assessment, the public safety commission must specially administer a cognitive assessment for the person.
(2) When seeking to administer a cognitive assessment pursuant to the preceding paragraph, a public safety commission must notify the person subject to the cognitive assessment in writing that it will administer a cognitive assessment, pursuant to Cabinet Office Order.
(3) A person notified as under the preceding paragraph must undergo a cognitive assessment by the time that it has been a total of one month since the day following the date on which the person is so notified (other than any period during which the person has a compelling circumstance that Cabinet Order prescribes for not undergoing the assessment).
(4) If a person undergoing a cognitive assessment pursuant to the preceding paragraph meets the criteria that Cabinet Office Order prescribes, in view of the results of the assessment that the person has undergone, the results of the most recent cognitive assessment that the person underwent before the date of the cognitive assessment in question, and other circumstances, as a person whose decline in cognitive function could affect the person's driving of a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle, the person must undergo the training set forth in Article 108-2, paragraph (1), item (xii) based on the results of a cognitive assessment that the person undergoes pursuant to that paragraph.
(5) When seeking to administer training as set forth in Article 108-2, paragraph (1), item (xii) pursuant to the preceding paragraph, a public safety commission must notify the person subject to the training in writing that it will administer that training, pursuant to Cabinet Office Order.
(6) A person notified as under the preceding paragraph must undergo the training set forth in Article 108-2, paragraph (1), item (xii) by the time that it has been a total of one month since the day following the date on which the person is so notified (other than any period during which the person has a compelling circumstance that Cabinet Order prescribes for not undergoing the training).
(Special Fitness Screenings; Other Measures)
Article 102 (1) If a person undergoing a cognitive assessment pursuant to Article 97-2, paragraph (1), item (iii) or (v) who meets the criteria that Cabinet Office Order prescribes as one whose cognitive assessment results show signs of what could be dementia (hereinafter referred to as a "target person" in this Article), submits a written application for a license as referred to in Article 89, paragraph (1), unless the person comes to fall under one of the following items after undergoing the cognitive assessment, the public safety commission must either conduct a special fitness screening to determine whether Article 90, paragraph (1), item (i)-2 applies to the person or order the person to submit a medical certificate satisfying the requirements that Cabinet Office Order prescribes by the deadline that it specifies:
(i) the person undergoes a fitness screening under this Article (other than paragraph (5)) (for fitness screening under paragraph (4), this is limited to that done because it was suspected that the person had come to fall under Article 103, paragraph (1), item (i)-2), or submits a medical certificate pursuant to this paragraph through paragraph (3);
(ii) the person submits a medical certificate pursuant to the proviso to paragraph (7) (limited to one assessing whether the person falls under Article 103, paragraph (1), item (i)-2); or
(iii) the person undergoes a cognitive assessment and is found to no longer be a target person.
(2) If a person undergoing a cognitive assessment pursuant to Article 101-4, paragraph (2) is found to be a target person, unless that person falls under one of the following items, the public safety commission is to either conduct a provisional fitness screening to assess whether the person has come to fall under Article 103, paragraph (1), item (i)-2 or order the person to submit a medical certificate satisfying the requirements that Cabinet Office Order prescribes by the deadline that it specifies:
(i) the person comes to fall under one of the items of the preceding paragraph after the date the person underwent the cognitive assessment; or
(ii) it is decided that the person will either undergo a fitness screening under the following paragraph or submit a medical certificate pursuant to that paragraph.
(3) If a person undergoing a cognitive assessment pursuant to paragraph (3) of the preceding Article is found to be a target person, unless the person comes to fall under one of the items of paragraph (1) after undergoing the cognitive assessment, the public safety commission is to either conduct a provisional fitness screening to assess whether the person falls under Article 103, paragraph (1), item (i)-2 or order the person to submit a medical certificate satisfying the requirements that Cabinet Office Order prescribes by the deadline that it specifies.
(4) Beyond as prescribed in the preceding three paragraphs, a public safety commission may specially administer a fitness screening for a person who has passed a driver's license test if that person is as referred to in Article 90, paragraph (1), item (i) or (ii); or for a licensee if there is reason to suspect that the licensee has come to fall under Article 103, paragraph (1), item (i), (ii), or (iii). In such a case, the public safety commission must take into consideration the information contained in the questionnaire submitted pursuant to Article 89, paragraph (1), Article 101, paragraph (1), or Article 101-2, paragraph (1), the content of the report under Article 101-5, and other circumstances.
(5) Beyond as prescribed in paragraph (1) through the preceding paragraph, a public safety commission may specially administer a fitness screening for a licensee pursuant to Cabinet Order, if it finds this to be necessary in order to prevent road hazards or otherwise ensure the safety and fluidity of traffic.
(6) Before administering a fitness screening pursuant to paragraph (1) through the preceding paragraph, a public safety commission must first notify the person who will undergo that screening of the date and place and other necessary particulars of the screening.
(7) A person who has been notified pursuant to the preceding paragraph must appear at the place and on the date of which the person has been notified and undergo a fitness screening; provided, however, that this does not apply if a person who has been notified of a fitness screening under paragraph (4) submits a medical certificate that meets the requirements that Cabinet Office Order prescribes by the date of which the person has been notified.
(8) Beyond what is prescribed in the preceding paragraphs, Cabinet Office Order provides for the necessary particulars concerning fitness screenings under paragraphs (1) through (5).
(Obligation of Persons Committing Minor Violations to Undergo Training)
Article 102-2 A licensee who has engaged in conduct involving the driving of a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle that meets the criteria that Cabinet Order prescribes, and in doing so violates this Act, an order under this Act, or a measure under this Act (limited to minor violations that Cabinet Order prescribes; hereinafter referred to as a "minor violation"), and who has been notified as under Article 108-3-2, must undergo the training set forth in Article 108-2, paragraph (1), item (xiii) by the time that it has been a total of one month since the day following the date on which the person is so notified (other than any period during which the person has a compelling circumstance that Cabinet Order prescribes for not undergoing the training).
Section 6 Revocation and Suspension of Licenses; Other Measures
(Revocation and Suspension of Licenses; Other Measures)
Article 103 (1) If a person holding a license (other than a provisional license; the same applies hereinafter until Article 106) comes to fall under one of the following items, the public safety commission with jurisdiction over the person's domicile at the time that the person comes to fall under that item may revoke the person's license or suspend it for a period of up to six months that it fixes, in accordance with the standards that Cabinet Order prescribes; provided, however, that if the preceding Article applies to a person falling under item (v), the relevant measures may not be taken unless the period referred to in that Article passes without the person undergoing the training prescribed in that Article:
(i) it has become clear that the person has one of the following illnesses:
(a) a mental illness associated with hallucinations that Cabinet Order prescribes;
(b) an illness causing impaired awareness or motor disturbances that Cabinet Order prescribes;
(c) an illness other than as set forth in (a) or (b) that Cabinet Order prescribes as likely to interfere with the safe driving of a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle.
(i)-2 it has become clear that the person has dementia.
(ii) it has become clear that the person is blind or is exhibiting signs of any other physical disability that Cabinet Order prescribes as likely to hinder the safe driving of a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle;
(iii) it has become clear that the person is an alcohol, narcotics, marijuana, opium, or stimulants addict;
(iv) the person has violated an order under paragraph (6);
(v) the person has engaged in conduct involving the driving of a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle that violates this Act, an order under this Act, or a measure under this Act (other than in a case that falls under one of items (i) through (iv) of the following paragraph);
(vi) the person has aided or abetted a material violation;
(vii) the person has caused an off-road death or injury (other than in a case falling under item (v) of the following paragraph); or
(viii) the licensee's driving of a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle is likely to cause an extreme road traffic hazard, beyond as set forth in the preceding items.
(2) If a licensee comes to fall under one of the following items, the public safety commission with jurisdiction over the licensee's domicile at the time the licensee comes to fall under that item may revoke the license:
(i) the licensee intentionally drives a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle in a way that kills or injures a person or damages a building;
(ii) the licensee engages in conduct that qualifies as a crime referred to in Article 2 through Article 4 of the Act on Punishment for When a Motor Vehicle Is Driven in a Way That Results in a Death or Injury;
(iii) the licensee commits a violation as referred to in Article 117-2, item (i) or (iii) (other than in a case falling under either of the preceding two items) in driving a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle;
(iv) the licensee commits a violation as referred to in Article 117 in driving a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle; or
(v) the licensee intentionally causes an off-road death or injury or engages in conduct that qualifies as a crime referred to in Article 2 through Article 4 of the Act on Punishment for When a Motor Vehicle Is Driven in a Way That Results in a Death or Injury.
(3) If a public safety commission seeks to revoke a license or suspend it for 90 days or more pursuant to paragraph (1) (or for a period of up to 90 days that the public safety commission fixes, if any) or to revoke a license pursuant to the preceding paragraph, but the person subject to those measures has changed addresses and resides in the jurisdictional district of a different public safety commission, it must promptly send a transfer of measures notice as Cabinet Office Order prescribes to the public safety commission with jurisdiction over the person's new domicile, unless a hearing of opinions as referred to in Article 104, paragraph (1) or a hearing regarding those measures has been completed for the matter at issue.
(4) Notwithstanding paragraph (1) and paragraph (2), once a transfer of measures notice as referred to in the preceding paragraph is sent to the relevant public safety commission, that commission may either revoke the person's license or suspend it for a period of up to six months that it fixes if the person falls under one of the items of paragraph (1) (if the person falls under item (v) of that paragraph and the preceding Article applies, such measures may only be taken if the period referred to in that Article passes without the person undergoing the training prescribed in that Article), in accordance with the standards that Cabinet Order prescribes which are referred to in that paragraph, or may revoke person's license if the person falls under one of the items of paragraph (2); but the public safety commission sending the transfer of measures notice may neither revoke nor suspend the person's license in connection with the matter at issue.
(5) Paragraph (3) applies mutatis mutandis if a public safety commission seeks to revoke or suspend a license pursuant to the preceding paragraph.
(6) On finding it to be necessary to do so when suspending a license pursuant to paragraph (1) or (4) on the grounds that the licensee falls under one of items (i) through (iv) of paragraph (1), a public safety commission may order the licensee to undergo fitness screening on a date and at a place it designates or to submit a medical certificate that meets the requirements that Cabinet Office Order prescribes by the deadline that it specifies.
(7) If a public safety commission revokes a license pursuant to paragraph (1) or (4) on the grounds that the licensee falls under one of the items of paragraph (1) (other than item (iv)), it is to designate a period of one to five years, in accordance with the standards that Cabinet Order prescribes, during which the licensee subject to that measure may not obtain a license.
(8) If a public safety commission revokes a license pursuant to paragraph (2) or (4) on the grounds that the licensee falls under one of the items of paragraph (2), it is to designate a period of three to 10 years, in accordance with the standards that Cabinet Order prescribes, during which the licensee subject to that measure may not obtain a license.
(9) If, at the time a person's license is revoked or suspended pursuant to paragraph (1), (2), or (4), the person's address is within the jurisdictional district of a public safety commission other than the one taking the measures in question, the public safety commission taking the measures must promptly notify the public safety commission with jurisdiction over the person's domicile that it has done so.
(10) If a person whose license is suspended pursuant to paragraph (1) or (4) (other than on the grounds that the person falls under one of paragraph (1), items (i) through (iv)) completes the training set forth in Article 108-2, paragraph (1), item (iii), the public safety commission may shorten the period of the license suspension, to the extent that Cabinet Order prescribes.
(Provisional Suspension of Licenses)
Article 103-2 (1) If a licensee comes to fall under one of the following items when driving a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle, the competent police station chief for the place where the licensee caused the traffic accident in question may suspend the licensee's license for up to 30 days, starting from the date of the traffic accident (hereinafter referred to in this Article as a "provisional suspension"):
(i) having caused a traffic accident in which a person is killed or injured, the licensee commits the violation referred to in Article 117;
(ii) the licensee commits a violation as referred to in Article 117-2, item (i) or (iii), Article 117-2-2, item (i), (iii) or (vii) or Article 118, paragraph (1), item (vii), thereby causing a traffic accident in which a person is killed or injured; or
(iii) the licensee commits a violation as referred to in Article 118, paragraph (1), item (i) or (ii), Article 119, paragraph (1), items (i) through (ii)-2, item (iii)-2, item (v), item (ix)-2 or item (xv), thereby causing a traffic accident in which a person is killed.
(2) Having provisionally suspended a person's license, the chief of a police station must provide the person subject to that measure with an opportunity for explanation within five days, counting from the date on which the measure was taken.
(3) A person who is under a provisional suspension must turn over the license to the chief of the police station who has taken that measure.
(4) The chief of a police station who has provisionally suspended a person's license must promptly send a provisional suspension notice as Cabinet Office Order prescribes and the license submitted pursuant to the preceding paragraph to the public safety commission that had jurisdiction over the domicile of the person subject to those measures at the time that the person came to fall under the relevant item of paragraph (1).
(5) A public safety commission that has been sent a provisional suspension notice and license as referred to in the preceding paragraph must also send the provisional suspension notice and license that it has been sent if it sends a transfer of measures notice pursuant to paragraph (3) of the preceding Article (including as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to paragraph (5) of that Article) in connection with the matter at issue.
(6) A provisional suspension ceases to be in effect if the public safety commission that has been sent the provisional suspension notice and license pursuant to paragraph (4) or the preceding paragraph takes the measures under paragraph (1), (2), or (4) of the preceding Article in connection with the matter at issue during the term of the provisional suspension.
(7) If the license of a person under a provisional suspension is suspended pursuant to paragraph (1) or (4) of the preceding Article in connection with the matter at issue, the period during which the license was provisionally suspended is counted as part of the total period during which the license is suspended.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 121, paragraph (1), item (ix) applies to paragraph (3) of this Article.) 
(Hearings of Opinions)
Article 104 (1) A public safety commission must hold an opinions hearing of opinions before revoking a license or suspending it for 90 days or more (or for a period of up to 90 days that the public safety commission fixes, if any; the same applies in paragraph (1) of the following Article) pursuant to Article 103, paragraph (1), item (v); before revoking a license pursuant to Article 103, paragraph (2), items (i) through (iv); or if it has been sent a transfer of measures notice (but only in connection with what is provided in paragraph (1), item (v) or paragraph (2), item (i), (ii), (iii), or (iv) of that Article) as referred to in paragraph (3) of that Article (including as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to paragraph (5) of that Article). In such a case, at least one week before the date of the hearing of opinions, the public safety commission must notify the person who would be subject to those measures of the grounds for taking them and of the date and place for the hearing, as well as issuing public notice of that date and place.
(2) In a hearing of opinions, the person who would be subject to the measures in question or that person's agent may state an opinion on the matter at issue and submit evidence in the person's favor.
(3) On finding it to be necessary to do so when holding a hearing of opinions, a public safety commission may request the appearance of witnesses who have expert knowledge about road traffic or persons connected with the matter at issue to hear their opinions or circumstances.
(4) Notwithstanding paragraph (1), if the person who would be subject to the measures in question or that person's agent fails to appear at a hearing of opinions without a legitimate reason, or if the person who would be subject to those measures cannot be notified as referred to in that paragraph because the person's whereabouts are unknown and remain unknown even after 30 days have passed following the date on which the public notice under the second sentence of that paragraph is issued, the public safety commission may revoke or suspend the person's license (but only in connection with what is provided in Article 103, paragraph (1), item (v)) as under paragraph (1) or (4) of that Article or revoke the person's license (but only in connection with what is provided in paragraph (2), item (i), (ii), (iii), or (iv) of that Article) as under paragraph (2) or (4) of that Article, without holding a hearing of opinions.
(5) Beyond what is prescribed in the preceding paragraphs, Cabinet Order provides for the necessary particulars regarding the implementation of hearings of opinion.
(Special Rules on Hearings)
Article 104-2 (1) Irrespective of the category of proceedings for hearing statements of opinion under Article 13, paragraph (1) of the Administrative Procedure Act, a public safety commission seeking to suspend a license for 90 days or more pursuant to Article 103, paragraph (1) or (4) (other than in connection with what is provided in paragraph (1), item (v) of that Article) must hold a hearing.
(2) To hold a hearing as referred to in the preceding paragraph, a hearing on the revocation of a license under Article 103, paragraph (1) or (4) (but only in connection with what is provided in the items of paragraph (1) of that Article (other than item (v))), or a hearing on the revocation of a license under paragraph (2) or (4) of that Article (but only in connection with what is provided in paragraph (2), item (v) of that Article), a public safety commission must notify the relevant person as referred to in Article 15, paragraph (1) of the Administrative Procedure Act and issue public notice of the date and place of the hearing, at least one week prior to the date of the hearing.
(3) If a person is notified as referred to in the preceding paragraph in the way that Article 15, paragraph (3) of the Administrative Procedure Act prescribes, the reasonable period of time that is to be set aside before the hearing date pursuant to paragraph (1) of that Article must not be less than two weeks.
(4) The proceedings on the hearing date referred to in paragraph (2) must be open to the public.
(5) On finding it to be necessary to do so on the date of a hearing as referred to in paragraph (2), the person presiding over the hearing may request the appearance of witnesses with expert knowledge about road traffic or persons connected with the matter at issue to hear their opinions or circumstances.
(Revocation in Connection with Retesting)
Article 104-2-2 (1) A public safety commission administering retesting must revoke the license of the person undergoing retesting if it finds that the person does not currently have the level of ability necessary to safely drive the vehicles that the person is licensed to drive with the license in question.
(2) If a person notified of retesting violates Article 100-2, paragraph (5) in failing to undergo retesting, the public safety commission with jurisdiction over that person's domicile must revoke that person's license.
(3) If a public safety commission seeks to revoke a license pursuant to the provisions of the preceding paragraph but the person subject to that measure has changed addresses and resides in the jurisdictional district of a different public safety commission, it must promptly send a transfer of measures notice as prescribed by Cabinet Office Order to the public safety commission with jurisdiction over the person's new domicile, unless a hearing of opinions regarding that measure as referred to in Article 104 as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to paragraph (6) has been completed.
(4) A public safety commission that has been sent a transfer of measures notice as referred to in the preceding paragraph must revoke a person's license if it finds the person to be in violation of Article 100-2, paragraph (5) in failing to undergo retesting. Notwithstanding paragraph (2), the public safety commission sending the transfer of measures notice may not revoke the person's license in such a case.
(5) The provisions of paragraph (3) apply mutatis mutandis if a public safety commission seeks to revoke a license pursuant to the preceding paragraph.
(6) Article 104 (excluding paragraph (3)) applies mutatis mutandis when a license is revoked pursuant to paragraph (2) or (4).
(7) If, at the time a person's license is revoked pursuant to paragraph (1), (2), or (4), the person's address is within the jurisdictional district of a public safety commission other than the one taking those measures, the public safety commission taking the measures must promptly notify the public safety commission with jurisdiction over the person's domicile that it has done so.
(Revocations in Connection with Special Fitness Screenings; Other Measures)
Article 104-2-3 (1) If a public safety commission conducts a fitness screening pursuant to Article 102, paragraph (1) through (4) or issues an order under paragraph (1) through (3) of that Article and the person required to undergo the fitness screening (limited to a person holding a license) or the person who it has been decided is required to submit a medical certificate as per that order (limited to a person holding a license) causes a traffic accident when driving a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle, and, in view of the circumstances of the accident, the person is suspected to fall under one of Article 103, paragraph (1), item (i), (i)-2, or (iii) or in a situation that Cabinet Order prescribes as equivalent to this, the public safety commission may suspend the person's license for a period of up to three months that it fixes. In such a case, that measure must be lifted promptly if it becomes clear that the person subject to it does not fall under any of the aforementioned provisions.
(2) Having suspended a person's license pursuant to the first sentence of preceding paragraph, a public safety commission must provide the person subject to that measure with an opportunity for explanation within five days, counting from the date on which the measure was taken.
(3) On finding a person who has been notified as under Article 101-7, paragraph (2) (limited to a person holding a license) to be in violation of paragraph (3) of that Article in failing to undergo the cognitive assessment of which the person has been notified; on finding a person who has been notified as under paragraph (5) of that Article (limited to a person holding a license) to be in violation of paragraph (6) of that Article in failing to undergo the training of which the person has been notified; on finding a person subject to an order under Article 102, paragraph (1) through (3) to have violated that order (or on finding a person whose license has been suspended as under the first sentence of paragraph (1) to have failed to comply with that order by the end of the period of suspension); or in finding a person who has been notified as under paragraph (6) of that Article (limited to a person holding a license) to be in violation of paragraph (7) of that Article in failing to undergo the fitness screening of which the person has been notified (or on finding a person whose license has been suspended as under the first sentence of paragraph (1) not to have undergone the fitness screening by the end of the period of suspension), the public safety commission with jurisdiction over the person's domicile as of the day that marks the completion of the period of one month in total provided for in Article 101-7, paragraph (3) or (6), as of the day that marks the deadline provided for in Article 102, paragraph (1) through (3), or as of the date of which the person has been notified as referred to in paragraph (7) of that Article may either revoke the person's license or suspend it for a period of up to six months that it fixes, in accordance with the standards that Cabinet Order prescribes; provided, however, that this does not apply if there are compelling circumstances for the person's failure to undergo the cognitive assessment, undergo the training, comply with the order, or undergo the fitness screening.
(4) The suspension of a license under the preceding paragraph ceases to be in effect if the person undergoes the referenced cognitive assessment, undergoes the referenced training, complies with the referenced order, or undergoes the referenced fitness screening.
(5) Article 103, paragraphs (3), (4), and (9) apply mutatis mutandis if a public safety commission seeks to revoke a license or suspend it for 90 days or more (or for a period of up to 90 days that the public safety commission fixes, if any; the same applies in paragraph (7)) pursuant to paragraph (3). In such a case, the phrase "unless a hearing of opinions as referred to in Article 104, paragraph (1) or a hearing" in Article 103, paragraph (3) is deemed to be replaced with "unless a hearing"; the phrase "if the person falls under one of the items of paragraph (1) (if the person falls under item (v) of that paragraph and the preceding Article applies, such measures may only be taken if the period referred to in that Article passes without the person undergoing the training prescribed in that Article), in accordance with the standards that Cabinet Order prescribes which are referred to in that paragraph" in paragraph (4) of that Article is deemed to be replaced with "on finding the person to be in violation of Article 101-7, paragraph (3) in failing to undergo the cognitive assessment of which the person has been notified; on finding the person to be in violation of paragraph (6) of that Article in failing to undergo the training of which the person has been notified; on finding the person to have violated an order under Article 102, paragraph (1) through (3); or on finding the person to be in violation of paragraph (7) of that Article in failing to undergo the fitness screening of which the person has been notified, in accordance with the standards that Cabinet Order prescribes which are referred to in Article 104-2-3, paragraph (3)"; the phrase ", or may revoke person's license if the person falls under one of the items of paragraph (2)" in that paragraph is deemed to be deleted; the phrase "Notwithstanding paragraph (1) and paragraph (2)" in that paragraph is deemed to be replaced with "Notwithstanding paragraph (1)"; and the phrase "pursuant to paragraph (1), (2), or (4)" in paragraph (9) of that Article is deemed to be replaced with "pursuant to Article 104-2-3, paragraph (3) or Article 103, paragraph (4) as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to Article 104-2-3, paragraph (5)".
(6) Paragraph (4) applies mutatis mutandis if a license is suspended pursuant to Article 103, paragraph (4) as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to the preceding paragraph.
(7) Article 104-2 (other than paragraph (5)) applies mutatis mutandis if a public safety commission seeks to revoke a license or suspend it for 90 days or more pursuant to paragraph (3) or Article 103, paragraph (4) as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to paragraph (5).
(8) Article 103, paragraph (3) applies mutatis mutandis if a public safety commission seeks to revoke or suspend a license pursuant to paragraph (4) of that Article as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to paragraph (5). In such a case, the phrase "unless a hearing of opinions as referred to in Article 104, paragraph (1) or a hearing" in paragraph (3) of that Article is deemed to be replaced with "unless a hearing".
(Issuance of Documents Revoking and Suspending Licenses; Related Considerations)
Article 104-3 (1) Pursuant to Cabinet Office Order, the revocation or suspension of a license under Article 103, paragraph (1), (2), or (4), Article 104-2-2, paragraph (1), (2), or (4), paragraph (1) or (3) of the preceding Article, or Article 103, paragraph (4) as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to paragraph (5) of the preceding Article is to be carried out through the issuance of a document giving the details of and reasons for the revocation or suspension to the person subject to the revocation or suspension.
(2) If a public safety commission has been unable to issue a document as under the preceding paragraph because the person's whereabouts are unknown or for any other reason, and a police officer learns the whereabouts of the person, the police officer may order the person to appear so as to be issued the document, specifying a date, time, and place for the person to appear, pursuant to Cabinet Office Order.
(3) A police officer issuing a person an order under the preceding paragraph may demand, pursuant to Cabinet Office Order, that the person submit the revoked or suspended license subject to the order, and then store it as the custodian thereof. When doing so, the police officer must issue the person a deposit certificate.
(4) Pursuant to Cabinet Office Order, a police officer who has issued a person an order under paragraph (2) must promptly provide notify the public safety commission with jurisdiction over the person's domicile (or to both the public safety commission revoking or suspending the person's license as prescribed in paragraph (1) and the public safety commission with jurisdiction over that person's domicile, if applicable) of the name and address of the person subject to the order, the date, time, and place that the officer has ordered the person to appear, and other necessary information. If acting as custodian of a license pursuant to the preceding paragraph in such a case, the police officer must send the license to the public safety commission with jurisdiction over the person's domicile.
(5) A public safety commission that has been sent a license as under the preceding paragraph must immediately return it if requested by the person submitting it pursuant to paragraph (3) once the period of suspension expires.
(6) To apply Article 95, the deposit certificate referred to in paragraph (3) is deemed to be a license.
(7) A deposit certificate as referred to in paragraph (3) is valid from the time of its issuance until the date and time specified to its recipient pursuant to paragraph (2) (or until the person's appearance at the designated place before that date and time pursuant to that paragraph, if applicable).
(8) A person who has been issued a deposit certificate pursuant to paragraph (3) must immediately return it to a police officer at the expiration of the valid period.
(9) Cabinet Office Order provides for the information that is specified on a deposit certificate as referred to in paragraph (3) and other necessary particulars regarding deposit certificates as referred to in that paragraph.
(Revocation by Application)
Article 104-4 (1) A licensee may apply to the public safety commission with jurisdiction over the domicile thereof for the revocation of a license. Notwithstanding Article 89, paragraph (1) and Article 90-2, paragraph (1), in such a case, the licensee may also request to be issued another type of license when the license subject to the application is revoked (but only the type of license that Cabinet Order prescribes for each type of license revoked).
(2) A public safety commission to which a person has applied under the preceding paragraph must revoke the license subject to the application, pursuant to Cabinet Order.
(3) A public safety commission revoking a license pursuant to the preceding paragraph may grant the license that a person has requested as referred to in paragraph (1) to the person making that request once the person returns the revoked license to it as under Article 107, paragraph (1), item (i).
(4) A person is deemed to have been issued a license that is granted pursuant to the preceding paragraph on the date that the person was issued the license that was revoked pursuant to paragraph (2).
(5) A person who has had a license revoked pursuant to paragraph (2) (other than a person issued a license pursuant to paragraph (3)) may apply to the public safety commission that revoked the license to be issued a document showing the person's motor vehicle or motorized bicycle driving record for the five years before the date of revocation and whether the person was categorized as a driver with an exemplary record, a driver with a satisfactory record, or a driver with a violation or a short record as prescribed in the left-hand column of the Table following Article 92-2, paragraph (1) (referred to as a "driving record certificate" in the following paragraph).
(6) A public safety commission to which a person has applied under the preceding paragraph must issue a driving record certificate pursuant to Cabinet Order. This being the case, driving record certificates must not be confusingly similar in appearance to licenses.
(7) Beyond what is prescribed in the preceding paragraphs, Cabinet Office Order provides for the necessary particulars regarding the revocation of licenses under paragraph (2).
(Loss of Validity of Licenses)
Article 105 A license ceases to be valid if the licensee fails to renew it.
(Reporting to the National Public Safety Commission)
Article 106 A public safety commission must report the information that Cabinet Office Order prescribes to the National Public Safety Commission on granting a license pursuant to the main clause of Article 90, paragraph (1) or Article 104-4, paragraph (3); on attaching or changing a condition attached to a license pursuant to Article 91; on receiving a filing as under Article 94, paragraph (1); on reissuing a license under paragraph (2) of that Article; on renewing a license pursuant to Article 101, paragraph (6) or Article 101-2, paragraph (4); on notifying a person as under Article 102, paragraph (6); on taking a measure under the proviso to paragraph (1), Article 90, paragraph (2), (5), (6), (9), (10), or (12), Article 97-3, paragraph (3), Article 103, paragraph (1), (2), (4), (7), (8), or (10), Article 104-2-2, paragraph (1), (2), or (4), Article 104-2-3, paragraph (1) or (3), Article 103, paragraph (4) as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to paragraph (5) of that Article, paragraph (3), or Article 104-4, paragraph (2); or on issuing an order under Article 90, paragraph (8) or Article 102 paragraph (1) through paragraph (3) or Article 103, paragraph (6); as well as when the chief of the police station takes a measure under Article 103-2, paragraph (1); when the driver of a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle engages in conduct involving the driving of a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle that violates this Act, an order under this Act, or a measure under this Act (but only in a case that Cabinet Office Order prescribes), aids or abets a material violation, or causes an off-road death or injury (but only in a case that Cabinet Office Order prescribes); when a driver undergoes a cognitive assessment; when a driver is retested as under Article 100-2, paragraph (1); when a driver undergoes the training set forth in Article 108-2, paragraph (1), item (ii), (x) or (xiii); or when any other event that Cabinet Office Order prescribes occurs in connection with the driver of a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle which involves the driving of a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle. This having been done, the National Public Safety Commission must notify each public safety commission of the information reported to it in order to ensure propriety in their licensing-related functions.
(Revocation of Provisional Licenses)
Article 106-2 (1) If a person holding a provisional license comes to fall under one of the items of Article 103, paragraph (1) (other than items (iv) and (viii)) or one of the items of paragraph (2), the public safety commission with jurisdiction over the person's domicile at the time that the person comes to fall under the item in question may revoke the provisional license, in accordance with the standards that Cabinet Order prescribes.
(2) On finding a person who has been notified as under Article 101-7, paragraph (2) (limited to a person holding a provisional license) to be in violation of paragraph (3) of that Article in failing to undergo the cognitive assessment of which the person has been notified; on finding a person who has been notified as under paragraph (5) of that Article (limited to a person holding a provisional license) to be in violation of paragraph (6) of that Article in failing to undergo the training of which the person has been notified; on finding a person subject to an order under Article 102, paragraph (1) through (3) (limited to a person holding a provisional license) to have violated the order; or on finding a person who has been notified as under paragraph (6) of that Article (limited to a person holding a provisional license) to be in violation of paragraph (7) of that Article in failing to undergo the fitness screening of which the person has been notified, the public safety commission with jurisdiction over the person's domicile as of the day that marks the completion of the period of one month in total provided for in Article 101-7, paragraph (3) or (6), as of the day that marks the deadline provided for in Article 102, paragraph (1) through (3), or as of the date of which the person has been notified as referred to in paragraph (7) of that Article may revoke the person's provisional license, in accordance with the standards that Cabinet Order prescribes; provided, however, that this does not apply if there are compelling circumstances for the person's failure to undergo the cognitive assessment, undergo the training, comply with the order, or undergo the fitness screening.
(Returning and Submitting Licenses)
Article 107 (1) Having come to fall under one of the following items, a licensee must promptly return the license thereof (or the license found or recovered, in a case as under item (iii)) to the public safety commission with jurisdiction over the licensee's domicile:
(i) the license is revoked;
(ii) the license ceases to be valid; or
(iii) a lost license is found or recovered after a new license is reissued.
(2) If a person whose licensing is revoked pursuant to Article 104-2-2, paragraph (1), (2), or (4) or Article 104-4, paragraph (2) holds any other type of licensing, and that person returns a license pursuant to the preceding paragraph, the public safety commission must issue that person a license for the other type of licensing.
(3) A licensee must promptly submit the license thereof to the public safety commission with jurisdiction over the domicile thereof if that license is suspended pursuant to Article 90, paragraph (5), Article 103, paragraph (1) or (4), Article 104-2-3, paragraph (1) or (3), or Article 103, paragraph (4) as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to paragraph (5) of that Article.
(4) A public safety commission to which a license is submitted pursuant to the preceding paragraph or sent pursuant to Article 103-2, paragraph (4) or (5) must immediately return it at the request of the person submitting it, once the period of suspension expires or upon cancellation of the suspension.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 121, paragraph (1), item (ix) applies to paragraphs (1) and (3) of this Article.) 
Section 7 International Driving Permits and Foreign Driver's Licenses; Foreign Driving Permits
(Driving of Motor Vehicles and Motorized Bicycles by Holders of International Driving Permits and Foreign Driver's Licenses)
Article 107-2 Notwithstanding Article 64, paragraph (1), a person holding a driving permit as referred to in Article 24, paragraph (1) of the Geneva Convention on Road Traffic (hereinafter referred to as the "the Convention") (other than a F Driving Permit as referred to in Article 107-7, paragraph (1)) in the format established by Annex 9 or 10 of the Convention (hereinafter referred to in this Article as an "International Driving Permit"), or holding a driver's license from an administrative agency or competent authority in a country or region other than Japan (but only a country or region not issuing International Driving Permits, which Cabinet Order prescribes as one with a system of driver licensing that is found to have equivalent standards to that of Japan in terms of preventing road hazards and otherwise ensuring the safety and fluidity of traffic) which licenses a person (other than a person falling under Article 88, paragraph (1), item (ii) through (iv)) to drive a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle (this is limited to a driver's license that is accompanied by a Japanese translation prepared by a person that Cabinet Order prescribes; hereinafter referred to in this Article as a "foreign driver's license") may drive the motor vehicles and motorized bicycles that it has been decided the person may drive with that International Driving Permit or foreign driver's license (hereinafter referred to as an "International Driving Permit or license") during the one-year period beginning on the date of the person's landing in Japan (this excludes if a person who has been registered in a residential ledger based on the Residential Ledgers Act (Act No. 81 of 1967), and who departs from Japan after becoming subject to a confirmation of departure under Article 60, paragraph (1) of the Immigration Control and Refugee Recognition Act (Cabinet Order No. 319 of 1951), departs from Japan with re-entry permission as under Article 26, paragraph (1) of that Act (this includes if a person is deemed, pursuant to Article 26-2, paragraph (1) of that Act, to have re-entry permission as under Article 26, paragraph (1) of that Act (including as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to Article 23, paragraph (2) of the Act on Special Measures for Immigration Control as regards Persons Losing Japanese Nationality Based on the Treaty of Peace with Japan (Act No. 71 of 1991)), or departs from Japan after being issued a refugee travel document under Article 61-2-12, paragraph (1) of the Immigration Control and Refugee Recognition Act, then lands in Japan again within three months after the date of departure; the same applies in Article 117-2-2, item (i)); provided, however, that this does not apply if the person drives a motor vehicle used for passenger services or drives a motor vehicle equipped for towing while towing a vehicle used for passenger services in order to transport passengers as a part of passenger motor carrier services or drives a standard motor vehicle that is to be driven by a professional designated driver.
(Obligation to Carry and Present an International Driving Permit or License)
Article 107-3 When driving a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle, a person with an International Driving Permit or license must carry the permit or license authorizing the person to drive it. The provisions of paragraph (2) of Article 95 apply mutatis mutandis in such a case.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 121, paragraph (1), item (x) and paragraph (2) of that Article apply to the first sentence of this Article. Article 120, paragraph (1), item (ix) applies to the second sentence of this Article.) 
(Requesting Persons with International Driving Permits and Licenses to Report)
Article 107-3-2 Pursuant to Cabinet Office Order, a public safety commission may ask a person with an International Driving Permit or license report as needed, upon finding this to be necessary in order to investigate whether the person satisfies the licensing requirements for that International Driving Permit or license (but only if it finds this to be necessary in order to investigate whether the person falls under Article 103, paragraph (1), item (i), (i)-2, or (iii)).
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 117-4, item (ii)) 
(Special Fitness Screenings)
Article 107-4 (1) A public safety commission may administer a special fitness screening for a person with an International Driving Permit or license if there is reason to suspect that the person no longer meets the licensing requirements for that permit or license (this is limited to if there is reason to suspect that the person has come to fall under one of Article 103, paragraph (1), items (i) through (iii)). In such a case, the public safety commission must consider the content of the report under the preceding Article and other circumstances, as well as notifying the person in advance of the date and place and other necessary particulars of the fitness screening.
(2) A person notified as under the second sentence of the preceding paragraph must appear at the place and on the date of which the person has been notified and undergo a fitness screening.
(3) On finding it to be necessary to do so in order to prevent road hazards or ensure traffic safety, a public safety commission may order a person who has undergone a fitness screening as referred to in paragraph (1) to take the necessary measures when driving, in keeping with the person's physical condition.
(4) Beyond what is prescribed in the preceding three paragraphs, Cabinet Office Order provides for the necessary particulars regarding fitness screenings under paragraph (1).
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 119, paragraph (1), applies to paragraph (3) of this Article.) 
(Obligation of Persons Committing Minor Violations to Receive Training)
Article 107-4-2 Article 102-2 applies mutatis mutandis if a person with an International Driving Permit or license commits a minor violation meeting the criteria that Cabinet Order prescribes which is referred to in that Article.
(Prohibiting Persons from Driving Motor Vehicles and Motorized Bicycles; Other Measures)
Article 107-5 (1) If a person with an International Driving Permit or license comes to fall under one of the following items, the public safety commission with jurisdiction over the person's domicile at the time that the person comes to fall under the item may prohibit the person, in accordance with the standards that Cabinet Order prescribes, from driving motor vehicles and motorized bicycles that the permit or license is for, for a period of up to five years that it fixes; provided, however, that if Article 102-2 as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to the preceding Article applies to a person falling under item (ii), it may not take that measure unless the period referred to in Article 102-2 passes without the person undergoing the training prescribed in that Article, as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to the preceding Article:
(i) it has become clear that the person no longer meets the licensing requirements for the International Driving Permit or license (but only if the person has come to fall under one of Article 103, paragraph (1), items (i) through (iii)); or
(ii) the person engages in conduct involving the driving of a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle that violates this Act, an order under this Act, or a measure under this Act (other than in a case falling under one of the items of the following paragraph).
(2) If a person with an International Driving Permit or license comes to fall under one of the following items, the public safety commission with jurisdiction over the person's domicile at the time that the person comes to fall under the item may prohibit the person, in accordance with the standards that Cabinet Order prescribes, from driving motor vehicles and motorized bicycles that the permit or license is for, for a period of at least three and up to 10 years that it fixes:
(i) the person has intentionally driven a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle in a way that killed or injured a person or damaged a building;
(ii) the person has engaged in conduct that qualifies as a crime referred to in Article 2 through Article 4 of the Act on Punishment for When a Motor Vehicle Is Driven in a Way That Results in a Death or Injury;
(iii) the person, in driving a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle, has committed a violation referred to in Article 117-2, item (i) or (iii) (other than as under either of the preceding two items); or
(iv) the person, in driving a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle, has committed a violation referred to in Article 117.
(3) Article 103, paragraph (10) applies mutatis mutandis to a person who is prohibited from driving a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle pursuant to paragraph (1) or (4) of that Article as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to paragraph (9). In such a case, the phrase "the period of the license suspension" in paragraph (10) of that Article is deemed to be replaced with "the period during which the person is prohibited from driving a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle".
(4) Article 104 applies mutatis mutandis if a public safety commission seeks to prohibit a person from driving a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle for 90 days or more (or for a period of up to 90 days that the public safety commission fixes, if any; the same applies hereinafter in this paragraph) pursuant to paragraph (1), item (ii) or the items of paragraph (2) on the grounds that the person falls under paragraph (1), item (ii) or the items of paragraph (2), or if a public safety commission has been sent a transfer of measures notice (but only one in connection with what is provided in paragraph (1), item (ii) or the items of paragraph (2)) as referred to in Article 103, paragraph (3) as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to paragraph (9) (including as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to paragraph (5) of that Article; the same applies hereinafter in this paragraph); and Article 104-2 applies mutatis mutandis if a public safety commission seeks to prohibit a person from driving a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle for 90 days or more pursuant to paragraph (1) on the grounds that the person falls under item (i) of that paragraph, or if a public safety commission has been sent a transfer of measures notice (but only in connection with what is provided in paragraph (1), item (i)) as referred to in Article 103, paragraph (3) as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to paragraph (9). In such a case, the phrase "may revoke or suspend the person's license (but only in connection with what is provided in Article 103, paragraph (1), item (v)) as under paragraph (1) or (4) of that Article or revoke the person's license (but only in connection with what is provided in paragraph (2), item (i), (ii), (iii), or (iv) of that Article) as under paragraph (2) or (4) of that Article, without holding a hearing of opinions" in Article 104, paragraph (4) is deemed to be replaced with "may prohibit the person from driving a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle as under Article 107-5, paragraph (1) or (2) or Article 103, paragraph (4) as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to Article 107-5, paragraph (9) (this is limited to a prohibition in connection with what is provided in paragraph (1), item (ii) or the items of Article 107-5, paragraph (2)), without holding a hearing of opinions" and the phrase "To hold a hearing as referred to in the preceding paragraph, a hearing on the revocation of a license under Article 103, paragraph (1) or (4) (but only in connection with what is provided in the items of paragraph (1) of that Article (other than item (v))), or a hearing on the revocation of a license under paragraph (2) or (4) of that Article (but only in connection with what is provided in paragraph (2), item (v) of that Article)" in paragraph (2) of Article 104-2 is deemed to be replaced with "To hold a hearing as referred to in the preceding paragraph".
(5) A person with an International Driving Permit or license must promptly submit it to the public safety commission having jurisdiction over the person's domicile if the person is prohibited from driving motor vehicle or motorized bicycle pursuant to paragraph (1) or (2) or paragraph (4) of Article 103 as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to paragraph (9).
(6) A public safety commission to which an International Driving Permit or license is submitted pursuant to the preceding paragraph or sent pursuant to paragraph (4) or (5) of Article 103-2 as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to paragraph (10) must immediately return it at the request of the person submitting it once the period for the measures in question is over or when the person departs from Japan, whichever comes first.
(7) A person who is prohibited from driving a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle pursuant to paragraph (1) or (2), paragraph (4) of Article 103 as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to paragraph (9), or paragraph (1) of Article 103-2 as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to paragraph (10) must promptly submit the International Driving Permit or license thereof to the public safety commission having jurisdiction over the person's domicile if, after departing from Japan, the person lands in Japan again during the term of those measures. The provisions of the preceding paragraph apply mutatis mutandis in such a case.
(8) If a public safety commission prohibits a person from driving a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle pursuant to paragraph (1) or (2) or paragraph (4) of Article 103 as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to the following paragraph, or shortens the period pursuant to paragraph (10) of that Article as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to paragraph (3), it must inscribe the particulars of those measures on the International Driving Permit or license of the person subject to them, pursuant to Cabinet Office Order.
(9) Paragraphs (3) through (5) and paragraph (9) of Article 103 apply mutatis mutandis if a person is prohibited from driving a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle pursuant to paragraph (1) or (2). In such a case, the phrase "that commission may either revoke the person's license or suspend it for a period of up to six months that it fixes if the person falls under one of the items of paragraph (1) (if the person falls under item (v) of that paragraph and the preceding Article applies, such measures may only be taken if the period referred to in that Article passes without the person undergoing the training prescribed in that Article), in accordance with the standards that Cabinet Order prescribes which are referred to in that paragraph, or may revoke person's license if the person falls under one of the items of paragraph (2)" in paragraph (4) of Article 103 is deemed to be replaced with " that commission may prohibit that person from driving motor vehicles and motorized bicycles that the International Driving Permit or license is for, fixing a period of up to five years for the same, in accordance with the standards that Cabinet Order prescribes which are referred to in that paragraph, if the person falls under one of the items of Article 75, paragraph (1) (if the person falls under item (ii) of that paragraph and the preceding Article applies mutatis mutandis pursuant to Article 107-4-2, this may only be done if the period referred to in the preceding Article passes without the person undergoing the training prescribed in that Article as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to Article 107-4-2); and may prohibit that person from driving motor vehicles and motorized bicycles that the International Driving Permit or license is for, fixing a period of three to ten years for the same, in accordance with the standards that Cabinet Order prescribes which are referred to in that paragraph, if the person falls under one of the items of Article 107-5, paragraph (2)".
(10) Article 103-2 applies mutatis mutandis if a person with an International Driving Permit or license comes to fall under one of the items of paragraph (1) of that Article. In such a case, in that Article, the phrase "suspend the licensee's license" is deemed to be replaced with "prohibit the person from driving a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle", the phrase "If the license of a person under a provisional suspension is suspended" is deemed to be replaced with "If a person under a provisional prohibition is prohibited from driving a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle", the phrase "the license is suspended" is deemed to be replaced with "the person is prohibited from driving it", the term "provisional suspension" is deemed to be replaced with "provisional prohibition", the phrase "provisionally suspended a person's license" is deemed to be replaced with "provisionally prohibited a person from driving", the phrase "the license was provisionally suspended" is deemed to be replaced with "the person was provisionally prohibited from driving", the term "license" is deemed to be replaced with "International Driving Permit or license", and the term "provisional suspension notice" is deemed to be replaced with "provisional prohibition notice"; the phrase "paragraph (3) of the preceding Article" in paragraph (5) of that Article is deemed to be replaced with "paragraph (3) of the preceding Article as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to paragraph (9) of Article 107-5"; the phrase "paragraph (1), (2), or (4) of the preceding Article" in paragraph (6) of that Article is deemed to be replaced with "paragraph (1) or (2) of Article 107-5 or paragraph (4) of the preceding Article as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to paragraph (9) of Article 107-5"; and the phrase "paragraph (1) or (4) of the preceding Article" in paragraph (7) of that Article is deemed to be replaced with "paragraph (1) or (2) of Article 107-5 or paragraph (4) of the preceding Article as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to paragraph (9) of Article 107-5".
(11) Article 104-3 applies mutatis mutandis if a person is prohibited from driving a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle pursuant to paragraph (1) or (2) or paragraph (4) of Article 103 as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to paragraph (9). In such a case, the term "license" in Article 104-3 is deemed to be replaced with "International Driving Permit or license," the phrase "once the period of suspension expires" in paragraph (5) of that Article is deemed to be replaced with "once the period during which the person is prohibited from driving a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle that the International Driving Permit or license is for expires, or once the person departs from Japan", and the phrase "Article 95" in paragraph (6) of that Article is deemed to be replaced with "the first sentence of Article 107-3 and paragraph (2) of Article 95 as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to the second sentence of Article 107-3".
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 121, paragraph (1), item (ix) applies to paragraphs (5), (7), and (10) of this Article.) 
(Reporting on Motor Vehicle and Motorized Bicycle Driving Prohibitions and Other Measures)
Article 107-6 A public safety commission must report the information that Cabinet Office Order prescribes to the National Public Safety Commission when notifying a person as under the second sentence of Article 107-4, paragraph (1); when prohibiting a person from driving a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle pursuant to paragraph (1) or (2) of the preceding Article or Article 103, paragraph (4), as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to paragraph (9) of the preceding Article or shortening the period pursuant to Article 103, paragraph (10), as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to paragraph (3) of the preceding Article; or if the chief of a police station prohibits a person from driving a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle pursuant to Article 103-2, paragraph (1), as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to paragraph (10) of the preceding Article. In such a case, the National Public Safety Commission must notify each public safety commission of the information reported to it in order to ensure propriety in their licensing-related functions.
(Issuance of Foreign Driving Permits)
Article 107-7 (1) A person who has a license (other than an SS-MVL, MBL, or provisional license) (other than a person whose license is under a suspension pursuant to Article 90, paragraph (5), Article 103, paragraph (1) or (4), Article 103-2, paragraph (1), Article 104-2-3, paragraph (1) or (3), or Article 103, paragraph (4) as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to Article 104-2-3, paragraph (5)) may be issued a driver's license as referred to in Article 24, paragraph (1) of the Convention, for motor vehicles and motorized bicycles as prescribed in Annex 10 to the Convention that are in keeping with the motor vehicles and motorized bicycles that the license permits the person to drive and in accordance with the categories that Cabinet Office Order prescribes, this driver's license being issued by a public safety commission (hereinafter referred to as a "Foreign Driving Permit").
(2) A person seeking a Foreign Driving Permit must submit an application for issuance in the format that Cabinet Office Order prescribes, together with a document evidencing that the person will visit a foreign country, to the public safety commission having jurisdiction over the person's domicile.
(3) Upon the filing of an application as referred to in the preceding paragraph, a public safety commission is to specify the types of motor vehicles and motorized bicycles, that the person may drive and issue a Foreign Driving Permit inscribed with an indication of these.
(4) Beyond what is prescribed in the preceding three paragraphs, Cabinet Office Order provides for the format of Foreign International Driving Permits and other necessary information regarding their issuance.
(Validity of Foreign Driving Permits)
Article 107-8 A Foreign Driving Permit is valid for a period of one year, beginning on the date of issuance.
(Loss of Validity of Foreign Driving Permits)
Article 107-9 (1) A Foreign Driving Permit ceases to be valid if the license on which it is based ceases to be valid or is revoked.
(2) If the license on which a Foreign Driving Permit is based is suspended, the permit is suspended during the period of suspension of the license.
(Returning and Submitting Foreign Driving Permits)
Article 107-10 (1) A person with a Foreign Driving Permit must promptly return it to the public safety commission having jurisdiction over the person's domicile once it expires or if it ceases to be valid (or once the person returns to Japan, if that person is in a region outside Japan when the permit expires or ceases to be valid).
(2) A person with a Foreign Driving Permit must promptly submit it to the public safety commission having jurisdiction over the person's domicile if it is suspended (or once the person returns to Japan, if that person is in a region outside Japan when it is suspended and returns to Japan during the period of suspension period).
(3) A public safety commission to which a Foreign Driving Permit is submitted pursuant to the preceding paragraph must immediately return it at the request of the person submitting it once the period of suspension expires.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 121, paragraph (1), item (ix) applies to paragraphs (1) and (2) of this Article.) 
Section 8 Asking Others to Handle Administrative Processes Involved in Licensing
(Asking Others to Handle Administrative Processes Involved in Licensing)
Article 108 (1) A public safety commission, pursuant to Cabinet Order, may ask a corporation that Cabinet Office Order prescribes to handle all or part of the administrative processes involved in licensing as prescribed in this Chapter (other than administrative processes involved in denying and withholding licenses, adding and changing license conditions, deciding the results of driver's license tests and fitness screenings, revoking and suspending licenses, and other processes that Cabinet Order prescribes; referred to as "licensing processes" in the following paragraph).
(2) It is prohibited for a current or former officer or employee of a corporation that has been asked to handle licensing processes pursuant to the preceding paragraph to divulge confidential information learned in connection with the licensing processes that it handles.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 117-4, item (i) applies to paragraph (2) of this Article.) 
Chapter VI-2 Training
(Training)
Article 108-2 (1) A public safety commission is to conduct the following training, pursuant to Cabinet Office Order:
(i) training for primary and deputy driving safety supervisors;
(ii) training for persons denied or stripped of driving privileges and persons who have lost their driving privileges;
(iii) training for persons who have had licenses withheld pursuant to the proviso of Article 90, paragraph (1); have had licenses suspended pursuant to paragraph (5) of that Article or Article 103, paragraph (1) or (4); or have been prohibited from driving motor vehicles and motorized bicycles for a period of up to six months pursuant to Article 107-5, paragraph (1) or Article 103, paragraph (4) as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to Article 107-5, paragraph (9) (other than persons subject to those measures on the grounds that they fall under one of Article 90, paragraph (1), items (i) through (iii) or (vii), Article 103, paragraph (1), items (i) through (iv), or Article 107-5, paragraph (1), item (i) and other than persons failing to undergo the training prescribed in Article 102-2 within the period referred to in that Article);
(iv) training for persons seeking an L-MVL, M-MVL, SM-MVL, or S-MVL in driving motor vehicles associated with the license they seek;
(v) training for persons seeking an L-ML or S-ML in driving motor vehicles associated with the license they seek;
(vi) training for persons seeking an MBL in driving motorized bicycles;
(vii) training for persons seeking a class 2 L-MVL, class 2 M-MVL, or class 2 S-MVL in driving motor vehicles associated with the license they seek;
(viii) training for persons seeking an L-MVL, M-MVL, SM-MVL, S-MVL, L-ML, S-ML, class 2 L-MVL, class 2 M-MVL, or class 2 S-MVL in first aid (meaning the necessary emergency response to render aid to injured persons at the scene of a traffic accident);
(ix) training for designated driving school employees whom Cabinet Order prescribes;
(x) training for target novice drivers (other than those whose licenses are suspended) in the necessary skills and knowledge to drive the vehicles the persons are licensed to drive, implemented for each type of license;
(xi) training for persons seeking to renew their licenses; specified holders of expired licenses; or specified persons stripped of driving privileges, implemented in the categories of drivers with exemplary records, drivers with satisfactory records, and drivers with violations or short records, as prescribed in the left-hand column of the Table following Article 92-2, paragraph (1);
(xii) training for persons who will be 70 years of age or older on the final day of the renewal period; for specified holders of expired licenses and specified persons stripped of driving privileges who are 70 years of age or older on the date of submitting a written application for a license pursuant to Article 89, paragraph (1); and for persons notified as under Article 101-7, paragraph (5), to help them understand that age-related decline in physical function could affect their driving of motor vehicles and motorized bicycles;
(xiii) training for persons holding licenses and International Driving Permits and licenses who have committed minor violations, and whose conduct has come to meet the criteria that Cabinet Order prescribes which is referred to in Article 102-2; and
(xiv) training to prevent traffic hazards caused by bicycle riding.
(2) Beyond what is set forth in the items of the preceding paragraph, a public safety commission must endeavor to conduct training for the drivers of vehicles in order to improve their vehicle driving skills and knowledge.
(3) A public safety commission may ask a person that Cabinet Office Order prescribes to handle the training prescribed in item (i), items (iii) through (ix), and items (xi) through (xiv) of paragraph (1) or to handle the training as prescribed in the preceding paragraph.
(4) It is prohibited for a person asked to handle the training set forth in item (xii) of paragraph (1) (but only training conducted based on the results of cognitive assessments pursuant to Article 97-2, paragraph (1), item (iii), (a), Article 101-4, paragraph (2) or Article 101-7, paragraph (4)) pursuant to the preceding paragraph (or its officer, if it is a corporation), the employee thereof, or person formerly in such a position to divulge confidential information learned in connection with the operations handled thereby.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 117-4, item (i) applies to paragraph (4) of this Article.) 
(Procedures for Novice Driver Training)
Article 108-3 (1) Promptly after a target novice driver engages in conduct prescribed in Article 100-2, paragraph (1) that comes to meet the criteria that Cabinet Order prescribes which is referred to in the main clause of that paragraph, a public safety commission is to notify the driver, in writing and pursuant to Cabinet Office Order, that the driver may undergo the training set forth in paragraph (1), item (x) of the preceding Article (hereinafter referred to as "novice driver training").
(2) A person who has been notified as referred to in the preceding paragraph may undergo novice driver training only until the time that it has been a total of one month since the day following the date on which the person is so notified (other than any period during which the person has a compelling circumstance that Cabinet Order prescribes for not undergoing the training).
(Procedures for Training for Persons Committing Minor Violations)
Article 108-3-2 If a person holding a license or person with an International Driving Permit or license engages in conduct that comes to meet the criteria that Cabinet Order prescribes which is referred to in Article 102-2, a public safety commission must promptly notify that person, in writing and pursuant to Cabinet Office Order, that it will conduct the training set forth in Article 108-2, paragraph (1), item (xiii).
(Asking Others to Handle Administrative Processes Involved in Issuing Training Notices)
Article 108-3-3 (1) A public safety commission may ask a corporation that Cabinet Office Order prescribes to handle all or part of the administrative processes involved in notifying persons as under Article 108-3, paragraph (1) or the preceding Article (referred to as "administrative processes involved in issuing training notices" in the following paragraph).
(2) It is prohibited for the current or former officer or employee of a corporation that has been asked to handle the administrative processes involved in issuing training notices pursuant to the preceding paragraph to divulge confidential information learned in connection with the processes that it handles.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 117-5, item (iii) applies to paragraph (2) of this Article.) 
(Ordering Bicycle Riders to Undergo Training)
Article 108-3-4 If a person has repeatedly engaged in conduct, when riding a bicycle, that violates this Act, an order under this Act, or a measure under this Act, and which Cabinet Order prescribes as likely to cause a road traffic hazard (referred to as "dangerous conduct" in the following Article), and the public safety commission finds that the person's bicycle riding is likely to cause further road traffic hazards, it may order the person to undergo the training prescribed in Article 108-2, paragraph (1), item (xiv), (referred to as "bicycle rider training" in the following Article) within a period of up to three months that it fixes, pursuant to Cabinet Office Order.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 120, paragraph (1), item (xvii)) 
(Reporting on Orders for Bicycle Riders to Undergo Training and Related Matters)
Article 108-3-5 When a public safety commission issues an order under the preceding Article or when a bicycle rider has engaged in dangerous conduct or undergone bicycle rider training, the commission must report the information that Cabinet Office Order prescribes to the National Public Safety Commission. This being the case, the National Public Safety Commission must notify each public safety commission information reported to it in order to ensure propriety in their bicycle rider training.
(Designated Training Institutions)
Article 108-4 (1) A public safety commission may have the training set forth in one of the following items conducted by a person it designates as one that is found to meet the requirements set forth in the relevant item (hereinafter referred to as a "designated training institution"):
(i) the training set forth in Article 108-2, paragraph (1), item (ii) (hereinafter referred to in this Article and paragraph (1) of the following Article as "training for persons stripped of driving privileges"): one that employs a person that the Rules of the National Public Safety Commission prescribe as having expert knowledge in testing persons for the necessary competence to drive motor vehicles and motorized bicycles and in giving instruction based on this (hereinafter referred to as "instruction in competent driving") (referred to as a "driving competency instructor" in the following Article) and that otherwise meets the criteria that the Rules of the National Public Safety Commission prescribe as being necessary for an institution to meet in order to conduct training for persons stripped of driving privileges in a proper and reliable manner; or
(ii) novice driver training: one that employs a person that the Rules of the National Public Safety Commission prescribe as having a high level of ability in giving instruction in the necessary skills and knowledge to drive motor vehicles and motorized bicycles (referred to as "instruction in proficient driving" in the following Article) (referred to as "driving proficiency instructor" in the following Article) and that otherwise meets the criteria that the Rules of the National Public Safety Commission prescribe as being necessary for an institution to meet in order to conduct novice driver training in a proper and reliable manner.
(2) Designation under the preceding paragraph is conferred at the application of a person seeking to conduct training for persons stripped of driving privileges or novice driver training (hereinafter referred to as "specified training").
(3) A person as referred to in any of the following items may not be designated as under paragraph (1):
(i) one other than a general incorporated association, general incorporated foundation, or designated driving school;
(ii) one whose designation has been revoked pursuant to paragraph (1) or (2) of Article 108-11, if it has been less than two years since the date of that revocation;
(iii) one that has been sentenced to imprisonment without work or a heavier punishment for committing an offense referred to in Article 2 through Article 6 of the Act on Punishment for When a Motor Vehicle Is Driven in a Way That Results in a Death or Injury, or an offense prescribed in this Act if it has been less than two years since the day on which the person completed the sentence or ceased to be subject to its execution; or
(iv) a corporation with an officer as referred to in the preceding item.
(4) A public safety commission designates a person as under paragraph (1) may choose not to conduct the specified training for which it has designated that person.
(Driving Competency Instructors; Driving Proficiency Instructors)
Article 108-5 (1) A designated training institution that conducts training for persons stripped of driving privileges must not allow a person other than a driving competency instructor to engage in instruction in competent driving.
(2) A designated training institution that conducts novice driver training must not allow a person other than a driving proficiency instructor to engage in instruction in proficient driving.
(3) A public safety commission may order a designated training institution to dismiss a driving competency instructor or driving proficiency instructor who engages in a wrongful act in connection with instruction in competent driving or instruction in proficient driving.
(Regulations for Training Operations)
Article 108-6 (1) Before starting to implement specified training, a designated training institution must establish regulations for specified training operations (referred to as "regulations for training operations" in the following paragraph) and have them approved by a public safety commission. The same applies if it seeks to change these.
(2) Rules of the National Public Safety Commission provide for the particulars of what must be specified in the regulations for training operations.
(Duty of Confidentiality; Related Considerations)
Article 108-7 (1) It is prohibited for the current or former officer (or the person operating the facility, if the designated driving school in question is not a corporation; the same applies in the following paragraph) or employee of a designated training institution to divulge confidential information learned in connection with specified training operations.
(2) To apply the Penal Code and other penal provisions, the officers and employees of designated training institutions who are engaged in specified training operations are deemed to be employees engaged in public service pursuant to laws and regulations.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 117-5, item (iii) applies to paragraph (1) of this Article.) 
(Orders for Conformity; Supervisory Orders)
Article 108-8 (1) If a public safety commission finds that a designated training institution no longer conforms to a criterion that Article 108-4, paragraph (1) prescribes, it may order the designated training institution to take the necessary measures to conform to that criterion.
(2) Beyond what is prescribed in the preceding paragraph, on finding it to be necessary to do so in order to ensure the proper and reliable implementation of specified training, a public safety commission may issue orders that are necessary, from a supervisory perspective, with regard to the operations of a designated training institution.
(Inspections; Other Measures)
Article 108-9 A public safety commission may inspect a designated training institution to see whether it conforms to the criteria prescribed in the items of Article 108-4, paragraph (1) or is being operated in accordance with Article 108-5, paragraph (1) or (2), and may ask it to report as necessary or submit the necessary materials.
(Suspension or Discontinuance of Training)
Article 108-10 A designated training institution must not suspend or discontinue the whole or part of specified training without obtaining permission from a public safety commission.
(Rescission of Designation)
Article 108-11 (1) A public safety commission must revoke the designation of a designated training institution if it comes to fall under Article 108-4, paragraph (3), item (i), (iii), or (iv).
(2) A public safety commission may revoke the designation of a designated training institution if it comes to fall under one of the following items:
(i) it violates Article 108-5, paragraph (1) or (2), Article 108-6, paragraph (1), or the preceding Article; or
(ii) it violates an order under Article 108-5, paragraph (3) or Article 108-8, paragraph (1) or (2).
(Delegation to the Rules of the National Public Safety Commission)
Article 108-12 Beyond what is prescribed in Article 108-4 through the preceding Article, the Rules of the National Public Safety Commission provide for the necessary particulars in connection with designated training institutions.
Chapter VI-3 The Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis
(Designation; Other Matters)
Article 108-13 (1) At the application of a general incorporated association or general incorporated foundation that aims to contribute to the safety and fluidity of road traffic by carrying out investigations, research, and other activities that help prevent traffic accidents and lessen the damage they cause, and which is found to be able to carry out the operations prescribed in the following Article in a proper and reliable manner, the National Public Safety Commission may designate a maximum of one such association or foundation nationwide as the Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis (hereinafter referred to in this Chapter as "ITARDA").
(2) Upon conferring the designation under the preceding paragraph, the National Public Safety Commission must issue public notice of the name and address of ITARDA and of the localities of its offices.
(3) Before changing its name or address or the locality of its offices, ITARDA must notify the National Public Safety Commission of this.
(4) Upon being notified as under the preceding paragraph, the National Public Safety Commission must issue public notice of this.
(Activities)
Article 108-14 ITARDA is to carry out the following operations:
(i) investigating road traffic conditions, the status of drivers, and other features of traffic accidents in light of actual instances of traffic accidents, so as to contribute to scientific research into the causes of traffic accidents;
(ii) analyzing information and materials connected with investigations as prescribed in the preceding item (hereinafter referred to in this Chapter as "case-study investigations") and other information and materials concerning individual traffic accidents, in order to conduct scientific research into the causes of traffic accidents;
(iii) collecting and analyzing information and materials about traffic accidents in general and otherwise conducting scientific investigations and research into traffic accidents;
(iv) sharing the results of analyses under item (ii) and the results of analyses and investigation and research under the preceding item in order to cooperate in measures that the public safety commissions take pursuant to Article 108-26;
(v) sharing the results of analyses under item (ii) and the results of analyses and investigation and research under item (iii), on a regular or timely basis, in order to spread knowledge about traffic accidents and heighten public awareness on traffic accident prevention, beyond as set forth in the preceding item;
(vi) exchanging information with institutions that investigate and research traffic accidents occurring in foreign countries; and
(vii) carrying out operations incidental to those set forth in the preceding items.
(Rules to Be Observed by Persons Engaged in Case-Study Investigations)
Article 108-15 (1) In requesting cooperation from the relevant persons in order to carry out a case-study investigation, ITARDA employees engaged in the investigation must take care not to disturb those persons' normal lives or operations.
(2) ITARDA employees conducting case-study investigations must carry identification and present it at the request of a relevant person.
(Cooperation with ITARDA)
Article 108-16 (1) If requested by ITARDA, the chief of a police station may provide ITARDA with information on the occurrence of a traffic accident and other necessary information or materials that the Rules of the National Public Safety Commission prescribe, but only so far as is necessary in order for ITARDA to conduct a case-study investigation.
(2) If requested by ITARDA, the National Police Agency and prefectural police may provide ITARDA with the necessary information and materials that the Rules of the National Public Safety Commission prescribe in order for ITARDA to carry out the activities set forth in item (iii) of Article 108-14.
(Regulations on Management of Specified Information)
Article 108-17 (1) ITARDA must establish regulations for the compilation and operation of a traffic accident database (meaning a collection of information from case-study investigations and information with which it has been provided under paragraph (2) of the preceding Article (hereinafter referred to in this Article and Article 108-19 as "specified information"), which is systematically organized so that it can be searched using a computer), and for other management and use of specified information (hereinafter referred to in this Article and Article 108-19 as "regulations on management of specified information"), and must have these approved by the National Public Safety Commission. The same applies if it seeks to change them.
(2) The National Public Safety Commission may order ITARDA to change the regulations on management of specified information it has approved as referred to in the preceding paragraph if it finds them to have become inappropriate for the proper management or use of specified information.
(3) Rules of the National Public Safety Commission provide for the particulars that must be specified in the regulations on management of specified information.
(Duty of Confidentiality)
Article 108-18 It is prohibited for the current or former officer or employee ITARDA to divulge confidential information learned in connection with the activities set forth in items (i) through (iii) of Article 108-14.
(Applicable Penal provisions: item (iii) of Article 117-5) 
(Order for Dismissal)
Article 108-19 If an ITARDA officer or employee fails to abide by the regulations on management of specified information in managing or using specified information or violates the preceding Article, the National Public Safety Commission may order ITARDA to dismiss that officer or employee.
(Submission of Business Plans and Other Documents)
Article 108-20 (1) ITARDA must prepare a business plan and an income and expenditure budget for each business year and submit them to the National Public Safety Commission before the beginning of the business year. The same applies if it seeks to change these.
(2) ITARDA must prepare a business report, settlement of accounts, balance sheet, and inventory of assets for each business year and submit them to the National Public Safety Commission within three months after the end of the business year.
(Reporting and Inspection)
Article 108-21 (1) On finding it to be necessary to do so in connection with the operation of ITARDA's activities, the National Public Safety Commission may have ITARDA provide the necessary reporting about its activities, and may a National Police Agency official enter its office to inspect the status of its activities or its books, documents, or other articles.
(2) Officials conducting on-site inspections pursuant to the preceding paragraph must carry identification and present it at the request of a relevant person.
(3) The authority for an on-site inspection under paragraph (1) must not be construed as authorizing a criminal investigation.
(Supervisory Orders)
Article 108-22 The National Public Safety Commission may issue orders to ITARDA that are necessary from a supervisory perspective, but only so far as is necessary to enforce this Chapter.
(Revoking a Designation; Related Considerations)
Article 108-23 (1) The National Public Safety Commission may revoke the designation of ITARDA if it violates this Chapter or an order under paragraph (2) of Article 108-17, Article 108-19 or the preceding Article.
(2) Having revoked a designation pursuant to the preceding paragraph, the National Public Safety Commission must issue public notice of this.
(Consideration for ITARDA Operations)
Article 108-24 The National Police Agency and prefectural police must extend the necessary consideration to ITARDA to ensure the smooth operation of its activities, pursuant to Rules of the National Public Safety Commission.
(Delegation to Rules of the National Public Safety Commission)
Article 108-25 Beyond what is prescribed in Article 108-13 through the preceding Article, the Rules of the National Public Safety Commission provide for the necessary particulars concerning ITARDA.
Chapter VI-4 Facilitation of Organized Activities in the Private Sector and Elsewhere to Contribute to the Safety and Fluidity of Traffic
(Measures to Facilitate Organized Activities in the Private Sector and Elsewhere)
Article 108-26 (1) A public safety commission must provide information, advice, and guidance, and take other necessary measures, in harmony and coordination with the activities of the relevant organizations and groups, in order to facilitate the following organized activities undertaken voluntarily in the private-sector to contribute to the safety and fluidity of road traffic:
(i) traffic safety education for persons using the road;
(ii) activities to ensure safe road use by persons using the road, including pedestrian guidance;
(iii) informative activities on correct traffic rules and traffic accident prevention and other informative activities that contribute to the safety and fluidity of road traffic;
(iv) educational activities on proper on-road vehicle parking and road use, educational activities on proper bicycle traffic, and other educational activities to contribute to the safety and fluidity of road traffic; and
(v) activities other than as set forth in the preceding items which contribute to the safety and fluidity of road traffic.
(2) A public safety commission must provide the heads of local governments with information on the occurrence of traffic accidents in their areas, cooperate in training for their employees, and take other necessary measures in order to ensure the accurate and smooth implementation of traffic safety measures by local governments (other than those implemented by public safety commissions).
(Traffic Safety Education)
Article 108-27 A public safety commission must endeavor to provide residents with traffic safety education in order to deepen their understanding of correct traffic rules and traffic accident prevention.
(Establishment of Traffic Safety Education Guidelines and Rules of the Road)
Article 108-28 (1) The National Public Safety Commission must create and publicize guidelines for traffic safety education consisting of the following points (hereinafter referred to as "traffic safety education guidelines") in order to enable persons (other than public safety commissions) that are involved in traffic safety education for persons using the road to provide effective and appropriate traffic safety education, as well for use as the basis for the traffic safety education referred to in the preceding Article that public safety commissions provide:
(i) the details and methods of traffic safety education for providing persons with opportunities to acquire skills and knowledge about correct traffic rules, including the necessary skills and knowledge for persons to safely drive motor vehicles;
(ii) the details and methods of traffic safety education for providing persons with opportunities to acquire knowledge about traffic accident prevention; and
(iii) the necessary information beyond what is set forth in the preceding two items for effectively and appropriately implementing traffic safety education for persons using the road.
(2) Traffic safety education guidelines must be created with consideration to enabling persons using the road to gain a greater willingness to acquire, of their own accord, skills and knowledge about correct traffic rules and traffic accident prevention through learning opportunities involving traffic safety education, as well as with consideration to enabling them to gradually and systematically gain such skills and knowledge in keeping with their ages; the ways in which they use the road; and the business activities of those of them using the road in the course of business.
(3) The National Public Safety Commission must endeavor to cooperate closely with the heads of relevant administrative organs in creating the traffic safety education guidelines pursuant to paragraph (1).
(4) The National Public Safety Commission must create and publicize rules of the road consisting of the following points, in order to enable persons using the road to easily understand correct traffic rules:
(i) road traffic rules prescribed by laws and regulations;
(ii) points that the commission wants persons using the road to strictly observe in order to prevent road hazards and ensure the safety and fluidity of road traffic or to prevent problems arising from road traffic; and
(iii) motor vehicle structure and other knowledge that persons need in order to drive motor vehicles and motorized bicycles, beyond what is set forth in the preceding two items.
(Facilitators of Regional Traffic Safety Activities)
Article 108-29 (1) A public safety commission may commission facilitators of regional traffic safety activities from among persons with knowledge of regional traffic conditions who meet the following requirements:
(i) there is public confidence in their character and conduct;
(ii) they have the necessary enthusiasm and time to perform their duties;
(iii) they are financially stable; and
(iv) they are healthy and active.
(2) A facilitator of regional traffic safety activities engages in the following activities:
(i) educating residents in traffic safety to deepen their understanding of correct traffic rules and traffic accident prevention;
(ii) facilitating action to deepen residents' understanding of how to ensure safe road use by elderly persons, persons with disabilities, and other persons with difficulty using the road;
(iii) facilitating action to deepen residents' understanding of proper on-road vehicle parking and road usage;
(iv) facilitating action to deepen residents' understanding of proper road use by bicycles; and
(v) activities that Rules of the National Public Safety Commission prescribe which contribute to the safety and fluidity of regional traffic, beyond what is set forth in the preceding items.
(3) The traffic safety education referred to in item (i) of the preceding paragraph must be provided in accordance with the traffic safety education guidelines.
(4) Facilitator of Regional Traffic Safety Activities is an honorary title.
(5) A public safety commission may relieve a facilitator of regional traffic safety activities of duty if:
(i) the facilitator comes to no longer meet any of the requirements set forth in the items of paragraph (1);
(ii) the facilitator violates an official obligation or neglects their duties; or
(iii) the facilitator engages in conduct unbecoming of a facilitator of regional traffic safety activities.
(6) Beyond what is prescribed in the preceding paragraphs, Rules of the National Public Safety Commission provide for the necessary particulars in connection with facilitators of regional traffic safety activities.
(Committee for Facilitating Regional Traffic Safety Activities)
Article 108-30 (1) Facilitators of regional traffic safety activities form part of the committees for facilitating regional traffic safety activities established in each area that a public safety commission specifies.
(2) A committee for facilitating regional traffic safety activities is to set out a policy on the activities referred to in paragraph (2) of the preceding Article for when these are carried out by facilitators of regional traffic safety activities; provide communication and coordination among facilitators of regional traffic safety activities; and perform other necessary tasks that the Rules of the National Public Safety Commission prescribe to enable facilitators of regional traffic safety activities to efficiently perform their duties.
(3) A committee for facilitating regional traffic safety activities may offer the opinion it considers to be necessary in connection with the activities of facilitators of regional traffic safety activities to the public safety commission and the chief of the police station having jurisdiction over the area for which the committee has been established.
(4) Beyond what is prescribed in the preceding three paragraphs, Rules of the National Public Safety Commission provide for the necessary particulars in connection with committees for facilitating regional traffic safety activities.
(Prefectural Centers for Facilitating Traffic Safety Activities)
Article 108-31 (1) At the application of a general incorporated association or general incorporated foundation that aims to contribute to the safety and fluidity of road traffic, and which is found to be able to carry out the operations prescribed in the following paragraph in a proper and reliable manner, a public safety commission may designate a maximum of one such association or foundation prefecture-wide as the prefectural center for facilitating traffic safety activities (hereinafter referred to as a "prefectural center").
(2) A prefectural center is to carry out the following operations within the boundaries of the prefecture:
(i) carrying out informative activities regarding correct traffic rules, traffic accident prevention, and other issues of road traffic safety;
(ii) carrying out educational activities on correct traffic rules, traffic accident prevention, and other issues of road traffic safety;
(iii) handling requests for consultation about traffic accidents;
(iv) handling inquiries and requests for consultation about the regulation of on-road vehicle parking, road traffic, and road usage;
(v) carrying out informative activities regarding the regulation of on-road vehicle parking, road traffic, and road usage (other than as under item (i));
(vi) carrying out educational activities on proper on-road vehicle parking and road usage (other than as under item (ii));
(vii) implementing surveys on road or traffic conditions commissioned by the chief of a police station in connection with permission as under Article 56, Article 57, paragraph (3), or Article 77, paragraph (1);
(viii) implementing surveys on the condition of structures and objects on the road commissioned by the chief of a police station (other than in connection with the permission referred to in the preceding item);
(ix) providing instruction in competent driving (other than guidance for drivers of motor vehicles used for motor carrier services as prescribed in Article 2, paragraph (2) of the Road Transportation Act (including Type II cargo transportation services as prescribed in Article 2, paragraph (8) of the Cargo Forwarder Service Act));
(x) supporting organized activities undertaken voluntarily in the private-sector to contribute to the safety and fluidity of road traffic;
(xi) conducting training for facilitators of regional traffic safety activities;
(xii) providing communication and coordination in connection with the administrative functions of committees for facilitating regional traffic safety activities and providing other support for the performance of their duties; and
(xiii) operations incidental to those set forth in the preceding items.
(3) A public safety commission may order the prefectural center to take necessary measures to improve its financial status or the running of its operations if it finds that these need improvement.
(4) A public safety commission may revoke the designation under paragraph (1) if the prefectural center violates an order under the preceding paragraph.
(5) It is prohibited for the current or former officer or employee of a prefectural center to divulge confidential information learned in connection with the activities set forth in paragraph (2), item (iii) or items (vii) through (ix) of this Article.
(6) To apply the Penal Code and other penal provisions, the officers and employees of prefectural centers who are engaged in the activities set forth in paragraph (2), item (vii) and (viii) are deemed to be employees engaged in public service pursuant to laws and regulations.
(7) A prefectural center must carry out the operations set forth in the items of paragraph (2) in harmony and coordination with the activities of the relevant organizations and groups so that they can carry out those activities smoothly.
(8) Rules of the National Public Safety Commission provide for the procedures for the designation referred to in paragraph (1) and other necessary particulars in connection with prefectural centers.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 117-5, item (iii) applies to paragraph (5) of this Article.) 
(National Center for Facilitating Traffic Safety Activities)
Article 108-32 (1) At the application of a general incorporated association or general incorporated foundation that aims to contribute to the safety and fluidity of road traffic, and which is found to be able to carry out the operations prescribed in the following paragraph in a proper and reliable manner, the National Public Safety Commission may designate a maximum of one such association or foundation nationwide as the national center for facilitating traffic safety activities (hereinafter referred to as the "national center").
(2) The national center is to carry out the following operations:
(i) training persons in charge of traffic accident consultations; persons in charge of inquiries and consultations on the regulation of on-road vehicle parking, road traffic, and road usage; persons in charge of instruction in competent driving; and persons handling other activities of prefectural centers;
(ii) carrying out informative activities on correct traffic rules, traffic accident prevention, and other issues of road traffic safety in the areas of two or more prefectures;
(iii) carrying out educational activities on correct traffic rules, traffic accident prevention, and other issues of road traffic safety in the areas of two or more prefectures;
(iv) carrying out educational activities on proper on-road vehicle parking and road usage in the areas of two or more prefectures (other than as under the preceding item);
(v) carrying out investigations and research on the regulation of on-road vehicle parking and road traffic, road usage, and instruction in competent driving;
(vi) conducting training in the necessary skills and knowledge to improve the quality of persons that are involved in traffic safety education for persons using the road (other than training for the operations managers as prescribed in the Road Transportation Act and the Act on Motor Vehicle Cargo Transportation Services, and other training that Rules of the National Public Safety Commission prescribe);
(vii) providing communication and coordination in connection with the operations of prefectural centers; and
(viii) operations incidental to those set forth in the preceding items.
(3) The provisions of paragraphs (3), (4), (7), and (8) of the preceding Article apply mutatis mutandis to the national center. In such a case, the term "a public safety commission" in paragraph (3) of that Article is deemed to be replaced with "the National Public Safety Commission"; the phrases "a public safety commission" and "paragraph (1)" in paragraph (4) of that Article are deemed to be replaced with "the National Public Safety Commission" and "paragraph (1) of the following Article", respectively; the phrase "the items of paragraph (2)" in paragraph (7) of that Article is deemed to be replaced with "the items of paragraph (2) of the following Article"; and the phrase "paragraph (1)" in paragraph (8) of that Article is deemed to be replaced with "paragraph (1) of the following Article".
(Accreditation of Education for Licensed Drivers)
Article 108-32-2 (1) For each of the categories of program that Rules of the National Public Safety Commission prescribe, a person using a driving school or other such facility to provide persons who are licensed at the time in question (other than under provisional licenses) with education aimed at improving their driving skills and deepening their road traffic knowledge (hereinafter referred to as "education for licensed drivers") may apply with the public safety commission having jurisdiction over the location of the facility to receive accreditation showing that the education for licensed drivers that the person provides through a program at that facility conforms to all of the following:
(i) it is provided by a person who has been issued an instructor certificate or by any other person that Rules of the National Public Safety Commission prescribe as being able to effectively and appropriately provide education for licensed drivers;
(ii) equipment conforming to the criteria that Cabinet Order prescribes which is referred to in item (iv) of paragraph (1) of Article 99, or anything else that Rules of the National Public Safety Commission prescribe as equipment for effectively and appropriately providing education for licensed drivers is used to provide it; and
(iii) it is provided in accordance with the traffic safety education guidelines, and the program conforms to the criteria that Rules of the National Public Safety Commission prescribe.
(2) Upon granting the accreditation referred to in the preceding paragraph, a public safety commission must issue public notice of this pursuant to Rules of the National Public Safety Commission.
(3) A person providing education for licensed drivers must not use the characters "公安委員会認定" (meaning "accredited by the public safety commission") in the name of a program of education for licensed drivers without obtaining the accreditation referred to in paragraph (1).
(4) Article 98, paragraphs (3) through (5) apply mutatis mutandis to persons providing education for licensed drivers under the accreditation referred to in paragraph (1). In such a case, the phrase "motor vehicle driving instruction" in paragraph (3) of that Article is deemed to be replaced with "education for licensed drivers as referred to in Article 108-32-2, paragraph (1) which has been accredited as referred to in that paragraph" and the phrase "instruction at the driving school" in that paragraph is deemed to be replaced with "education for licensed drivers"; and the phrase "instruction in motor vehicle driving skills or knowledge at the driving school" in paragraph (4) of that Article is deemed to be replaced with "the education for licensed drivers referred to in Article 108-32-2, paragraph (1)".
(5) If a public safety commission finds that education for licensed drivers that has been accredited as referred to in paragraph (1) no longer conforms to one of the items of that paragraph, it may revoke the accreditation.
(6) Beyond what is prescribed in the preceding paragraphs, Rules of the National Public Safety Commission provide for applying for accreditation as referred to in paragraph (1) and other necessary particulars of accreditation as referred to in that paragraph.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 123-2 applies to paragraph (3) of this Article.) 
Chapter VII Miscellaneous Provisions
(Special Rules on the Application of Provisions on the Denial of Licenses and Other Such Measures)
Article 108-33 Article 19, Article 58, paragraph (1), and Article 73, paragraph (1) of the Act on Vehicles for Road Transportation (including as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to Article 97-3, paragraph (2) of that Act), Article 5 of theAutomobile Liability Security Act (Act No. 97 of 1955), or Article 11, paragraph (1) or paragraph (2) of the Act on Securing Parking Spaces for Motor Vehicles (Act No. 145 of 1962) are deemed to be provisions of this Act, in order to apply Article 67, paragraph (2), Article 90, paragraph (1), item (iv) and (v), Article 92-2, paragraph (1), the main clause of Article 100-2, paragraph (1) or item (iv) of that paragraph, Article 102-2, Article 103, paragraph (1), item (v), Article 106, Article 107-5, paragraph (1), item (ii), and the following Article.
(NotifyingUsers)
Article 108-34 If the driver of a vehicle or streetcar violates this Act, an order under this Act, or a measure under this Act and the public safety commission finds that the violation has been committed in connection with the business of the user of the vehicle or streetcar in which the violation was committed, it is to notify the relevant person of the details of the violation, pursuant to Cabinet Office Order; if the user of that vehicle or streetcar is a passenger motor carrier under the Road Transportation Act, a person engaged in Type II cargo transportation services under the Cargo Forwarder Service Act, or the operator of a track under the Railroad Act, the commission is to notify the administrative agencies that supervise it and its business, and if the user of that vehicle or streetcar is a person other than any of these, the commission is to notify the user of the vehicle or streetcar, itself.
(Storing Licenses and International Driving Permit or License)
Article 109 (1) On finding that the driver of a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle has violated the penal provisions of this Act when driving, a police officer may demand that the driver submit a license or International Driving Permit or license on the spot, and then store it as the custodian thereof. When doing so, a police officer must issue a deposit certificate.
(2) To apply Article 95 (including as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to the second sentence of Article 107-3) and the first sentence of Article 107-3, a deposit certificate as referred to in the preceding paragraph is deemed to be a license or International Driving Permit or license.
(3) The police officer in question must return a license or International Driving Permit or license of which the officer is acting as custodian pursuant to paragraph (1) if the person submitting it appears on the date and time and at the place specified by the police officer or if the person submitting it requests its return after that date and time has passed.
(4) A person to whom a license or International Driving Permit or license is returned pursuant to the preceding paragraph must return the deposit certificate in exchange.
(5) When demanding that a person submit a license or International Driving Permit or license pursuant to paragraph (1), a police officer must inform the person of the date, time, and place to appear and explain the main points of the preceding three paragraphs.
(6) Rules of the National Public Safety Commission provide for the valid term of deposit certificates as prescribed in paragraph (1), the information to be given in them, and other necessary particulars concerning deposit certificates.
(Providing Drivers with Traffic Information)
Article 109-2 (1) A public safety commission must endeavor to provide drivers of vehicles with the information they need to travel the road with their vehicles (hereinafter referred to in this Article and the following Article as "traffic information"), pursuant to Cabinet Office Order.
(2) A public safety commission may ask a person that Cabinet Office Order prescribes to handle the administrative functions involved in providing drivers with traffic information.
(3) The National Public Safety Commission must create and publicize guidelines for providing drivers with traffic information in order to ensure that persons carrying out operations to provide drivers with traffic information are able to provide traffic information accurately and appropriately.
(4) A person carrying out operations to provide drivers with traffic information (other than what a public safety commission or a person asked to handle administrative functions under paragraph (2) carries out, and other than what the manager of a road under the Road Act carries out for the maintenance, repair, or other management of the road; the same applies in paragraph (1) of the following Article) must take care to prevent road hazards and to otherwise contribute to the safety and fluidity of traffic by providing traffic information accurately and appropriately in accordance with the guidelines for providing drivers with traffic information that are referred to in the preceding paragraph.
Article 109-3 (1) A person seeking to carry out operations to provide drivers with traffic information that fall under one of the following items (hereinafter referred to in this Article as "operations to provide drivers with specified traffic information") must file the name and address thereof (or, if it is a corporation, its name, the name of its representative, and the locality of its principal office), how the person will collect and provide the traffic information, and the information that Cabinet Office Order prescribes with the National Public Safety Commission, pursuant to Cabinet Office Order. The same applies if a piece of information that the that person has filed with the commission changes:
(i) operations for predicting road traffic congestion; or
(ii) operations for predicting the time required to arrive at a destination.
(2) On finding that a person carrying out operations to provide drivers with specified traffic information has caused a road traffic hazard or congestion by providing inaccurate and inappropriate traffic information, the National Public Safety Commission may recommend that the person take the necessary measures to provide drivers with accurate and appropriate traffic information, fixing a reasonable period for this in light of the level of technology involved in the operations set forth in the preceding paragraph and other circumstances.
(3) If the National Public Safety Commission has made a recommendation under the preceding paragraph, but the person carrying out the operations to provide drivers with specified traffic information that has received that recommendation fails to comply with it, the National Public Safety Commission may publicly announce this, giving the details of its recommendation.
(4) The National Public Safety Commission may have a person carrying out operations to provide drivers with specified traffic information report on the necessary matters, but only so far as is necessary to enforce the preceding two paragraphs.
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 119-3, paragraph (1), item (vii) and Article 123 apply to paragraph (1) of this Article. Article 119-3, paragraph (1), item (viii) and Article 123 apply to paragraph (4) of this Article.) 
(Authority of the National Public Safety Commission to Issue Instructions)
Article 110 (1) On finding it to be necessary to do so in order to ensure uniformity in the regulation of traffic on nationwide arterial roads (other than national expressways and limited highways that the National Public Safety Commission designates in accordance with the standards that Cabinet Order prescribes), the National Public Safety Commission may instruct a public safety commission, pursuant to Cabinet Order, regarding the handling of administrative processes involving the maximum speed limit for vehicles or streetcars and other things that Cabinet Order prescribes over which the public safety commission has authority under this Act.
(2) The National Public Safety Commission may instruct a public safety commission regarding the enforcement of this Act on a national expressway or limited highway it designates pursuant to the preceding paragraph, on finding it to be particularly necessary to do so in order to prevent hazards or otherwise ensure the safety and fluidity of traffic on those roads.
(Procedures for Specified Regulation and Other Control of Traffic)
Article 110-2 (1) On receipt of a request as referred to in Article 21, paragraph (1) or Article 23, paragraph (2) of the Air Pollution Control Act (Act No. 97 of 1968), Article 17, paragraph (1) of the Noise Regulation Act (Act No. 98 of 1968), or Article 16, paragraph (1) of the Vibration Regulation Act (Act No. 64 of 1976), or on learning that a traffic nuisance has occurred and finding it to be necessary to do so, a public safety commission may carry out the administrative processes to prevent traffic nuisances over which it has authority pursuant to Article 4, paragraph (1). When doing so, the public safety commission may ask the prefectural governor or head of the relevant local government to provide materials relating to the traffic nuisance, if it finds this to be necessary.
(2) If a public safety commission seeks to prohibit motor vehicles from entering onto a road based on Article 4, paragraph (1) using road signs or markings as referred to in Article 8, paragraph (1), and the prohibition is likely to have a significant effect on road traffic across a wide area, it must hear the opinions of the prefectural governor, the heads of the relevant local administrative organs, and the persons that Cabinet Order prescribes.
(3) Before regulating traffic based on Article 4, paragraph (1) using road signs or markings as referred to in Article 2, paragraph (1), item (iii), item (iii)-4, item (iv), item (iv)-2, or item (vii), Article 4, paragraph (3), Article 8, paragraph (1), Article 13, paragraph (2), Article 17, paragraph (4), paragraph (5), item (v), or paragraph (6), Article 22, paragraph (1), Article 23, Article 34, paragraph (5), Article 49, paragraph (1), Article 63-4, paragraph (1), item (i), or Article 63-7, paragraph (2) (but only road signs or markings that Cabinet Office Order/Order of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism prescribes, if they are as referred to in Article 17, paragraph (6); and only road signs or markings showing a maximum speed limit exceeding that which Cabinet Order prescribes as referred to in Article 22, paragraph (1), if they are as referred to in that paragraph; the same applies hereinafter in this Article), a public safety commission (or the chief of a police station to whom authority has been delegated pursuant to Article 5, paragraph (1); the same applies hereinafter in this Article) must hear the opinion of the manager of the road on which the traffic would be so regulated (but only if it is a road as under the Road Act, for road signs or markings other than as referred to in Article 22, paragraph (1) and Article 63-4, paragraph (1), item (i)); provided, however, that this does not apply if traffic will be regulated using road signs or markings as prescribed in Article 8, paragraph (1) and urgent circumstances are found to compel the commission to do otherwise, in which case the commission is to notify the manager of its regulation of traffic promptly after doing so.
(4) Notwithstanding the main clause of the preceding paragraph, before regulating traffic on a national expressway or limited highway based on Article 4, paragraph (1) using road signs or markings as referred to in the main clause of the preceding paragraph, Article 17, paragraph (5), item (iv), Article 30, Article 42, or Article 75-4, a public safety commission must consult with the manager of the road in question. The proviso of the preceding paragraph applies mutatis mutandis to such a consultation.
(5) Before prohibiting stopping and parking or parking based on Article 4, paragraph (1) on a part of the road that road signs or markings as referred to in Article 44 or Article 45, paragraph (1) show to be an on-street parking spot, a public safety commission must specify the timeframe of that prohibition after hearing the opinion of the local government that set in place the on-street parking spot regarding the fact that it seeks to prohibit this and timeframe of the prohibition. However, the commission may implement the prohibition without hearing the opinion of the local government if urgent circumstances are found to compel this, in which case it must notify the local government that it has implemented the prohibition and of the timeframe for it promptly after doing so.
(6) Before designating, based on Article 4, paragraph (1), a part of the road that road signs or markings as referred to in Article 49, paragraph (1) show to be an on-street parking spot as a time-restricted parking zone, a public safety commission must hear the opinion of the local government that set in place the on-street parking spot.
(7) If a parking space maintenance plan (but only one in which the particulars set forth in Article 3, paragraph (2), item (iv) of the Parking Spaces Act have been provided for) has been established pursuant to Article 4, paragraph (1) of that Act, before designating a time-restricted parking zone, based on Article 4, paragraph (1), using road signs or markings as referred to in Article 49, paragraph (1) within a parking space maintenance zone as prescribed in Article 3, paragraph (1) of the Parking Spaces Act, a public safety commission must hear the opinion of the municipality that has established the plan.
(Road Traffic Surveys)
Article 111 (1) A public safety commission may have a police officer from the prefectural police that is under its administration do a survey of road traffic volumes, routes of travel by vehicle or streetcar, and other necessary road traffic issues, in order to ensure the appropriateness of its regulation of traffic on a road pursuant to this Act.
(2) On finding it to be particularly necessary to do so in order to implement a survey of road traffic pursuant to the preceding paragraph, a police officer may request the driver of a vehicle or streetcar using a road to stop temporarily, and ask questions on the route of travel in the vehicle or streetcar, but only so far as is necessary to implement that survey.
(3) Having implemented a survey under paragraph (1) and on finding it to be necessary to do so, a public safety commission is to notify the manager of the road or relevant administrative agency of the results of the survey, along with its opinion.
(Licensing and Other Fees)
Article 112 (1) A prefectural government must establish prefectural ordinance on the collection of fees associated with the administrative processes that it has been decided the public safety commission is to carry out pursuant to Chapter VI (other than Article 104-4, paragraph (6)) and Chapter VI-2, based on the standard of collecting, from a person as set forth in one of the following items, the standardized amount that Cabinet Order prescribes as the part of the fees that are for building and facility costs plus the standardized amount that Cabinet Order prescribes as the part of those fees that are for personnel costs, in line with the categories that Cabinet Order prescribes for the type of fee provided for in the relevant item:
(i) a person seeking to take a driver's license test under Article 89, paragraph (1): a driver's license testing fee;
(i)-2 a person seeking to undergo an assessment under Article 89, paragraph (3): an assessment fee;
(ii) a person seeking to be retested as under Article 100-2, paragraph (1): a re-testing fee;
(iii) a person seeking to be issued a license under Article 92, paragraph (1): a license issuance fee;
(iv) a person seeking to be re-issued a license under Article 94, paragraph (2): a license re-issuance fee;
(v) a person seeking to renew a license under Article 101, paragraph (1) or Article 101-2, paragraph (1): a license renewal fee;
(v)-2 a person seeking to apply for a license renewal pursuant to Article 101-2-2, paragraph (1): a transfer fee;
(v)-3 a person seeking to undergo a cognitive assessment: a cognitive assessment fee;
(vi) a person subject to restrictions on the type of motor vehicle or motorized bicycle that the person is permitted to drive pursuant to Article 91, who seeks to undergo a screening by the public safety commission in order to have the restrictions lifted in whole or in part: a screening fee;
(vii) a person seeking to be issued a skills evaluator certificate under Article 99-2, paragraph (4): a skills evaluator certificate issuance fee;
(viii) a person seeking to undergo a screening under Article 99-2, paragraph (4), item (i), (a): a skills evaluator screening fee;
(ix) a person seeking to be issued an instructor certificate under Article 99-3, paragraph (4): an instructor certificate issuance fee;
(x) a person seeking to undergo a screening under Article 99-3, paragraph (4), item (i), (a): an instructor screening fee;
(xi) a person seeking to be issued a Foreign Driving Permit under Article 107-7, paragraph (1): a fee for issuance of a Foreign Driving Permit;
(xii) a person seeking to undergo the training set forth in one of the items of Article 108-2, paragraph (1): a training fee; and
(xiii) a person seeking to undergo novice driver training or the training set forth in Article 108-2, paragraph (1), item (xiii): a notice fee.
(2) In a case as referred to in the preceding paragraph, a prefectural government may allow the training fees referred to in item (xii) of that paragraph that are associated with the specified training conducted by a designated training institution to be paid to that institution as its revenue, pursuant to prefectural ordinance.
Article 113 Deleted
(Non-Application of the Administrative Procedure Act)
Article 113-2 Chapter III of the Administrative Procedure Act (other than Article 12 and Article 14) does not apply to any change of conditions or addition of new conditions under Article 77, paragraph (4) or to the revocation or suspension of a permission under paragraph (5) of that Article; to the revocation or suspension of a license under Article 90, paragraph (5), the revocation of a license under paragraph (6) of that Article, or the fixing of a period during which a person may not be granted a license under paragraph (9) or (10) of that Article; to measures based on which a person may be prohibited from taking a driver's license test under Article 97-3, paragraph (3) (but only in connection with the reversal of a decision that a person has passed as referred to in paragraph (1) of that Article); to the revocation or suspension of a license under Article 103, paragraph (1) or (4) (but only in connection with what is provided in paragraph (1), item (v) of that Article), the revocation of a license under paragraph (2) or (4) of that Article (but only in connection with what is provided in paragraph (2), items (i) through (iv) of that Article), or the fixing of a period during which a person may not be granted a license under paragraph (7) or (8) of that Article; to the revocation of a license under Article 104-2-2, paragraph (2) or (4); to the revocation of a provisional license under Article 106-2; or to a prohibition against a person's driving of a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle under Article 107-5, paragraph (1) or Article 103, paragraph (4) as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to Article 107-5, paragraph (9) (but only in connection with what is provided in Article 107-5, paragraph (1), item (ii)) or a prohibition against a person's driving of a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle under Article 107-5, paragraph (2) or Article 103, paragraph (4) as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to Article 107-5, paragraph (9) (but only in connection with what is provided in Article 107-5, paragraph (2), if a person is prohibited from driving a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle under Article 103, paragraph (4) as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to Article 107-5, paragraph (9)).
(Restriction on Requests for Administrative Review)
Article 113-3 A request for administrative review may not be filed against a measure that an officer takes on-site based on this Act.
(Delegation of Authority to the Commissioner General of the National Police Agency)
Article 113-4 Administrative processes falling within the authority of the National Public Safety Commission pursuant to this Act or an order based on this Act (other than processes involved in a designation under Article 110, paragraph (1)) may be delegated to the Commissioner General of the National Police Agency pursuant to Cabinet Order.
(Delegation of Authority to an Area Public Safety Commission)
Article 114 An area public safety commission, pursuant to Cabinet Order, may be made to handle the administrative processes falling within the authority of the Hokkaido public safety commission pursuant to this Act.
(Delegation of Public Safety Commissions' Administrative Processes)
Article 114-2 (1) A public safety commission may have the Superintendent General of the Metropolitan Police or the chief of the prefectural police (hereinafter referred to as the "chief of the prefectural police") handle administrative processes involved in withholding and suspending licenses (including those involved in granting persons opportunities for explanation, hearings, and hearings of opinions when those measures are taken), granting provisional licenses, and revoking provisional licenses.
(2) An area public safety commission may have the chief of area headquarters handle those of the administrative processes prescribed in the preceding paragraph that have been delegated to it by the Hokkaido public safety commission, pursuant to the preceding Article.
(Authority over National Expressways and Limited Highways)
Article 114-3 A police officer in the rank of superintendent or higher who handles administrative processes relating to the traffic police on a national expressway or limited highway may be made to handle those of the administrative processes falling within the authority of the chief of a police station pursuant to this Act which involve that national expressway or limited highway, pursuant to Rules of the Public Safety Commission.
(Traffic Patrol Officers)
Article 114-4 (1) Traffic patrol officers are employed as part of the prefectural police to handle administrative processes connected with ensuring safe road use by pedestrians and bicycles, compliance with regulations on stopping and parking, and other instructions related to the safety and fluidity of road traffic.
(2) Beyond what is prescribed in the preceding paragraph, traffic patrol officers are to handle administrative processes connected with persons' compliance in securing parking spaces for motor vehicles pursuant to the Act on Securing Parking Spaces for Motor Vehicles.
(3) A traffic patrol officer is appointed by the chief of the prefectural police from among the staff members (other than police officers) as prescribed in Article 55, paragraph (1) of the Police Act (Act No. 162 of 1954) who meet the requirements that Cabinet Order prescribes.
(4) A prefectural government is to provide traffic patrol officers with the clothing and lend them the equipment that they need in order to perform their duties, in accordance with the standards that Cabinet Order prescribes and pursuant to prefectural ordinance.
(Regulation of Traffic When Self-Defense Forces Are Mobilized; Related Considerations)
Article 114-5 (1) If a defense mobilization order is issued under Article 76, paragraph (1) of the Self Defense Forces Act and a public safety commission finds it urgently necessary to do so in order for the actions of the Self-Defense Forces or United States Armed Forces prescribed in Article 2, item (iv) of the Act on Measures Implemented by the Government in Line with U.S. Military Actions in Armed Attacks (Act No. 113 of 2004) (hereinafter referred to as the "SDF or USAF") to be implemented reliably and smoothly to repel an armed attack from the exterior against Japan, it may prohibit or restrict vehicle traffic on roads other than those being used by the SDF or USAF, as per Article 155, paragraph (1) of the Act on Measures to Protect the People in Armed Attacks (Act No. 112 of 2004).
(2) Article 76, paragraph (2), Article 76-2, Article 76-3 (other than paragraph (4)), Article 76-5, and Article 82, paragraph (1) of the Basic Act on Disaster Control Measures (Act No. 223 of 1961) apply mutatis mutandis to the prohibition or restriction of entry onto a road pursuant to the preceding paragraph. In such a case, the term "vehicle allowed emergency entry" in Article 76-2, paragraph (1) and paragraph (2) and Article 76-3, paragraph (1) of that Act is deemed to be replaced with "vehicle used by the SDF or USAF"; the phrase "paragraph (1) of the preceding Article" in Article 76-2, paragraph (5) of that Act and the phrase "Article 76, paragraph (1)" in Article 76-3, paragraph (5) of that Act are deemed to be replaced with "Article 114-5, paragraph (1) of the Road Traffic Act"; the term "emergency disaster control measures" in paragraph (1) of that Article and Article 76-5 of that Act is deemed to be replaced with "actions to repel an armed attack from the outside against Japan"; the phrase "a unit, etc. ordered to serve in a disaster relief operation, etc." in the first sentence of Article 76-3, paragraph (3) and paragraph (6) of that Act is deemed to be replaced with "the Self-Defense Forces ordered to serve in a defense operation pursuant to Article 76, paragraph (1) of the Self Defense Forces Act"; the phrase "paragraph (1)" in the second sentence of paragraph (3) of that Article is deemed to be replaced with "paragraph (1) as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to Article 114-5, paragraph (2) of the Road Traffic Act"; the term "vehicle allowed emergency entry" in that paragraph is deemed to be replaced with "vehicle used by the SDF or USAF"; the phrases "SDF vehicle allowed emergency entry (meaning a vehicle allowed emergency entry that is used by the Self-Defense Forces and that is in operation to execute emergency disaster control measures; the same applies hereinafter in this paragraph)" and "SDF vehicle allowed emergency entry" in that paragraph are deemed to be replaced with "vehicle used by the Self-Defense Forces"; and the word "immediately" in paragraph (6) of that Article is deemed to be replaced with "without delay".
(Applicable Penal Provisions: Article 118-3 applies to paragraph (1) of this Article.) 
(Transitional Measures)
Article 114-6 When Cabinet Order, Cabinet Office Order, Rules of the National Public Safety Commission, or Rules of the Prefectural Public Safety Commission are established, amended, or repealed based on this Act, the necessary transitional measures (including transitional measures for penal provisions) may be set forth therein to the extent judged reasonably necessary for its enactment, amendment, or repeal.
(Delegation to Cabinet Office Order)
Article 114-7 Beyond what is prescribed in this Act, Cabinet Office Order provides for the procedures for implementing this Act and other necessary particulars to bring this Act into force.
Chapter VIII Penal Provisions
Article 115 A person who, without due cause, operates a traffic light, relocates a road sign or road marking that a public safety commission has installed, or damages a traffic light or any road sign or road marking that a public safety commission has installed, and thereby causes a road traffic hazard is subject to imprisonment for not more than five years or a fine of not more than 200,000 yen.
Article 116 The driver of a vehicle or streetcar who damages a building belonging to another person because of a failure to exercise due care in the course of business or due to gross negligence is subject to imprisonment without work for not more than six months or a fine of not more than 100,000 yen.
Article 117 (1) If a person dies or is injured by a moving vehicle or streetcar (other than a light road vehicle; the same applies hereinafter in this paragraph) and the driver of that vehicle or streetcar violates the first sentence of Article 72 (Measures in the Event of a Traffic Accident), paragraph (1), the driver is subject to imprisonment for not more than five years or a fine of not more than 500,000 yen.
(2) In a case as referred to in the preceding paragraph, if the death or injury of a person as referred to in that paragraph is attributable to the driver's driving, the driver is subject to imprisonment for not more than 10 years or a fine of not more than one million yen.
Article 117-2 A person as referred to in one of the following items is subject to imprisonment for not more than five years or a fine of not more than one million yen:
(i) a person driving a vehicle or streetcar in violation of Article 65 (Prohibition against Driving Under the Influence of Alcohol and Related Conduct), paragraph (1) while in an intoxicated state (meaning a state that makes it likely for a person to be unable to drive normally due to the influence of alcohol; the same applies hereinafter);
(ii) a person violating Article 65 (Prohibition against Driving Under the Influence of Alcohol and Related Conduct) paragraph (2) (but only if the person provided with the vehicle or streetcar as a result of the violation drives it in an intoxicated state);
(iii) a person violating Article 66 (Prohibition against Driving While Overworked or Otherwise Compromised) (but only one driving a vehicle or streetcar in a state that makes it likely for a person to be unable to drive normally due to the influence of narcotics, marijuana, opium, stimulants, or a substance that Cabinet Order prescribes based on Article 3-3 of the Poisonous and Deleterious Substances Control Act (Act No. 303 of 1950));
(iv) a person ordering or allowing a person to drive a motor vehicle in an intoxicated state, in violation of Article 75 (Responsibilities of Motor Vehicle Users; Related Considerations), paragraph (1), item (iii); or
(v) a person ordering or allowing a person to drive a motor vehicle in a state as prescribed in item (iii), in violation of Article 75 (Responsibilities of Motor Vehicle Users; Related Considerations), paragraph (1), item (iv).
Article 117-2-2 A person as referred to in one of the following items is subject to imprisonment for not more than three years or a fine of not more than 500,000 yen:
(i) a person who, without obtaining the relevant license (this includes if the person's license is suspended pursuant to laws and regulations) or without holding the relevant International Driving Permit or license (this includes if the person falls under one of Article 88, paragraph (1), items (ii) through (iv), or a person whose period of stay counting from the date of landing in Japan is over one year in total), drives a vehicle or streetcar that may be driven or operated only by a person holding a license issued pursuant to laws and regulations (or by a person that it has been decided may drive a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle with an International Driving Permit or license pursuant to Article 107-2);
(ii) a person violating Article 64 (Prohibition against Unlicensed Driving and Related Conduct), paragraph (2) (but only if the person provided with the motor vehicle or motorized bicycle as a result of the violation drives or rides it in violation of paragraph (1) of that Article);
(iii) a person driving a vehicle or streetcar (other than a light road vehicle; the same applies in the following item) in violation of Article 65 (Prohibition against Driving Under the Influence of Alcohol and Related Conduct), paragraph (1), with alcohol in their system at or above the level that Cabinet Order prescribes;
(iv) a person violating Article 65 (Prohibition against Driving Under the Influence of Alcohol and Related Conduct), paragraph (2) (but only if the person provided with the vehicle or streetcar as a result of the violation drives it with alcohol in their system at or above the level that Cabinet Order prescribes which is referred to in the preceding item; other than as under item (ii) of the preceding Article);
(v) a person providing a person with an alcoholic beverage in violation of Article 65 (Prohibition against Driving Under the Influence of Alcohol and Related Conduct), paragraph (3) (but only if the person provided with the alcoholic beverage as a result of the violation drives a vehicle or streetcar in an intoxicated state);
(vi) a person violating Article 65 (Prohibition against Driving Under the Influence of Alcohol and Related Conduct), paragraph (4) (but only if the person violates that paragraph with the knowledge that the driver of the vehicle that the person has gotten into is in an intoxicated state, and the driver drives the vehicle in an intoxicated state);
(vii) a person violating Article 66 (Prohibition against Driving While Overworked or Otherwise Compromised) (other than one falling under item (iii) of the preceding Article);
(viii) a person violating Article 75 (Responsibilities of Motor Vehicle Users; Related Considerations), paragraph (1), item (i);
(ix) a person violating Article 75 (Responsibilities of Motor Vehicle Users; Related Considerations), paragraph (1), item (iii) (but only if the violation causes the driver to drive a motor vehicle in an intoxicated state or with alcohol in their system at or above the level that Cabinet Order prescribes which is referred to in item (iii); other than as under item (iv) of the preceding Article);
(x) a person violating Article 75 (Responsibilities of Motor Vehicle Users; Related Considerations), paragraph (1), item (iv) (other than a person falling under item (v) of the preceding Article); or
(xi) the person was issued a license or Foreign Driving Permit through deception or other wrongful means.
Article 117-3 A person violating Article 68 (Prohibition against Acting in Concert with Another Person in a Dangerous or Annoying Manner) is subject to imprisonment for not more than two years or a fine of not more than 500,000 yen.
Article 117-3-2 A person as referred to in one of the following items is subject to imprisonment for not more than two years or a fine of not more than 300,000 yen:
(i) a person violating Article 64 (Prohibition against Unlicensed Driving and Related Conduct), paragraph (3);
(ii) a person providing a person with an alcoholic beverage in violation of Article 65 (Prohibition against Driving Under the Influence of Alcohol and Related Conduct), paragraph (3) (but only if the person provided with the alcoholic beverage as a result of the violation drives a vehicle or streetcar (other than a light road vehicle) with alcohol in their system at or above the level that Cabinet Oder prescribes which is referred to in Article 117-2-2, item (iii); other than as under item (v) of that Article); or
(iii) a person violating Article 65 (Prohibition against Driving Under the Influence of Alcohol and Related Conduct), paragraph (4) (but only if the driver of the vehicle (other than a light road vehicle; the same applies hereinafter in this item) into which the person has gotten drives the vehicle in an intoxicated state or with alcohol in their system at or above the level that Cabinet Order prescribes which is referred to in Article 117-2-2, item (iii); other than as under item (vi) of that Article).
Article 117-4 A person as referred to in one of the following items is subject to imprisonment for not more than one year or a fine of not more than 300,000 yen:
(i) a person violating Article 51-3 (Asking Others to Handle Administrative Processes Involved in Moving and Storing Vehicles), paragraph (2), Article 51-12 (Agency in Charge of Checking for Abandoned Vehicles), paragraph (6), Article 51-15 (Asking Others to Handle Administrative Processes Related to Abandonment Penalties), paragraph (2), Article 108 (Asking Others to Handle Administrative Processes Involved in Licensing), paragraph (2), or Article 108-2 (Training), paragraph (4); or
(ii) persons giving false information in a questionnaire as referred to in Article 89 (Applying for a License; Related Considerations), paragraph (1), Article 101 (License Renewals and Periodic Screenings), paragraph (1), or Article 101-2 (Special Rules on License Renewal), paragraph (1); or falsely reporting when asked to report by the public safety commission under Article 101-5 (Requesting Licensees to Report) or Article 107-3-2 (Requesting Persons with International Driving Permits and Licenses to Report).
Article 117-5 A person as referred to in one of the following items is subject to imprisonment for not more than one year or a fine of not more than 100,000 yen:
(i) a person violating the first sentence of Article 72 (Measures in the Event of a Traffic Accident), paragraph (1) (other than a person falling under Article 117);
(ii) a person damaging or removing a wheel-lock device in violation of Article 51-2 (Measures against Illegal Parking), paragraph (10); or
(iii) a person violating Article 108-3-3 (Asking Others to Handle Administrative Processes Involved in Training Notices), paragraph (2), Article 108-7 (Duty of Confidentiality; Related Considerations), paragraph (1), Article 108-18 (Duty of Confidentiality), or Article 108-31 (Prefectural Centers for Facilitating Traffic Safety Activities), paragraph (5).
Article 118 (1) A person as referred to in one of the following items is subject to imprisonment for not more than six months or a fine of not more than 100,000 yen:
(i) a person engaging in conduct that constitutes a violation of Article 22 (Maximum Speed Limits);
(ii) a person driving a vehicle while carrying a load that exceeds weight restrictions, in violation of Article 57 (Restrictions on Riding and Loading; Related Considerations), paragraph (1);
(iii) a person failing to comply with the order of the chief of a police station under Article 58-5 (Prohibition on Requiring or Otherwise Compelling Drivers to Drive Overloaded Vehicles), paragraph (2);
(iv) a person violating item (ii) or (v) of paragraph (1) of Article 75 (Responsibilities of Motor Vehicle Users; Related Considerations), paragraph (1), item (ii) or (v);
(v) a person ordering or allowing a person to drive a motor vehicle carrying a load as prescribed in item (ii), in violation of Article 75 (Responsibilities of Motor Vehicle Users; Related Considerations), paragraph (1), item (vi);
(vi) a person violating Article 76 (Prohibited Activities), paragraph (1) or (2);
(vii) a person violating Article 85 (Class 1 Licenses), paragraph (5) through (10); or
(viii) a person driving a motor vehicle in violation of the second sentence of Article 87 (Provisional Licenses), paragraph (2).
(2) A person who, through negligence, commits the offense referred to in item (i) of the preceding paragraph is subject to imprisonment without work for not more than three months or a fine of not more than 100,000 yen.
Article 118-2 A person refusing or interfering with a test by a police officer under Article 67 (Hazard Prevention Measures), paragraph (3) is subject to imprisonment for not more than three months or a fine of not more than 500,000 yen.
Article 118-3 The driver of a vehicle who fails to comply with the prohibition or restriction of a public safety commission as under Article 114-5 (Regulation of Traffic When Self-Defense Forces Are Mobilized; Related Considerations), paragraph (1) is subject to imprisonment for not more than three months or a fine of not more than 300,000 yen.
Article 119 (1) A person as referred to in one of the following items is subject to imprisonment for not more than three months or a fine of not more than 50,000 yen:
(i) the driver of a vehicle or streetcar who fails to comply with the on-site instructions of a police officer as prescribed in the second sentence of Article 4 (Regulation of Traffic by the Public Safety Commission), paragraph (1) or with the prohibition or restriction of a police officer as under Article 6 (Regulation of Traffic by Officers), paragraph (4);
(i)-2 the driver of a vehicle or streetcar who violates Article 7 (Obligation to Obey Traffic Light Signals and Alternative Signals), Article 8 (Prohibition and Permission of Entry), paragraph (1), or Article 9 (Obligations of the Drivers of Vehicles When Entering onto Pedestrian Paths);
(i)-3 a person violating Article 24 (Prohibition on Sudden Braking);
(i)-4 a person engaging in conduct that constitutes a violation of Article 26 (Maintaining Distance between Vehicles) (but only when this takes place on a national expressway or limited highway);
(ii) a person engaging in conduct that constitutes a violation of Article 30 (Places Where Passing Is Prohibited), Article 33 (Going Over Railroad Crossings) paragraph (1) or (2), Article 38 (Pedestrians' and Cyclists' Right of Way at Pedestrian and Bicycle Crossings), Article 42 (Places Where Vehicles Must Be Driven at Reduced Speeds), or Article 43 (Coming to a Stop at Designated Places);
(ii)-2 a person engaging in conduct that constitutes a violation of Article 17 (Traffic Distribution), paragraphs (1) through (4) or paragraph (6), Article 18 (Keeping to the Left When Proceeding Down a Road; Related Considerations), paragraph (2), Article 25-2 (Prohibition on Cutting Across Roads and Other Such Maneuvers), paragraph (1), Article 28 (How to Pass), Article 29 (When Passing Is Prohibited), Article 31 (Stopping or Reducing Speed If Streetcars Are Stopped), Article 36 (Interacting with Other Vehicles and Streetcars at Intersections), paragraph (2), (3), or (4), Article 37-2 (Interacting with Other Vehicles and Streetcars in Roundabouts), Article 38-2 (Right of Way for Pedestrians at Intersections without Pedestrian Crossings), or Article 75-5 (Prohibition on Cutting Across Roads and Other Such Maneuvers);
(iii) a person failing to comply with the orders of an officer under Article 50-2 (Measures against Illegal Stopping) (including as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to Article 75-8 (Prohibition against Stopping and Parking), paragraph (2)) or Article 51 (Measures against Illegal Parking), paragraph (1) (including as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to Article 75-8 (Prohibition against Stopping and Parking), paragraph (2));
(iii)-2 a person driving a vehicle carrying a load in violation of Article 57 (Restrictions on Riding and Loading; Related Considerations), paragraph (1) (other than a person falling under Article 118, paragraph (1), item (ii));
(iii)-3 a person failing to comply with a stop by a police officer, refusing a police officer's request to present a certificate or document, or refusing or obstructing a police officer's measurements under Article 58-2 (Measuring Weight of Loads; Related Measures);
(iii)-4 a person failing to comply with the orders of a police officer under Article 58-3 (Order to Take Measures for Overloaded Vehicles), paragraph (1) or (2);
(iv) a person failing to comply with a stop by a police officer or with a police officer's order under Article 61 (Hazard Prevention Measures);
(v) a person driving or causing or allowing another person to drive a vehicle or streetcar (other than a light road vehicle) in violation of Article 62 (Prohibition against Driving Improperly Maintained Vehicles);
(vi) a person failing to comply with a stop by a police officer, refusing a police officer's request to present a certificate or document, or refusing or obstructing an inspection under Article 63 (Vehicle Inspections; Other Measures), paragraph (1);
(vii) a person failing to comply with the orders of a police officer under Article 63 (Vehicle Inspections; Other Measures), paragraph (2);
(viii) a person failing to comply with a stop by a police officer under Article 67 (Hazard Prevention Measures), paragraph (1);
(ix) a person violating Article 70 (Safe Driving Obligations);
(ix)-2 a person violating Article 71 (Rules to Be Observed by Drivers), item (ii), (ii)-3 or (iii);
(ix)-3 a person violating Article 71 (Rules to Be Observed by Drivers), item (v)-5 and thereby causing a road traffic hazard;
(x) a person failing to report as prescribed in the second sentence of Article 72 (Measures in the Event of a Traffic Accident), paragraph (1);
(xi) a person violating Article 75 (Responsibilities of Motor Vehicle Users; Related Considerations), paragraph (1), item (vi) (other than a person falling under Article 118, paragraph (1), item (v));
(xii) a person failing to comply with the orders of a public safety commission pursuant to Article 75 (Responsibilities of Motor Vehicle Users; Related Considerations), paragraph (2) or Article 75-2 (Responsibilities of Motor Vehicle Users; Related Considerations) paragraph (1) or (2);
(xii)-2 a person failing to comply with the prohibition, restriction, or orders of a police officer under Article 75-3 (Hazard Prevention and Other Such Measures);
(xii)-3 a person violating Article 75-10 (Rules to Be Observed by Drivers of Motor Vehicles), for whom it becomes impossible to drive the motor vehicle in question on a main roadway or adjoining lane; or a person allowing an object loaded in or onto the motor vehicle to fall or be scattered on the national expressway or limited highway, in violation of that Article;
(xii)-4 a person violating Article 76 (Prohibited Activities), paragraph (3) or Article 77 (Permission for Road Use), paragraph (1);
(xiii) a person violating a condition that the chief of a police station has attached pursuant to Article 77 (Permission for Road Use), paragraph (3), or that the chief of a police station has changed or attached pursuant to paragraph (4) of that Article;
(xiv) a person failing to comply with the orders of the chief of a police station under Article 81 (Measures for Illegal Structures and Objects), paragraph (1), Article 81-2 (Measures for Spilled Loads), paragraph (1), or Article 82 (Measures to Prevent Hazards Posed by Roadside Structures and Objects) paragraph (1); or
(xv) a person driving a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle in violation of conditions attached or changed by a public safety commission pursuant to Article 91 (License Conditions) or the orders of a public safety commission under Article 107-4 (Special Fitness Screenings), paragraph (3).
(2) A person who, through negligence, commits the offence referred to in item (i)-2, (ii) (other than the part with a bearing on the second sentence of Article 43), (v), (ix), or (xii)-3 of the preceding paragraph is subject to a fine of not more than 100,000 yen.
Article 119-2 (1) A person engaging in conduct as referred to in one of the following items (for conduct as set forth in item (i) or (ii), this is limited to if that conduct makes it impossible for the vehicle to be driven immediately because it involves the person in question leaving the vicinity of the vehicle, or if the person in question engages in the conduct and then makes it impossible for the vehicle to be driven immediately by leaving the vicinity of the vehicle) is subject to a fine of not more than 150,000 yen:
(i) conduct constituting a violation of Article 44 (Places Where Stopping or Parking Is Prohibited), Article 45 (Places Where Parking Is Prohibited), paragraph (1) or (2), Article 48 (Special Rules on How to Stop and Park), Article 49-3 (How to Park in Time-Restricted Parking Areas; Related Considerations), paragraph (3), or Article 49-4 (Prohibition Against Parking in Time-Restricted Parking Areas for Elderly and Special-Needs Drivers);
(ii) conduct constituting a violation of Article 47 (How to Stop and Park), paragraph (2) or (3) or Article 75-8 (Prohibition against Stopping and Parking), paragraph (1); or
(iii) conduct violating Article 75 (Responsibilities of Motor Vehicle Users; Related Considerations), paragraph (1), item (vii).
(2) A person who, through negligence, commits the offense referred to in item (i) of the preceding paragraph is subject to a fine of not more than 150,000 yen.
Article 119-3 (1) A person as referred to in one of the following items (other than a person set forth in one of items (i) through (iv) and also falling under paragraph (1) of the preceding Article) is subject to a fine of not more than 100,000 yen:
(i) a person engaging in conduct that constitutes a violation of Article 44 (Places Where Stopping or Parking Is Prohibited), Article 45 (Places Where Parking Is Prohibited), paragraph (1) or (2), Article 48 (Special Rules on How to Stop and Park), Article 49-3 (How to Park in Time-Restricted Parking Areas; Related Considerations), paragraph (2) or (3), Article 49-4 (Prohibition Against Parking in Time-Restricted Parking Areas for Elderly and Special-Needs Drivers), or the second sentence of Article 49-5 (Special Rules on Parking in Time-Restricted Parking Areas) (other than a person falling under the following item, if that person has engaged in conduct that constitutes a violation of Article 49-3, paragraph (2));
(ii) a person leaving a vehicle parked in a time-restricted parking zone where a ticket dispenser as referred to in Article 49, paragraph (1) has been installed, for a period of time after parking the vehicle that exceeds the timeframe specified by road signs or markings as referred to in Article 49-3, paragraph (2) (other than a person issued a ticket by a ticket dispenser after parking and before the specified timeframe has passed);
(iii) a person violating Article 49-3 (How to Park in Time-Restricted Parking Areas; Related Considerations), paragraph (4);
(iv) a person engaging in conduct that constitutes a violation of Article 47 (How to Stop and Park) or Article 75-8 (Prohibition against Stopping and Parking) paragraph (1);
(v) a person failing to report or submit materials as under Article 51-5, paragraph (1) (Requests to Report; Other Actions), or a person falsely reporting or falsely submitting such materials;
(vi) a person violating Article 71-4 (Rules to Be Observed by Drivers of Large Two-Wheeled Vehicles and Other Vehicles, paragraphs (3) through (6));
(vii) a person failing to make a filing or falsely filing as under Article 109-3 (Providing Drivers with Traffic Information), paragraph (1); or
(viii) a person failing to report or falsely reporting as under Article 109-3 (Providing Drivers with Traffic Information), paragraph (4).
(2) A person who, through negligence, commits the offence referred to in item (i), (ii), or (iii) of the preceding paragraph is subject to a fine of not more than 100,000 yen.
Article 120 (1) A person as referred to in one of the following items is subject to a fine of not more than 50,000 yen:
(i) the driver of a vehicle or streetcar who fails to comply with the prohibition, restriction, or orders of a police officer under Article 6 (Regulation of Traffic by Officers), paragraph (2);
(ii) a person engaging in conduct that constitutes a violation of Article 25 (How to Exit the Road), paragraph (3), Article 26 (Maintaining Distance Between Vehicles), Article 26-2 (Prohibition on Changing Course), paragraph (2), Article 27 (Obligations of a Vehicle Being Overtaken by Another Vehicle), Article 31-2 (Protections for Departing Buses), Article 32 (Prohibition on Cutting Off Other Drivers), Article 34 (Turning Left and Right), paragraph (6) (including as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to Article 35 (Designated Traffic Distribution), paragraph (2)), Article 36 (Interacting with Other Vehicles and Streetcars at Intersections), paragraph (1), Article 37 (Interacting with Other Vehicles and Streetcars at Intersections), Article 40 (Right of Way for Emergency Motor Vehicles), Article 41-2 (Right of Way and Related Considerations for Fire-Services Vehicles), paragraph (1) or (2), or Article 75-6 (Interacting with Other Motor Vehicles When Entering Main Roadways and at Other Times) (other than one falling under Article 119, paragraph (1), item (i)-4, if that person has also engaged in conduct that constitutes a violation of Article 26);
(iii) a person engaging in conduct that constitutes a violation of Article 20 (Vehicle Passing Lanes), Article 20-2 (Priority Lanes for Fixed-Route Buses and Other Such Motor Vehicles), paragraph (1), Article 26-2 (Prohibition on Changing Course), paragraph (3), Article 35 (Designated Traffic Distribution), paragraph (1), or Article 75-8-2 (Traffic Distribution for Motor Vehicles Towing Heavy Towable Vehicles), paragraphs (2) through (4);
(iv) a person engaging in conduct that constitutes a violation of Article 25-2 (Prohibition on Cutting Across Roads and Other Such Maneuvers), paragraph (2);
(v) a person engaging in conduct that constitutes a violation of Article 50 (Prohibition on Entry into Intersections and Other Parts of the Road) or Article 52 (Vehicle and Streetcar Lights), paragraph (1);
(vi) and (vii) Deleted;
(viii) a person violating Article 52 (Vehicle and Streetcar Lights), paragraph (2), Article 53 (Signals), paragraph (1), (2), or (4), or Article 54 (Using the Horn), paragraph (1);
(viii)-2 a person driving or causing another person to drive a light road vehicle in violation of Article 62 (Prohibition against Driving Improperly Maintained Vehicles) or a person violating Article 63-9 (Bicycle Braking Equipment; Other Equipment), paragraph (1);
(viii)-3 a person failing to comply with a stop by a police officer or refusing or obstructing a police officer's inspection under Article 63-10 (Bicycle Inspections; Other Measures), paragraph (1);
(viii)-4 a person failing to comply with the orders of a police officer under Article 63-10 (Bicycle Inspections; Other Measures), paragraph (2);
(ix) a person violating Article 71 (Rules to Be Observed by Drivers), item (i), items (iv) through (v), items (v)-3, (v)-4, or (vi), Article 71-2 (Rules to Be Observed by Drivers of Motor Vehicles and Motorized Bicycles), Article 73 (Prohibition on Interference), Article 76 (Prohibited Activities), paragraph (4), or Article 95 (Obligation to Carry and Present a License), paragraph (2) (including as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to the second sentence of Article 107-3 (Obligation to Carry and Present an International Driving Permit or License));
(x) a person violating Article 55 (Riding and Loading), paragraph (1) or (2), or Article 59 (Restrictions on Towing Motor Vehicles) paragraph (1) or (2);
(x)-2 a person violating Article 57 (Restrictions on Riding and Loading; Related Considerations), paragraph (1) (other than a person falling under Article 118, paragraph (1), item (ii) or Article 119, paragraph (1), item (iii)-2);
(xi) a person using a wireless telephone to make a telephone call or focusing attention on the screen of a device carried into or onto a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle while holding the device in the hand, in violation of Article 71 (Rules to Be Observed by Drivers), item (v)-5 (other than a person falling under Article 119, paragraph (1), item (ix)-3);
(xi)-2 a person failing to comply with the orders of a police officer under Article 72 (Measures in the Event of a Traffic Accident), paragraph (2);
(xi)-3 a person violating Article 74-3 (Primary and Deputy Driving Safety Supervisors), paragraph (1) or (4) or failing to comply with the orders of a public safety commission under paragraph (6) of that Article;
(xii) a person engaging in conduct that constitutes a violation of Article 75-4 (Minimum Speed Limit);
(xii)-2 a person violating Article 75-11 (Measures for Malfunctions and Other Such Circumstances), paragraph (1);
(xiii) a person violating Article 77 (Permission for Road Use), paragraph (7);
(xiv) a person violating Article 87 (Provisional Licenses), paragraph (3);
(xv) a person transferring or lending another person their license, Foreign Driving Permit, or International Driving Permit or license;
(xvi) s person transferring or lending another person their elderly or special-needs driver mark; or
(xvii) a person failing to comply with the orders of a public safety commission under Article 108-3-4 (Ordering Bicycle Riders to Undergo Training).
(2) A person who, through negligence, commits the crime referred to in item (iii), (iv), (v), (viii), (viii)-2, or (xiv) of the preceding paragraph is subject to a fine of not more than 50,000 yen.
Article 121 (1) A person as referred to in one of the following items is subject to a criminal fine or petty fine of not more than 20,000 yen:
(i) a pedestrian failing to comply with the on-site instructions of a police officer as prescribed in the second sentence of Article 4 (Regulation of Traffic by the Public Safety Commission), paragraph (1) or with a police officer's prohibition or restriction under Article 6 (Regulation of Traffic by Officers), paragraph (4), or violating Article 7 (Obligations to Obey Traffic Light Signals and Alternative Signals) or Article 8 (Prohibition and Permission of Entry) paragraph (1);
(i)-2 a person violating a condition attached by the chief of a police station pursuant to Article 8 (Prohibition and Permission of Entry), paragraph (5);
(ii) a person (or the leader of a procession) violating Article 11 (Passage of Processions and Other Groups), paragraph (1);
(iii) the leader of a procession violating the second sentence of Article 11 (Passage of Processions and Other Groups), paragraph (2) or failing to comply with the orders of a police officer under paragraph (3) of that Article;
(iv) a person failing to comply with the instructions of an officer under Article 15 (Traffic Instructions) or Article 63-8 (Bicycle Traffic Instructions);
(v) a person engaging in conduct that constitutes a violation of Article 17-2 (Use of the Side Strip by Light Road Vehicles), paragraph (2), Article 19 (Prohibition against Light Road Vehicles Traveling Abreast of Each Other), Article 21 (Entering Railway Track Beds), paragraph (1), the second sentence of paragraph (2), or paragraph (3), Article 25 (How to Exit the Road), paragraph (1) or (2), Article 34 (Turning Left and Right) paragraphs (1) through (5), Article 35-2 (Left Turns and Other Maneuvers Through Roundabouts), Article 63-3 (Traffic Distribution on Bicycle Paths), Article 63-4 (Riding Standard Bicycles on Sidewalks), paragraph (2), or Article 75-7 (Entering and Exiting Main Roadways);
(vi) a person violating Article 54 (Using the Horn), paragraph (2) or Article 55 (Riding and Loading), paragraph (3);
(vii) a person violating what is prescribed by a public safety commission based on Article 57 (Restrictions on Riding and Loading; Related Considerations), paragraph (2) or Article 60 (Restrictions on Towing by Vehicles Other Than Motor Vehicles);
(viii) a person violating a condition attached by the chief of a police station pursuant to Article 58 (Issuance of Permit to Exceed Restrictions; Related Considerations) paragraph (3);
(ix) a person violating Article 45-2 (Special Rules for Stopping and Parking Motor Vehicles Bearing an Elderly- or Special-Needs Driver Mark), paragraph (4), Article 51-2 (Measures against Illegal Parking), paragraph (10), Article 51-4 (Abandonment Penalty), paragraph (2), Article 63 (Vehicle Inspections; Other Measures), paragraph (7), Article 75 (Responsibilities of Motor Vehicle Users; Related Considerations), paragraph (11) (including as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to Article 75-2 (Responsibilities of Motor Vehicle Users; Related Considerations), paragraph (3)), Article 78 (Procedures for Permission), paragraph (4), Article 94 (Filing to Change Information Included on Licenses; Related Considerations), paragraph (1), Article 103-2 (Provisional Suspension of Licenses), paragraph (3) (including as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to Article 107-5 (Prohibiting Persons from Driving Motor Vehicles and Motorized Bicycles; Other Measures), paragraph (10)), Article 107 (Returning and Submitting Licenses) paragraph (1) or (3), Article 107-5 (Prohibiting Persons from Driving Motor Vehicles and Motorized Bicycles; Other Measures), paragraph (5) or (7), or Article 107-10 (Returning and Submitting Foreign Driving Permits), paragraph (1) or (2) (other than a person falling under Article 117-5, item (ii));
(ix)-2 a person violating Article 63-2 (Tachograph Records; Related Considerations) or Article 74-3 (Primary and Deputy Driving Safety Supervisors), paragraph (5);
(ix)-3 a person violating Article 71-5 (Obligation to Display a Novice Driver Mark or Other Mark), paragraph (1) through (3), or Article 71-6 (Obligation to Display a Novice Driver Mark or Other Mark), paragraph (1) or (2); or
(x) a person violating Article 95 (Obligation to Carry and Present a License), paragraph (1) or the first sentence of Article 107-3 (Obligation to Carry and Present an International Driving Permit or License).
(2) A person who, through negligence, commits the offense referred to in item (ix)-3 or (x) of the preceding paragraph is subject to a criminal fine or petty fine of not more than 20,000 yen.
Article 122 Deleted
Article 123 If the representative of a corporation or the agent, employee, or other worker of a corporation or individual commits a violation as referred to in Article 117-2, item (iv) or (v), Article 117-2-2, item (viii) through (x), Article 118, paragraph (1), items (ii) through (vi), Article 119, paragraph (1), item (iii)-2, (v), (xi), (xii), (xii)-4, (xiii), or (xiv), Article 119-2, paragraph (1), item (iii), Article 119-3, paragraph (1), item (v), (vii), or (viii), Article 120, paragraph (1), item (x), (x)-2, (xi)-3, or (xiii), or Article 121, paragraph (1), item (vii), (viii) or (ix)-2 in connection with the business of the corporation or individual, in addition to the person who committed the violation being subject to punishment, the corporation or individual is subject to a criminal fine or petty fine as prescribed in the Article in question.
Article 123-2 A person violating Article 108-32-2 (Accreditation of Education for Licensed Drivers), paragraph (3) is subject to a civil fine of not more than 100,000 yen.
Article 124 To apply this Chapter, the term "public safety commission" in this Act includes an area public safety commission to which authority has been delegated pursuant to Article 114.
Chapter IX Special Rules on Procedures for Handling Violations
Section 1 General Rules
(General Rules)
Article 125 (1) In this Chapter, the term "violation" means conduct constituting an offense as referred to in the preceding Chapter which is set forth in the left-hand column of Appended Table 2 and which the driver of a vehicle or streetcar (other than a light road vehicle that is not a heavy towable vehicle; the same applies in the following paragraph) has engaged in; Cabinet Order provides for the different categories thereof.
(2) In this Chapter, the term "violator" means a person other than as referred to in one of the following items who commits a violation:
(i) a person who has not been issued a driver's license under laws and regulations for the vehicle or streetcar associated with the violation (this includes a person whose license is under a suspension pursuant to laws and regulations and excludes a person with an International Driving Permit or license who is permitted by Article 107-2 to drive the vehicle or streetcar using that permit or license) or a person who is prohibited from driving the motor vehicle associated with the violation pursuant to Article 85 paragraphs (5) through (10);
(ii) a person who has committed the violation in question while driving a vehicle or streetcar in an intoxicated state, a state as prescribed by Article 117-2, item (iii), or with alcohol in their system at or above the level that Cabinet Order prescribes which is referred to in Article 117-2-2, item (iii); or
(iii) a person who has caused a traffic accident by committing the violation in question.
(3) In this Chapter, the term "penalty" means an amount of money that a violator is required to pay to the State when seeking to apply this Chapter; Cabinet Order provides for the amounts of penalties associated with different categories of violation, within the scope of what is prescribed in Appended Table 2.
Section 2 Notice to Appear and Notice of Findings
(Notice to Appear)
Article 126 (1) Except in one of the following cases, when finding a person to be a violator, a police officer must promptly notify that person in writing via a document, of the essential facts constituting the violation, the category of violation, and the date and place for the person to appear in order to be issued a notice of findings as under the first sentence of paragraph (1) of the following Article; provided, however, this does not apply to notifying the person of the date and place to appear if the police officer finds it unnecessary for the person to appear:
(i) if the person's residence or name is unclear; or
(ii) if the person is likely to flee.
(2) The document referred to in the preceding paragraph must include the necessary information to allow the person to understand the procedures provided for in this Chapter.
(3) Having notified a person as under paragraph (1), a police officer must report this to the chief of the prefectural police having jurisdiction over the place where the violation of which the officer has notified the person was committed; provided, however, that, having notified a person found to have committed a violation in an area outside the jurisdiction of the prefectural police to which the police officer belongs based on Article 60-2 or Article 66, paragraph (2) of the Police Act, the police officer must report having so notified the person to the chief of the prefectural police to which the officer belongs.
(4) On finding a person to be a violator who has committed an offense as prescribed in Article 119-2 or Article 119-3, paragraph (1), items (i) through item (iv), or paragraph (2), a traffic patrol officer as prescribed in Article 114-4, paragraph (1) is to notify the person in accordance with paragraph (1) and after doing so, to report in accordance with the preceding paragraph.
(Notice of Findings)
Article 127 (1) Following receipt of a report as referred to in paragraph (3) or (4) of the preceding Article, on finding that the person who has been issued the reported notice to appear has committed a violation belonging to the category of which the person has been notified, the chief of the prefectural police is to issue written notice to that person clearly indicating the reasons for the finding and notifying the person to pay the penalty for that category of violation. In doing so, unless the person has appeared on the date and at the place indicated in the notice to appear or has made a provisional payment under Article 129, paragraph (1), the chief of the prefectural police is to also notify the person to pay the necessary costs for sending the written notice of findings.
(2) Following receipt of a report as referred to in paragraph (3) or (4) of the preceding Article, on finding that the person who has been issued the reported notice to appear has not committed a violation belonging to the category of which the person has been notified, the chief of the prefectural police is to promptly issue written notice to that person clearly indicating the reasons for the finding. In such a case, if the chief of the prefectural police finds that the person issued the reported notice to appear has committed a violation belonging to a category other than that of which the person has been notified, the chief is to issue written notice to that person clearly indicating the reasons for the finding and notifying the person to pay the penalty for that category of violation.
(3) Notice of findings under paragraph (1) is to be issued on or promptly after the date that follows the final day in the period provided for in Article 129, paragraph (1).
Section 3 Payment and Provisional Payment of Penalties
(Payment of Penalties)
Article 128 (1) The penalty of which a person is notified as under paragraph (1) or the second sentence of paragraph (2) of the preceding Article (or the penalty and the necessary costs for sending the written notice of findings, for a person notified as under the second sentence of paragraph (1) of that Article; the same applies hereinafter in this Article) must be paid to the national government within 10 days, counting from the day after that on which the person is so notified (or, if the person is unable to pay the penalty within that period due compelling circumstances that Cabinet Order prescribes, within 10 days counting from the day after that on which the circumstances cease to exist) pursuant to Cabinet Order.
(2) A person paying a penalty pursuant to the preceding paragraph is not subject to prosecution, nor is that person subject to being brought before the family court for trial, in connection with a case involving the conduct constituting the reasons for the finding of which the person has been notified.
(Provisional Payments)
Article 129 (1) A person who has been notified to appear as under Article 126, paragraph (1) or paragraph (4) may provisionally pay an amount equivalent to the penalty for the category to which the violation of which the person has been notified belongs within seven days, counting from the day after that on which the person is so notified, pursuant to Cabinet Order; provided, however, that this does not apply after receipt of a notice of findings as under the first sentence of Article 127, paragraph (2).
(2) A person who has made a provisional payment under the preceding paragraph may be issued a notice of findings as under the first sentence of Article 127, paragraph (1) by public notice, pursuant to Cabinet Order.
(3) If a person who has made a provisional payment under paragraph (1) is issued a notice of findings as under the first sentence of Article 127, paragraph (1) in connection with the notice to appear in respect of which the person has made the provisional payment, that person is deemed to be a person who has paid the penalty detailed in the notice of findings pursuant to paragraph (1) of the preceding Article, and the person's provisional payment of an amount equivalent to that penalty is deemed to be the payment of the penalty under that paragraph.
(4) Having issued a notice of findings as under the first sentence of Article 127, paragraph (2) to a person who has made a provisional payment under paragraph (1), the chief of the prefectural police must promptly return an amount of money equivalent to the provisional payment to that person.
(Special Rules on Timeframes)
Article 129-2 If the last day of a period as provided in Article 128, paragraph (1), or in paragraph (1) of the preceding Article falls on a Sunday or any other day that Cabinet Order prescribes, the following day is deemed to be the last day of the period in question.
Section 4 Criminal Cases against Violators
(Criminal Cases against Violators)
Article 130 A violator is not subject to prosecution, nor is a violator subject to being brought before the family court for trial, in connection with a case involving the violation in question unless it is after the violator has been issued a notice of findings pursuant to Article 127, paragraph (1) or the second sentence of paragraph (2), notifying the violator to pay the penalty for the category to which the violation belongs, and after the period provided for in Article 128, paragraph (1) has ended; provided, however, that this does not apply if:
(i) the violator was not notified to appear as under Article 126, paragraph (1) or (4) because the circumstances fell under a category of case as set forth in one of the items of Article 126, paragraph (1); or
(ii) the violator could not be notified to appear as under Article 126, paragraph (1) or (4) or could not be notified of the findings as under Article 127, paragraph (1) or the second sentence of paragraph (2) because the violator refused to receive the document or because the violator's residence was unknown.
(Juvenile Protection Cases Involving Violators)
Article 130-2 (1) On finding it to be appropriate to do so after having begun a trial in a case that involves a notice of findings as prescribed in the main clause of the preceding Article, the family court may issue instructions for the payment of a penalty, specifying a due date for the same. Notwithstanding Article 125, paragraph (3), in such a case, the amount of the penalty is the amount that the family court fixes, within the scope of what is prescribed in Appended Table 2.
(2) Notice of instructions under the preceding paragraph is to be issued in writing, and the document in which that notice is issued must state the due date and the amount of the penalty that has been fixed pursuant to that paragraph.
(3) Article 128 applies mutatis mutandis to the payment of a penalty subject to instructions under paragraph (1). In such a case, the phrase "within 10 days, counting from the day after that on which the person is so notified" in paragraph (1) of that Article is deemed to be replaced with "by the due date fixed pursuant to Article 130-2, paragraph (1)".
Section 5 Miscellaneous Provisions
(Delegation of Authority to the Chief of Area Headquarters)
Article 131 Administrative processes falling within the authority of the chief of the Hokkaido police pursuant to this Chapter may be delegated to the chief of area headquarters, pursuant to Cabinet Order.
(Delegation to Cabinet Order)
Article 132 Beyond what is prescribed in this Chapter, Cabinet Order provides for the information required to be given in a document as prescribed in Article 126, paragraph (1), or Article 127, paragraph (1) or (2), and for other necessary particulars concerning the implementation of this Chapter.
Supplementary Provisions [Extract]
(Effective Date)
Article 1 This Act (hereinafter referred to as the "New Act") comes into force within six months of its promulgation, on the date that Cabinet Order prescribes.
(Repeal of the Road Traffic Control Act and Related Regulations)
Article 2 The Road Traffic Control Act (Act No. 130 of 1947; hereinafter referred to as the "Former Act") and the Order for Enforcement of the Road Traffic Control Act (Cabinet Order No. 261 of 1953; hereinafter referred to as the "Former Order") are hereby repealed.
(Interim Provisions)
Article 4 In a case as referred to in paragraph (1) or (2) of the preceding Article, if they are still in effect, restrictions on the type of motor vehicle and other such restrictions that a public safety commission has placed on a driver's license pursuant to the Former Order, as well as conditions that a public safety commission has attached to a driver's license or driver's permit pursuant to the Former Order are deemed to be conditions that a public safety commission has attached pursuant to the corresponding provisions of the New Act.
Article 6 To apply Article 99, paragraph (1) of the New Act to a person who, at the time the New Act comes into effect, holds a current certificate of graduation issued by a driver training center designated by a public safety commission as set forth in Article 53, paragraph (1), item (i) of the Former Order or a similar facility, and who has graduated less than one year previously, that person is deemed to hold a certificate of graduation issued by a designated driving school as set forth in Article 99, paragraph (1), item (i) of the New Act, and to have graduated from that designated driving school less than one year previously, until the end of the one-year period after the person's graduation from the facility in question.
Article 7 Beyond as prescribed in Article 3 of the Supplementary Provisions, if it is still in effect at the time the New Act comes into force, a prohibition or restriction on entry onto a road that a public safety commission has imposed pursuant to the Former Act or a revocation, suspension, or other such measure that a public safety commission has taken pursuant to the Former Act or the Former Order in respect of a driver's license or driver's permit is deemed to be a measure that a public safety commission has taken pursuant to the corresponding provisions of the New Act. This being the case, any period that has been fixed for that measure is to begin running on the date that the measure was first taken pursuant to the Former Act or Former Order.
Article 8 A pending application (other than an application for a small four-wheel motor vehicle license by a person under 18 years of age; the same applies hereinafter in this Article), filing, or other process involving a driver's license that has been undertaken with a public safety commission pursuant to the Former Act or the Former Order as of the time the New Act comes into force is deemed to be a process undertaken with a public safety commission pursuant to the corresponding provisions of the New Act. In such a case, if the public safety commission accepting an application for a driver's license, an application for re-issuance of a driver's license or driver's permit, or a filing to change information included on a driver's license or driver's permit does not have jurisdiction over the domicile of the person filing the application, it must pass on the documents connected with the process to the public safety commission having jurisdiction over that person's domicile, promptly after the New Act comes into force.
Article 9 A hearing or hearing proceedings that a public safety commission has held pursuant to Article 9, paragraph (6) of the Former Act (including as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to Article 9-2, paragraph (4)) as of the time the New Act comes into effect is deemed to be a hearing or hearing proceedings that a public safety commission has held pursuant to Article 104 of the New Act, and the public safety commission holding the hearing or proceedings may take the measures under Article 103 of the New Act as regards the matter at issue that is subject to the hearing. This being the case, if the public safety commission taking the measures does not have jurisdiction over the domicile of the person subject to those measures, it must promptly notify the public safety commission having jurisdiction over the domicile of that person that it has taken those measures.
Article 10 To apply Article 90, paragraph (1) and Article 103, paragraph (2) (but only the part with a bearing on item (ii) of that paragraph) of the New Act, a person violating the Former Act, the Former Order, or a measure based on either of these in driving a motor vehicle or a motorized bicycle is deemed to be a person violating the corresponding provisions of the New Act or a measure based on those provisions.
Article 11 If it is still in effect at the time the New Act comes into force, permission that the chief of a police station has granted or any other such measure that the chief of a police station has taken pursuant to the Former Act or the Former Order is deemed to be a measure that the chief of a police station has taken pursuant to the corresponding provisions of the New Act, and the permit associated with any such permission is deemed to be a permit under the corresponding provisions of the New Act. This being the case, any period that has been fixed for that measure is to begin running on the date that the measure was first taken pursuant to the Former Act or the Former Order.
Article 12 A pending application for permission or other such process that has been undertaken with the chief of a police station pursuant to the Former Act or the Former Order as of the time the New Act comes into force is deemed to be a process undertaken with the chief of a police station pursuant to the corresponding provisions of the New Act.
Article 14 Prior laws continue to govern the applicability of penal provisions to conduct in which a person engages before the New Act comes into force.
(Special Grants for Traffic Safety Measures)
Article 16 (1) Until otherwise prescribed by law, as a part of traffic safety measures, the national government issues special grants for traffic safety measures to prefectures and municipalities (including special wards; the same applies hereinafter) in order to cover the necessary costs of establishing and managing the road traffic safety facilities that Cabinet Order prescribes (hereinafter referred to as "grants").
(2) The amount of the grants is the amount equivalent to income from penalties paid pursuant to Article 128, paragraph (1) (including as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to Article 130-2, paragraph (3); the same applies hereinafter in this paragraph) (this includes provisional payments as under Article 129, paragraph (1) which are deemed to constitute penalty payments pursuant to Article 129, paragraph (3); referred to hereinafter in this Article and in Article 18, paragraph (1) of the Supplementary Provisions as "penalties and equivalent payments") plus the amount equivalent to the interest arising from investment of the surplus derived from that income (referred to in Article 18, paragraph (1) of the Supplementary Provisions as "income and interest from penalties"), less the sum total of the amounts set forth in the following items:
(i) the amount equivalent to the monies refunded under Article 129, paragraph (4);
(ii) the amount calculated pursuant to Cabinet Order as being equivalent to income used to cover the necessary costs for sending notices of findings as prescribed in the second sentence of Article 127, paragraph (1) (these costs are referred to as "costs for sending notices of findings" in item (ii)-b of the following paragraph and in Article 19 of the Supplementary Provisions) (an amount so calculated is hereinafter referred to as an "amount equivalent to monies expended for sending notices of findings"); and
(iii) the amount equivalent to penalties and equivalent payments refunded due to excessive or erroneous payment.
(3) The total amount of grants to be given each year is the amount set forth in item (i) (up to the amount set forth in item (ii)) plus any amount that should have been given in or before the year prior to the relevant year but which has not yet been given:
(i) the amount equivalent to income and interest from penalties constituting revenue for the period running from February of the preceding year to January of the relevant year, less the sum of the amounts set forth in (a) through (c):
(a) the amount equivalent to the monies refunded under Article 129, paragraph (4) for the period running from February of the preceding year to January of the relevant year;
(b) the amount equivalent to monies expended for sending notices of findings for the period from February of the preceding year to January of the relevant year;
(c) the amount equivalent to penalties and equivalent payments refunded due to excessive or erroneous payment for the period from February of the preceding year to January of the relevant year. and
(ii) the amount equivalent to estimated income from penalties and equivalent payments constituting revenue from February of the preceding year to January of the relevant year, plus the amount equivalent to interest arising from investment of the surplus derived from that income, less the sum of the amounts set forth in (a) through (c):
(a) the estimated amount of monies refunded pursuant to Article 129, paragraph (4) for the period from February of the preceding year to January of the relevant year;
(b) the estimated amount of expenditures for costs to send notices of findings for the period from February of the preceding year to January of the relevant year;
(c) the estimated amount of penalties and equivalent payments to be refunded due to excessive or erroneous payment for the period from February of the preceding year to January of the relevant year;
(Criteria for Grant)
Article 17 The amount of each prefecture's and each municipality's grant is the amount calculated pursuant to Cabinet Order in consideration of the number of traffic accidents in the prefecture or municipality, the concentration of the population there, and other circumstances.
(Timing of Grants and Amount to Granted Each Time)
Article 18 (1) Grants are given every year at the time set forth in the left-hand column of the following Table in the amount provided for in the corresponding right-hand column of that Table.
Timing of grant
Amount to be granted each time
September
The amount that Cabinet Order prescribes as being based on the amount equivalent to income and interest from penalties constituting revenue for the period running from February of the preceding year to July of the relevant year, plus any amount that should have been given in or before the year prior to the relevant year but which has not yet been given, less the sum total of the amount equivalent to the monies refunded under Article 129, paragraph (4) for that period, the amount equivalent to monies expended for sending notices of findings for that period, and the amount equivalent to penalties and equivalent payments refunded due to excessive or erroneous payment for that period (up to the amount set forth in Article 16, paragraph (3), item (ii) of the Supplementary Provisions plus any amount that should have been given in or before the year prior to the relevant year but which has not yet been given (hereinafter referred to in this Table as an "estimated grant amount").
March
The amount that Cabinet Order prescribes as being based on the amount equivalent to income and interest from penalties constituting revenue for the period running from August to January of the relevant year, less the sum total of the amount equivalent to the monies refunded under Article 129, paragraph (4) for that period, the amount equivalent to monies expended for sending notices of findings for that period, and the amount equivalent to penalties and equivalent payments refunded due to excessive or erroneous payment for that period (up to the estimated grant amount less the amount given in September).
(2) If there is any amount that could not be granted at one of the times prescribed in the preceding paragraph, or if there is any amount that was granted in excess of the amount that should have been granted at one of those times, the amount is to be added to, or deducted from, the amount to be granted at the next time for the grant.
(Disbursement of Monies Expended to Cover the Costs of Sending Notices of Findings)
Article 19 The national government, pursuant to Cabinet Order and in consideration of each prefecture's expenditures related to the costs of sending notices of findings, disburses to the prefectures an amount equivalent to monies expended for sending notices of findings, as monies it expends to cover the costs of sending notices of findings.
(Competent Minister; Other Such Persons)
Article 20 (1) The administrative processes involved in grants under Articles 16 through 18 of the Supplementary Provisions are undertaken by the Minister for Internal Affairs and Communications, and the administrative processes that involve monies expended to cover the costs of sending notices of findings pursuant to the preceding Article are undertaken by the Prime Minister.
(2) The administrative processes that are to be undertaken by the Prime Minister pursuant to the preceding paragraph may be delegated to the Commissioner General of the National Police Agency pursuant to Cabinet Order.
(Hearings of Opinions by Local Finance Councils)
Article 21 The Minister for Internal Affairs and Communications must hear the opinions of the Local Finance Council:
(i) before establishing, amending, or repealing the Cabinet Order referred to in Article 17 of the Supplementary Provisions; and
(ii) before giving a grant that is to be given to a prefecture or municipality.
(Interim Measures for Elderly Driver's Obligations to Display Signs)
Article 22 Until otherwise prescribed by law, Article 71-5, paragraph (3) does not apply. This being the case, the phrase "70 years of age or older but under 75" in paragraph (4) of that Article is deemed to be replaced with "70 years of age or older".
Supplementary Provisions [Act No. 147 of June 2, 1962]
(1) This Act comes into force within one month of its promulgation, on the date that Cabinet Order prescribes.
(2) Article 85, paragraph (3) as amended by this Act does not apply to a person holding an L-MVL at time this Act comes into force.
Supplementary Provisions [Act No. 161 of September 15, 1962] [Extract]
(1) This Act comes into force on October 1, 1962.
(2) Except as otherwise provided by these Supplementary Provisions, provisions amended by this Act apply to measures taken by an administrative agency before this Act comes into force, to inaction by an administrative agency with respect to an application filed before this Act comes into force, and to any other event arising before this Act comes into force; provided, however, that this does not interfere with the effect arising pursuant to these provisions before their amendment under this Act.
(3) Even after this Act comes into force, prior laws continue to govern a petition, request for review, objection, or other appeal (hereinafter referred to as a "petition or other appeal") filed before this Act comes into force. The same applies to a determination, decision, or other disposition (hereinafter referred to as "decision or other disposition") on a petition or other appeal that has been filed before this Act comes into force, and also applies to any petition or other appeal in the event of further dissatisfaction with a decision or other disposition that has been reached after this Act comes into force on a petition or other appeal filed before this Act comes into force.
(4) To apply laws other than the Administrative Appeals Act, a petition or other appeal as prescribed in the preceding paragraph respecting a disposition against which an appeal under the Administrative Appeal Act is permitted to be filed after this Act comes into force is deemed to be an appeal under the Administrative Appeal Act.
(5) An appeal under the Administrative Appeals Act may not be filed against a decision or other disposition reached pursuant to paragraph (3) after this Act comes into force respecting a request for review, objection, or other appeal.
(6) The period during which an appeal may be filed under the Administrative Appeals Act in respect of an administrative agency disposition reached before this Act comes into force against which it was permissible to file a petition or other appeal pursuant to the applicable provisions prior to their amendment by this Act and for which no filing period has been prescribed begins to run on the date that this Act comes into force.
(8) Prior laws continue to govern the applicability of penal provisions to conduct in which a person engages before this Act comes into force.
(9) Beyond what is prescribed in the preceding eight paragraphs, Cabinet Order provides for the necessary transitional measures related to bringing this Act into force.
Supplementary Provisions [Act No. 90 of April 15, 1963] [Extract]
(1) This Act comes into force within three months of its promulgation, on the date that Cabinet Order prescribes.
(3) Prior laws continue to govern the applicability of penal provisions to conduct in which a person engages before this Act comes into force.
Supplementary Provisions [Act No. 91 of June 1, 1964] [Extract]
(1) This Act comes into force on the date after the final day in the three-month period following its promulgation; provided, however, that if the Convention has not taken effect in Japan by time this Act comes into force, the provisions amending the table of contents (but only the part amending Section 6), provisions amending Article 67, paragraph (1), provisions amending Article 75, paragraph (1), amending provisions that add item (vii) to Article 88, paragraph (1), amending provisions that add a Section after Section 6 of Chapter VI, provisions amending Article 109, provisions amending Article 112 (other than the part that adds the phrase "or Article 101-2, paragraph (1)"), provisions amending Article 118, paragraph (1), item (i), provisions amending Article 120, paragraph (1) (but only the part that adds the phrase "(including as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to the second sentence of Article 107-3 (Obligation to Carry and Present an International Driving Permit))" to item (ix) of that paragraph and the part amended to read "a license, Foreign Driving Permit, or International Driving Permit" in item (xv) of that paragraph), and provisions amending Article 121, paragraph (1), item (x) come into force on the date on which the Convention takes effect in Japan.
(Effective date: September 6, 1964)
(4) In a case as referred to in the preceding paragraph, if it is still in effect, a restriction (other than one as set forth in item (iii) through item (v) of the preceding paragraph) on the type of motor vehicle or motorized bicycle which a public safety commission has placed on a driver's license pursuant to the Former Act, or a condition that a public safety commission has attached to a driver's license is deemed to be a restriction on the type of motor vehicle or motorized bicycle that a public safety commission has placed on the driver's license or a condition that a public safety commission has attached to a driver's license pursuant to the corresponding provisions of the New Act.
(5) A person who, at time this Act comes into force, has passed a driver's license test for a special motor vehicle license, light motor vehicle license, or class 2 special motor vehicle license under the Former Act, but has not received a driver's license under the Former Act is deemed to have passed the driver's license test for a special large motor vehicle license, light motor vehicle license, special small motor vehicle license, class 1 motorized bicycle license, class 2 motorized bicycle license, or class 2 special large motor vehicle license under the corresponding provisions of the New Act, based on the categories set forth in each of the following items:
(i) the test for a special motor vehicle license is deemed to be the test for a special large motor vehicle license;
(ii) the test for a light motor vehicle license (other than one as set forth in the following item through item (v)) is deemed to be the tests for a light motor vehicle license and special small motor vehicle license;
(iii) the test for a light motor vehicle license with which Article 91 of the Former Act permits a person to drive a type of motor vehicle or motorized bicycle that limits that person to driving special small motor vehicles and motorized bicycles under the New Act is deemed to be the tests for a special small motor vehicle license and class 2 motorized bicycle license;
(iv) the test for a light motor vehicle license with which Article 91 of the Former Act permits a person to drive a type of motor vehicle or motorized bicycle that limits that person to driving special small motor vehicles and class 1 motorized bicycles under the New Act is deemed to be the tests for a special small motor vehicle license and class 1 motorized bicycle license;
(v) the test for a light motor vehicle license with which Article 91 of the Former Act permits a person to drive a type of motor vehicle or motorized bicycle that limits that person to driving special small motor vehicles under the New Act is deemed to be the test for a special small motor vehicle license; or
(vi) the test for a class 2 special motor vehicle license is deemed to be the test for a class 2 special large motor vehicle license.
(6) A refusal or withholding of a driver's license that a public safety commission has effected pursuant to the proviso of Article 90, paragraph (1) of the Former Act and which is still in effect at the time this Act comes into force is deemed to be a refusal or withholding of the driver's license that a public safety commission has effected pursuant to the proviso of Article 90, paragraph (1) of the New Act. Be this as it may, notwithstanding that paragraph, prior laws continue to govern the period for withholding the license, and this period is to begin running on the date on which license was first withheld pursuant to the proviso of Article 90, paragraph (1) of the Former Act.
(7) An application, filing, or other process involving a special motor vehicle license, light motor vehicle license, or class 2 special motor vehicle license which has been undertaken with a public safety commission pursuant to the Former Act or the Former Order as of the time the New Act comes into force is deemed to be a process undertaken with a public safety commission pursuant to the corresponding provisions of the New Act, based on the categories prescribed in the following items:
(i) a process involving a special motor vehicle license is deemed to be a process involving a special large motor vehicle license;
(ii) a process involving a light motor vehicle license is deemed to be processes involving a light motor vehicle license and special small motor vehicle license; or
(iii) a process involving a class 2 special motor vehicle license is deemed to be a process involving a class 2 special large motor vehicle license.
(8) Article 88, paragraph (1), item (v) of the New Act does not apply to a person if, at the time this Act comes into force, it has been less than one year since a person has been refused a driver's license pursuant to the proviso of Article 90, paragraph (1) of the Former Act, or if the person's driver's license is being withheld pursuant to the proviso of that paragraph.
(9) Article 90, paragraph (3) of the New Act does not apply to a person who has received a driver's license before this Act comes into force.
(10) Notwithstanding Article 107, paragraph (2) of the New Act, prior laws continue to govern the submission and storage of the driver's license of a person whose license comes under a suspension before this Act comes into force.
(11) A hearing or hearing proceedings that a public safety commission has undertaken pursuant to the Former Act as of the time the New Act comes into force regarding a matter at issue that involves a special motor vehicle license, light motor vehicle license, or class 2 special motor vehicle license under the Former Act is deemed to be a hearing or hearing proceedings that a public safety commission has undertaken pursuant to the corresponding provisions of the New Act regarding a matter at issue that involves a special large motor vehicle license, light motor vehicle license, special small motor vehicle license, class 1 motorized bicycle license, class 2 motorized bicycle license, or class 2 special large motor vehicle license, based on the categories prescribed in the following items:
(i) one involving a special motor vehicle license is deemed to involve a special large motor vehicle license;
(ii) one involving a light motor vehicle license (other than one as set forth in the following item through item (v)) is deemed to involve a light motor vehicle license and special small motor vehicle license;
(iii) one involving a light motor vehicle license with which Article 91 of the Former Act permits a person to drive a type of motor vehicle or motorized bicycle that limits that person to driving special small motor vehicles and motorized bicycles under the New Act is deemed to involve a special small motor vehicle license and class 2 motorized bicycle license;
(iv) one involving a light motor vehicle license with which Article 91 of the Former Act permits a person to drive a type of motor vehicle or motorized bicycle that limits that person to driving special small motor vehicles and class 1 motorized bicycles under the New Act is deemed to involve a special small motor vehicle license and class 1 motorized bicycle license;
(v) one involving a light motor vehicle license with which Article 91 of the Former Act permits a person to drive a type of motor vehicle or motorized bicycle that limits that person to driving special small motor vehicles under the New Act is deemed to involve a special small motor vehicle license; or
(vi) one involving a class 2 special motor vehicle license is deemed to involve a class 2 special large motor vehicle license.
(12) If it is still in effect at the time the New Act comes into force, a revocation, suspension, or other measure that a public safety commission has taken pursuant to the Former Act in respect of a special motor vehicle license, light motor vehicle license, or class 2 special motor vehicle license under the Former Act is deemed to be a measure that a public safety commission has taken in respect of a special large motor vehicle license, light motor vehicle license, special small motor vehicle license, class 1 motorized bicycle license, class 2 motorized bicycle license, or class 2 special large motor vehicle license pursuant to the corresponding provisions of the New Act, based on the categories prescribed in the following items. This being the case, any period that has been fixed for that measure is to begin running on the date that the measure was first taken pursuant to the Former Act:
(i) a measure in respect of a special motor vehicle license is deemed to have been taken in respect of a special large motor vehicle license;
(ii) a measure in respect of a light motor vehicle license (other than one as set forth in the following item through item (v)) is deemed to have been taken in respect of a light motor vehicle license and special small motor vehicle license;
(iii) a measure in respect of a light motor vehicle license with which Article 91 of the Former Act permits a person to drive a type of motor vehicle or motorized bicycle that limits that person to driving special small motor vehicles and motorized bicycles under the New Act is deemed to have been taken in respect of a special small motor vehicle license and class 2 motorized bicycle license;
(iv) a measure in respect of a light motor vehicle license with which Article 91 of the Former Act permits a person to drive a type of motor vehicle or motorized bicycle that limits that person to driving special small motor vehicles and class 1 motorized bicycles under the New Act is deemed to have been taken in respect of a special small motor vehicle license and class 1 motorized bicycle license;
(v) a measure in respect of a light motor vehicle license with which Article 91 of the Former Act permits a person to drive a type of motor vehicle or motorized bicycle that limits that person to driving special small motor vehicles under the New Act is deemed to have been taken in respect of a special small motor vehicle license; or
(vi) a measure in respect of a class 2 special motor vehicle license is deemed to have been taken in respect of a class 2 special large motor vehicle license.
(13) To apply the proviso of Article 90, paragraph (1) and paragraph (3), and Article 103, paragraph (2), item (ii) of the New Act, a person violating the Former Act, an Order based on the Former Act, or a measure based on the Former Act in driving a motor vehicle or a motorized bicycle is deemed to violate the corresponding provisions of the New Act or a measure based on those provisions.
(14) Notwithstanding Article 103, paragraphs (1) and (2) of the New Act, prior laws continue to govern the revocation or suspension of a driver's license for a person who, at the time this Act comes into force, falls under Article 88, paragraph (1), item (ii), (iii), or (iv) of the Former Act or one of the items of Article 103, paragraph (2) of the Former Act but whose driver's license has not been placed under a revocation or suspension under paragraph (1) or (2) of that Article due to the circumstances in question.
(15) Notwithstanding Article 103, paragraph (8) of the New Act, prior laws continue to govern training courses for persons whose driver's licenses are under suspension pursuant to the preceding paragraph, and also continue to govern the shortening of periods of suspension.
(16) Notwithstanding Article 103, paragraph (8) of the New Act, prior laws continue to govern training courses for persons that have not completed a training course under Article 103, paragraph (3) of the Former Act at the time this Act comes into force, and also continue to govern the shortening of periods for persons for whom the relevant period has not been shortened as under the second sentence of that paragraph.
(17) Prior laws continue to govern the applicability of penal provisions to conduct in which a person engages before this Act comes into force.
Supplementary Provisions [Act No. 96 of June 1, 1965] [Extract]
(Effective Date)
Article 1 Article 1 and the Supplementary Provisions of this Act come into force on the date after the final day in the three-month period following its promulgation; and Article 2 comes into force on the date after the final day in the three-year period following that date.
(Interim Provisions for Motorized Three-Wheeled Vehicle Licenses and Similar Licenses)
Article 2 (1) A driver's license as set forth in the left-hand column of the following Table under the Road Traffic Act before its amendment under Article 1 (hereinafter referred to as the "Former Act") is deemed to be a driver's license as set forth in the corresponding right-hand column of that Table under the Road Traffic Act after its amendment under that Article (hereinafter referred to as the "New Act").
Driver's license under the Former Act
Driver's license under the New Act
Motorized three-wheeled vehicle license
Standard motor vehicle license
Class 1 motorized bicycles license
Motorized bicycles license
Class 2 motorized bicycles license
Motorcycles license
Class 2 motorized three-wheeled motor vehicles license
Class 2 standard motor vehicles license
Provisional motorized three-wheeled vehicles license
Provisional standard motor vehicles license
(2) A measure or process involving a driver's license as set forth in the left-hand column of the Table that follows the preceding paragraph that is taken or undertaken pursuant to the Former Act before the date on which Article 1 comes into force (hereinafter referred to as "effective date") is deemed to be a measure or process involving a driver's license as set forth in the corresponding right-hand column of that Table that has been taken or undertaken pursuant to the corresponding provisions of the New Act.
(Special Rules for Large Motor Vehicle Licenses and Similar Licenses)
Article 3 (1) A person holding a driver's license under the Former Act (other than a special small motor vehicle license, class 1 motorized bicycle license, class 2 motorized bicycle license, or provisional driver's license) at the time Article 1 comes into force (hereinafter referred to as "the time the Revised Act comes into force"), or a person who has passed a driver's license test for such a driver's license before the effective date and received the driver's license or the corresponding driver's license under the New Act after that date is deemed to have received a motorcycle license under the New Act during the period that the person held the former driver's license (other than any period during which it was suspended pursuant to Article 90, paragraph (3) or Article 103, paragraph (2) or (4) of the Road Traffic Act).
(2) A person holding a special large motor vehicle license, motorcycle license, or class 2 special large motor vehicle license under the Former Act at the time the Revised Act comes into force, or a person who has passed a driver's license test for such a driver's license before the effective date and received the driver's license after that date is deemed to have received a light motor vehicle license under the New Act during the period that the person held the former driver's license (other than the period during which it was suspended pursuant to Article 90, paragraph (3) or Article 103, paragraph (2) or (4) of the Road Traffic Act).
(Special Rules for Towing Licenses and Similar Licenses)
Article 4 (1) A person who, at the time the Revised Act comes into force, holds a special large motor vehicle license under the Former Act for driving large special motor vehicles exclusively used for towing, which have the structure and equipment for towing vehicles that have the structure and equipment to be towed (hereinafter referred to as "towing vehicles"), or a person who has passed a driver's license test for such a driver's license before the effective date and received that driver's license after that date is deemed to have received a large motor vehicle license and a towing license under the New Act.
(2) A person who, at the time the Revised Act comes into force, holds a class 2 special large motor vehicle license under the Former Act for driving a towing vehicle, or a person who has passed a driver's license test for such a driver's license before the effective date and received the driver's license after that date is deemed to have received a large motor vehicle license and a class 2 towing license under the New Act.
(3) A person who, at the time the Revised Act comes into force, holds a large motor vehicle license, standard motor vehicle license, special large motor vehicle license (other than a special large motor vehicle license for driving a towing vehicle), motorized three-wheeled vehicle license, class 2 large motor vehicle license, class 2 standard motor vehicle license, class 2 special large motor vehicle license (other than a class 2 special large motor vehicle license for driving a towing vehicle), or class 2 motorized three-wheeled vehicle license under the Former Act, or a person who has passed a driver's license test for such a driver's licenses prior to the effective date and received a driver's license or the corresponding driver's under the New Act after that date is deemed to have received a class 2 towing license for the six-month period following that date, unless the person is driving that towing vehicle while towing a vehicle with a total vehicle weight (meaning a total vehicle weight as prescribed in Article 40, item (iii) of the Act on Vehicles for Road Transportation (Act No. 185 of 1951)) of over 750 kilograms which has the structure and equipment to be towed.
(Interim Provisions for Light Motor Vehicle Licenses and Motorized Three-Wheeled Vehicle Licenses Three Years After the Effective Date)
Article 5 (1) Once three years have passed since the effective date, a driver's license as set forth in the left-hand column of the following Table is deemed to be a driver's license as set forth in the corresponding right-hand column of that Table:
Previous driver's license
Driver's license under the Road Traffic Act after its revision under Article 2 (hereinafter referred to as the "New Act after three years")
Light motor vehicle license
Standard motor vehicles license
Provisional driver's license for light motor vehicles
Provisional driver's license for standard motor vehicles
(2) A measure or process involving a driver's license as set forth in the left-hand column of the Table that follows the preceding paragraph which is taken or undertaken pursuant to the provisions in place before the date that comes after the final day in the three-year period following the effective date is deemed to be a measure or process involving a driver's license as set forth in the corresponding right-hand column of the same Table which has been taken or undertaken pursuant to the corresponding provisions of the New Act after three years.
(Application of Penal Provisions to Prior Conduct)
Article 6 Prior laws continue to govern the applicability of penal provisions to conduct in which a person engages before this Act comes into force.
Supplementary Provisions [Act No. 126 of August 1, 1967]
(1) For the categories set forth in each of the following items, the provisions of this Act come into force on the dates set forth therein:
(i) Article 1 provisions amending the table of contents of the Road Traffic Act (but only the part amending "Article 114"), provisions amending Article 75-4 of that Act, and amending provisions that add one Article after Article 114 of that Act: the day of promulgation of this Act;
(ii) Article 1 (other than the amending provisions set forth in the preceding item; the same applies in the following paragraph through paragraph (5) of the Supplementary Provisions) and the following paragraph through paragraph (5) of the Supplementary Provisions: the date after the final day in the three-month period following the promulgation of this Act;
(iii) Article 2, and paragraphs (6) through (11), and paragraphs (13) and (14) of the Supplementary Provisions: July 1, 1968; and
(iv) Article 3, and paragraph (12) of the Supplementary Provisions: the effective date of Article 2 of the Act Partially Amending the Road Traffic Act (Act No. 96 of 1965); (September 1, 1968).
(2) To apply Article 85, paragraph (5) of the Road Traffic Act after its amendment by Article 1 (hereinafter referred to as the "New Act") a person holding a large motor vehicle license (hereinafter referred to as an "L-MVL") at the time Article 1 comes into force, and who has a total of two years of experience in driving the motor vehicles that a person is permitted to drive with an L-MVL, standard motor vehicle license, or special large motor vehicle license is deemed to have a total of three years of experience in driving these motor vehicles.
(3) Notwithstanding Article 85, paragraph (6) and Article 88, paragraph (1), item (i) of the New Act, prior laws continue to govern the driving of large motor vehicles and L-MVLs, as regards persons who, at the time Article 1 comes into force, hold L-MVLs, and as regards persons who have passed a driver's license test for an L-MVL but have not received an L-MVL as of the time that Article comes into force.
(4) Article 103-2, paragraph (1) of the New Act does not apply to a person who has a motor vehicle accident before Article 1 comes into force and who has come to fall under one of the items of that paragraph.
(5) Prior laws continue to govern the applicability of penal provisions to conduct in which a person engages before Article 1 comes into force.
(6) Chapter IX of the Road Traffic Act and the Schedule after their amendment by Article 2 do not apply to conduct in which a person engages before that Article comes into force.
(7) To apply Chapter IX of the Road Traffic Act and the Schedule after their amendment by Article 3, a violation involving a light motor vehicle committed before Article 3 comes into force is deemed to be a violation involving a standard motor vehicle.
Supplementary Provisions [Act No. 86 of May 21, 1970] [Extract]
(1) This Act comes into force within three months of its promulgation, on the date that Cabinet Order prescribes.
(2) Article 51, paragraph (7) of the post-amendment Road Traffic Act (hereinafter referred to as the "New Act") does not apply to the expenses required for measures undertaken pursuant to Article 51, paragraph (2) of the pre-amendment Road Traffic Act (hereinafter referred to as the "Former Act") before this Act comes into force.
(3) Notwithstanding Article 88, paragraph (1), items (v) and (vi), Article 90, paragraph (4), and Article 103, paragraph (6) of the New Act, prior laws continue to govern the period during which a license is not given after a person has become subject to measures, if that person has had a driver's license as under the proviso of Article 90, paragraph (1) of the Former Act (hereinafter referred to as a "license") denied or revoked because of circumstances that, before this Act comes into force, fall under the criteria for denial, the criteria for revocation of a license under paragraph (3) of that Article, or the criteria for revocation of a license under Article 103, paragraph (2) or (4) of the Former Act.
(4) Prior laws continue to govern the period during which a person is prohibited from driving a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle because of circumstances that, before this Act comes into force, fall under the criteria for prohibiting a person from driving a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle as under Article 103, paragraph (4) of the Former Act as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to Article 107-5, paragraph (1) of the Former Act, or paragraph (8) of that Article.
(5) Prior laws continue to govern a provisional suspension or provisional prohibition under Article 103-2, paragraph (1), item (iii) of the New Act (including as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to Article 107-5, paragraph (9) of the New Act) that has been imposed due to the person's having caused a motor vehicle accident before this Act comes into force.
(6) Prior laws continue to govern the applicability of penal provisions to conduct in which a person engages before this Act comes into force.
(7) Notwithstanding Chapter IX of the New Act, prior laws continue to govern procedures for handling violations committed before this Act comes into force.
Supplementary Provisions [Act No. 143 of December 25, 1970]
This Act comes into force within six months of its promulgation, on the date that Cabinet Order prescribes.
Supplementary Provisions [Act No. 46 of April 15, 1971] [Extract]
(Effective Date; Related Considerations)
(1) This Act comes into force within eight months of its promulgation, on the date that Cabinet Order prescribes.
Supplementary Provisions [Act No. 88 of May 31, 1971] [Extract]
(Effective Date)
Article 1 This Act comes into force on July 1, 1971.
Supplementary Provisions [Act No. 96 of June 1, 1971] [Extract]
(Effective Date; Related Considerations)
(1) This Act comes into force on the day of promulgation; provided, however, that the provisions set forth in the following items come into force on the dates set forth therein:
(i) and (ii) omitted
(iii) Articles 24 and 27, and paragraphs (8) through (14), paragraph (19), paragraphs (21) and (27) of the Supplementary Provisions: the date after the final day in the six-month period following promulgation.
Supplementary Provisions [Act No. 98 of June 2, 1971] [Extract]
(Effective Date)
Article 1 This Act comes into force within six months of its promulgation, on the date that Cabinet Order prescribes; provided, however, that the amending provisions that add paragraph (7) to Article 74-2, provisions amending Article 97 through 99, amending provisions that add an Article after Article 101-2, and the amending provisions that change Article 108 to Article 108-3 and add two Articles before that Article (but only the part with a bearing on Article 108-2, paragraph (1), item (i), and items (iii) and (iv)), and the provisions amending Article 112 come into force on April 1, 1972.
(Interim Measures Concerning the Regulation and Other Control of Traffic)
Article 2 (1) A prohibition, restriction, or specification to regulate traffic based on the Road Traffic Act before its amendment (hereinafter referred to in this Article as the "Former Act"), which is in effect at time this Act comes into force and which is equivalent to the regulation of traffic based on Article 4, paragraph (1) of the Road Traffic Act after its amendment (hereinafter referred to in this Article as the "New Act") is deemed to constitute the regulation of traffic based on those provisions of the New Act.
(2) Article 51, paragraph (8) does not apply to the New Act to the collection of expenses required for measures taken pursuant to Article 51, paragraph (2), (3), (5), or (6) of the Former Act before this Act comes into force.
(3) Notwithstanding Article 85, paragraph (5) of the New Act provisions, prior laws continue to govern large motor vehicles that may be driven by a person who, at time this Act comes into force, holds a large motor vehicle license, and who has a total of three years of experience driving motor vehicles that it is permissible to drive with a large motor vehicle license, standard motor vehicle license, or special large motor vehicle license.
(Interim Measures for Penal Provisions)
Article 5 Prior laws continue to govern the applicability of penal provisions to conduct in which a person engages before this Act comes into force.
Supplementary Provisions [Act No. 130 of December 31, 1971] [Extract]
(Effective Date)
(1) This Act comes into force on the date of enforcement of the Agreement between Japan and the United States of America Concerning the Ryukyu Islands and the Daito Islands.
Supplementary Provisions [Act No. 51 of June 1, 1972]
(1) As regards each of the provisions set forth in the following items, this Act comes into force on the date set forth in those items:
(i) the provisions amending the table of contents, provisions amending Article 71 (other than parts with a bearing on items (ii) and (iii)), amending provisions that change Article 71-2 to Article 71-3 and add one Article after Article 71, provisions amending Article 110, provisions amending Article 120, paragraph (1), item (ix), provisions amending Article 121, provisions amending the Schedule (limited to the parts amending the phrases "item (v) or" and ", item (ix)-2 or item (x)"), and the following paragraph: October 1, 1972;
(ii) the amending provisions that add one paragraph to Article 84, provisions amending Article 85, paragraph (5), provisions amending Article 87, provisions amending Article 88, provisions amending Article 90, paragraph (1), amending provisions that delete Article 92, paragraph (3) and add one Article after that Article, each of the provisions amending Article 96, paragraph (1), and paragraphs (2) and (4), amending provisions that add one Article after that Article, provisions amending Article 97, provisions amending Article 98, amending provisions that add one Article after that Article, provisions amending Article 99, paragraph (1), each of the provisions amending Article 103, paragraphs (1) and (4), amending provisions that add one Article after Article 106, provisions amending Article 112, paragraph (5), provisions amending Article 114-2, paragraph (1), amending provisions that add one item to Article 118, paragraph (1) and paragraph (2), each of the provisions amending Article 120, paragraph (1), item (xiv), provisions amending the Schedule (but only the part that amends the phrase "Article 119, paragraph (1), item (i)-2, item (ii), item (ii)-2"), and paragraphs (3) through (7) and paragraph (9) of the Supplementary Provisions: April 1, 1973; or
(iii) other provisions: the day of promulgation of this Act.
(2) During the period up until March 31, 1973, the phrase "Article 87, paragraph (3)" in Article 71, item (v)-3 of the Road Traffic Act after its amendment by the amending provisions set forth in item (i) of the preceding paragraph is deemed to be replaced with "Article 87, paragraph (4)".
(3) A person who, by the time the amending provisions set forth in paragraph (1), item (ii) of the Supplementary Provisions come into force, has received a provisional driver's license (hereinafter referred to as a "provisional license") pursuant to the Road Traffic before its amendment by the amending provisions (hereinafter referred to as the "Former Act"), is deemed to have received a provisional large motor vehicle license pursuant to the Road Traffic Act after its amendment by the amending provisions (hereinafter referred to as the "New Act") if the type of motor vehicle designated in the provisional license is a large motor vehicle, and is deemed to have received a provisional standard motor vehicle license pursuant to the New Act if the type of motor vehicle designated in the provisional license is a standard motor vehicle.
(4) Notwithstanding the preceding paragraph and the main text of Article 87, paragraph (5) of the New Act, prior laws continue to govern the valid period of a provisional license that a person has received pursuant to the Former Act by the time the amending provisions set forth in paragraph (1), item (ii) of the Supplementary Provisions come into force.
(5) Notwithstanding Article 92-2 of the New Act, prior laws continue to govern the valid period of a driver's license (hereinafter referred to as a "license") of a person who has been licensed to drive (hereinafter referred to as being "licensed") by the time the amending provisions set forth in paragraph (1), item (ii) of the Supplementary Provisions come into force. In such a case, notwithstanding Article 92-2, paragraph (2) or (3) of the New Act, the valid period for such a person's license the first time it is renewed pursuant to Article 101, paragraph (2) or Article 101-2, paragraph (3) of the New Act after the amended provisions come into force is until the person's fourth birthday (if the person's birthday falls on February 29, the person's birthday is deemed to fall on February 28) after that person undergoes a fitness screening in connection with that renewal, pursuant to Article 101, paragraph (1) or Article 101-2, paragraph (2) of the New Act.
(6) Notwithstanding Article 96-2 and Article 97, paragraph (2) of the New Act, prior laws continue to govern eligibility to take a test for a person who, as of the time the amending provisions set forth in paragraph (1), item (ii) of the Supplementary Provisions come into force, has applied for a standard motor vehicle license (hereinafter referred to as an "S-MVL") pursuant to the Former Act, and the way of administering a driver's license test for the S-MVL that the person will take on the point set forth in Article 97, paragraph (1), item (ii) of the New Act.
(7) A driving school designated as a designated driving school pursuant to the Former Act at the time the amending provisions set forth in paragraph (1), item (ii) of the Supplementary Provisions come into force is deemed to have been designated as a designated driving school pursuant to the New Act, and a person engaged in providing instruction on motor vehicle driving skills or knowledge, or in giving skills evaluations for motor vehicle driving skills at such a driving school (other than a person not fulfilling the requirements that Cabinet Order prescribes based on Article 98, paragraph (1), item (iii) or the requirements set forth in the items of paragraph (2) of that Article), and who continues to be engaged in instruction or skills evaluations at that driving school even after the amending provisions come into force is deemed to have been appointed as a skills instructor, academic instructor, or skills evaluator of that driving school pursuant to Article 98, paragraph (1), item (iii) of the New Act.
(8) Prior laws continue to govern the applicability of penal provisions to conduct in which a person engages before the provisions amending this Act come into force.
(9) Chapter IX and the Schedule of the New Act do not apply to conduct violating Article 24 of the Former Act in which a person engages before the amending provisions set forth in paragraph (1), item (ii) of the Supplementary Provisions come into force.
Supplementary Provisions [Act No. 64 of June 10, 1976] [Extract]
(Effective Date)
(1) This Act comes into force within six months of its promulgation, on the date that Cabinet Order prescribes.
Supplementary Provisions [Act No. 53 of May 20, 1978] [Extract]
(1) This Act comes into force on December 1, 1978; provided, however, that the provisions amending Article 85, provisions amending Article 118, paragraph (1), item (v), and provisions amending Article 125, paragraph (2), item (i) come into force on April 1, 1979.
(2) Until March 31, 1979, the phrase "driving large motor vehicles, driving standard motor vehicles in violation of paragraph (7) of that Article, or driving motorcycles in violation of paragraph (8) of that Article" in Article 75, paragraph (1), item (v) of the Road Traffic Act after its amendment (hereinafter referred to as the "New Act") is deemed to be replaced with "driving large motor vehicles".
(3) An order for dismissal issued before this Act comes into force pursuant to Article 74-2, paragraph (3) of the Road Traffic Act before its amendment (hereinafter referred to as the "Former Act") is deemed to be an order for dismissal issued pursuant to Article 74-2, paragraph (4) of the New Act.
(4) Notwithstanding the main text of Article 87, paragraph (5) of the New Act, prior laws continue to govern the valid period of a provisional driver's license that a person has received pursuant to Article 87, paragraph (1) of the Former Act by time this Act comes into force.
(5) Notwithstanding Article 103-2, paragraph (1), items (ii) and (iii) of the New Act (including as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to Article 107-5, paragraph (9) of the New Act), prior laws continue to govern the suspension of a driver's license (including a prohibition on a person's driving of a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle) imposed by the chief of a police station on the holder of a driver's license (or on a person with an International Driving Permit) in connection with conduct in which that person has engaged before this Act comes into force.
(6) Article 108-3 of the New Act does not apply to conduct in which a person engages before this Act comes into force.
(7) Prior laws continue to govern the applicability of penal provisions to conduct in which a person engages before this Act (or the amended provisions prescribed in the proviso of paragraph (1) of the Supplementary Provisions) comes into force.
(8) Notwithstanding Article 125 of the New Act and the Schedule, prior laws continue to govern violations committed before this Act (or the amended provisions prescribed in the proviso of paragraph (1) of the Supplementary Provisions) comes into force.
Supplementary Provisions [Act No. 36 of May 16, 1983] [Extract]
(Effective Date)
Article 1 This Act comes into force on the day of its promulgation.
(Transitional Measures Attending the Partial Revision Amending a Part of the Road Traffic Act)
Article 5 (1) During the years 1983 and 1984 alone, the term "income" in Article 3, paragraph (1) of the Supplementary Provisions of the New Act on Special Accounts is deemed to be replaced with "if paragraph (8) of the Supplementary Provisions of the Act Partially Amending the Road Traffic Act (Act No. 126 of 1967; hereinafter referred to as the 'Amending Act of 1967') before its amendment by Article 4 of the Supplementary Provisions of the Act Partially Amending the Income, Local Allocation Tax Act, etc. (Act No. 36 of 1983; hereinafter referred to as the 'Amending Act of 1983') is deemed to remain in force, the amount which is transferred from the general account as the equivalent of the amount to be added for the year of 1983 or 1984 pursuant to that paragraph"; the phrase "Article 16 of the Supplementary Provisions of that Act" is deemed to be replaced with "Article 16 of the Supplementary Provisions of the Road Traffic Act"; and the phrase "money refunded, that Act" is deemed to be replaced with "money refunded, if paragraph (8) of the Supplementary Provisions of the Amending Act of 1967 before its amendment by to Article 4 of the Supplementary Provisions of the Amending Act of 1983 is deemed to remain in force, the amount which is transferred to the revenue in the general accounting as equivalent to the amount which should have been deducted in the year of 1983 or 1984 pursuant to that paragraph, the Road Traffic Act".
(2) During the year 1983 alone, the phrase "March of the preceding year and the relevant year" in the paragraph for September in the Table in Article 18, paragraph (1) of the Supplementary Provisions of the Road Traffic Act after its amendment by Article 3 (hereinafter referred to as the "New Road Traffic Act") is deemed to be replaced with "the relevant year"; and the phrase "amount that Cabinet Order prescribes" is deemed to be replaced with "amount that Cabinet Order prescribes (which, if paragraph (8) of the Supplementary Provisions of the Act Partially Amending the Road Traffic Act (Act No. 126 of 1967) before its amendment by to Article 4 of the Supplementary Provisions of the Act Partially Amending the Local Allocation Tax Act, etc. (Act No. 36 of 1983) is deemed to remain in force, is equivalent to the sum of the amount that Cabinet Order prescribes and the amount which should have been transferred from the general account to the revenue in the account for the special grant for traffic safety measures in the special account for distributing tax allocations and transferred tax, if there is an amount which should have been added for the year of 1983 pursuant to that paragraph, and is equivalent to the amount obtained is deducted from the amount that Cabinet Order prescribes, the amount transferred from the same account to the revenue in the general accounting as equivalent to the amount which should have been deducted, if there is an amount which should have been deducted for the same year pursuant to that paragraph)".
(3) During the year 1984 alone, the phrase "amount that Cabinet Order prescribes" in the paragraph for September in the Table in Article 18, paragraph (1) of the Supplementary Provisions of the New Road Traffic Act is deemed to be replaced with "amount that Cabinet Order prescribes (which, if paragraph (8) of the Supplementary Provisions of the Act Partially Amending the Road Traffic Act (Act No. 126 of 1967) before its amendment by to Article 4 of the Supplementary Provisions of the Act Partially Amending the Local Allocation Tax Act, etc. (Act No. 36 of 1983) is deemed to remain in force, is equivalent to the sum of the amount that Cabinet Order prescribes and the amount which should have been transferred from the general account to the revenue in the account for the special grant for traffic safety measures in the special account for distributing tax allocations and transferred tax, if there is an amount which should have been added for the year of 1984 pursuant to that paragraph, and is equivalent to the amount obtained by deducting, from the amount that Cabinet Order prescribes, the amount transferred from the same account to the revenue in the general account as equivalent to the amount which should have been deducted, if there is an amount which should have been deducted for the same year pursuant to that paragraph)".
(Delegation to Cabinet Order)
Article 10 Beyond what is prescribed in Article 2 of the Supplementary Provisions through the preceding Article, Cabinet Order provides for the necessary transitional measures to bring this Act into force.
Supplementary Provisions [Act No. 25 of May 8, 1984] [Extract]
(Effective Date)
Article 1 This Act comes into force on July 1, 1984.
(Transitional Measures)
Article 24 An application, filing, or other process (hereinafter referred to as an "application or other process") undertaken with the Shipping Commissioner, Head of a Maritime Administration Department, Head of a Branch Office or other such person, or the Head of a Land Transport Office before this Act comes into force is deemed, pursuant to Cabinet Order (or pursuant to Order of the Ministry of Transport, for applications and other processes undertaken with the Head of a Branch Office or other such person), to be an application or other process undertaken with the corresponding Head of a District Land Transport Office, Head of a Maritime Administration Department, or Head of a Maritime Transport Branch Office or other such person pursuant to each of the relevant Acts after their amendment by this Act or pursuant to an Order based on one of those Acts.
Supplementary Provisions [Act No. 87 of July 5, 1985]
(1) As regards each of the provisions set forth in the following items, this Act comes into force on the dates provided for therein:
(i) provisions amending the table of contents (but only the part amending "Articles 128 and 129" to read "Articles 128 to 129-2") and amending provisions that add one Article after Article 129: the day of promulgation of this Act;
(ii) provisions amending Articles 51, 62, and 81, and Article 82, paragraph (3), Article 83, paragraph (3), and provisions of the following paragraph and paragraph (3) of the Supplementary Provisions: the date after the final day in the 20-day period following the promulgation of this Act;
(iii) amending provisions that add two Articles after Article 71-3 (but only the part with a bearing on Article 71-4): January 1, 1986;
(iv) provisions amending paragraph (2) of Article 71-3: the date after the final day in the one-year period following the promulgation of this Act; or
(v) other provisions: within six months of promulgation, on the date that Cabinet Order prescribes.
(2) Public notice pursuant to the second sentence of Article 51, paragraph (6) of the Road Traffic Act after its amendment (hereinafter referred to as the "New Act") is deemed to have been issued on the date as prescribed in that item for a vehicle that, at the time the amending provisions set forth in item (ii) of the preceding paragraph come into force, is bei8ng stored pursuant to the second sentence of Article 51, paragraph (5) of the pre-amendment Road Traffic Act (hereinafter referred to as the "Former Act"), and for which a public notice has been issued pursuant to the second sentence of paragraph (6) of that Article .
(3) If, at the time the amending provisions set forth in paragraph (1), item (ii) of the Supplementary Provisions come into force, there is a load in or on a vehicle that is being stored pursuant to the second sentence of Article 51, paragraph (5) of the Former Act, the load is deemed to be one being stored pursuant to the second sentence of paragraph (5) of that Article as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to Article 51, paragraph (17) of the New Act.
(4) Prior laws continue to govern the applicability of penal provisions to conduct in which a person engages before the provisions amending this Act come into force.
(5) Notwithstanding Article 125 and the Schedule of the New Act, prior laws continue to govern violations committed before the provisions amending this Act come into force.
Supplementary Provisions [Act No. 63 of May 23, 1986]
(1) This Act comes into force on April 1, 1987.
(2) Prior laws continue to govern a demand for charges payable whose payment is ordered, pursuant to Article 51, paragraph (11) (including as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to paragraph (17) of that Article) or Article 81, paragraph (6) (including as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to Article 82, paragraph (3) and Article 83, paragraph (3) of that Act) of the pre-amendment Road Traffic Act, before this Act comes into force; and also continue to govern charge collection procedures under Article 51, paragraph (13) (including as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to paragraph (17) of that Article) or Article 81, paragraph (8) (including as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to Article 82, paragraph (3) and Article 83, paragraph (3) of that Act) of the pre-amendment Road Traffic Act which are started before this Act comes into force.
(3) Prior laws continue to govern the applicability of penal provisions to conduct in which a person engages before this Act comes into force.
(4) Notwithstanding Article 125 and the Schedule of the Road Traffic Act after amendment, prior laws continue to govern conduct in which a person engages before this Act comes into force.
Supplementary Provisions [Act No. 82 of December 19, 1989] [Extract]
(Effective Date)
Article 1 This Act comes into force within one year of its promulgation, on the date that Cabinet Order prescribes.
Supplementary Provisions [Act No. 83 of December 19, 1989] [Extract]
(Effective Date)
Article 1 This Act comes into force within one year of its promulgation, on the date that Cabinet Order prescribes.
Supplementary Provisions [Act No. 90 of December 22, 1989]
(1) This Act comes into force within one year of its promulgation, on the date that Cabinet Order prescribes.
(2) Articles 100-2, 100-3, and 104-2, Article 108-2, paragraph (1), item (v), and Article 108-3 of the Road Traffic Act after its amendment apply to a person who obtains a driver's license after the date on which this Act comes into force (referred to as "effective date" in the following paragraph).
(3) Article 71-4, Article 108-2, paragraph (1), item (i), paragraph (3) of that Article, and paragraph (4) of Article 112 of the pre-amendment Road Traffic Act remain in force with regard to a person who, by the time this Act comes into force, has obtained a class 1 driver's license pursuant to Article 84, paragraph (2) of the Road Traffic Act, but who has not held that license for one year in total (such a total does not include any period during which the person's license was suspended). In such a case, the conduct prescribed in Article 71-4 of the pre-amendment Road Traffic Act is not to include conduct in which a person engages in driving a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle that, pursuant to Article 85, paragraph (2) of the Road Traffic Act, may be driven by a person who is permitted to drive a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle of a category that the Table following Article 85, paragraph (1) of that Act sets forth for a given driver's license that the person obtains after the effective date.
(4) Notwithstanding Article 96-3 of the Road Traffic Act after amendment, prior laws continue to govern a person's eligibility to take a driver's license test if the person has an application pending for a driver's license pursuant to Article 89 of the Road Traffic Act at the time this Act comes into force.
Supplementary Provisions [Act No. 73 of July 3, 1990]
(Effective Date)
(1) This Act comes into force within six months of its promulgation, on the date that Cabinet Order prescribes.
(Transitional Measures)
(2) Article 51-2, paragraphs (12) and (13) of the Road Traffic Act after its amendment apply to the right to demand charges, fines, and fees pursuant to paragraph (8) of that Article for a vehicle that a designated organization for moving and storing vehicles as referred to in paragraph (1) of that Article moves pursuant to paragraph (8) of that Article after this Act comes into force.
(3) Notwithstanding Article 125 and the Schedule of the Road Traffic Act after amendment, prior laws continue to govern violations committed before this Act comes into force.
Supplementary Provisions [Act No. 74 of July 3, 1990] [Extract]
(Effective Date)
Article 1 This Act comes into force within one year of its promulgation, on the date that Cabinet Order prescribes.
Supplementary Provisions [Act No. 60 of May 2, 1991] [Extract]
(Effective Date)
Article 1 This Act comes into force within six months of its promulgation, on the date that Cabinet Order prescribes.
(Transitional Measures Attending the Partial Revision of the Road Traffic Act)
Article 6 Notwithstanding Article 49-4, paragraphs (1) and (2) of the Road Traffic Act after its amendment by the preceding Article, prior laws continue to govern on-street parking spots that are to continue to be governed by prior laws pursuant to Article 2 of the Supplementary Provisions.
Supplementary Provisions [Act No. 43 of May 6, 1992] [Extract]
(Effective Date)
(1) This Act comes into force within six months of its promulgation, on the date that Cabinet Order prescribes; provided, however, that the part with a bearing on Chapter VII in the provisions amending the table of contents, amending provisions that change Article 108-14 to Article 108-27, amending provisions that change Article 108-13 to Article 108-26, amending provisions that add one Chapter after Chapter VI-2, and provisions amending Article 117-3, item (iii) come into force on the day of promulgation.
(Transitional Measures)
(2) Notwithstanding Article 90-2 of the Road Traffic Act after its amendment (hereinafter referred to as the "New Act"), prior laws continue to govern persons who have passed a driver's license test for motorcycles as of time this Act comes into force.
(3) A designated driving school that is subject to a designation under Article 98, paragraph (1) of the pre-amendment Road Traffic Act at the time this Act comes into force is deemed to have made a filing as under Article 98, paragraph (2) of the New Act, and to be a designated driving school subject to a designation under paragraph (1) of Article 99 the New Act.
(4) Paragraph (1), item (ii) of Article 97-2 of the New Act apply to persons whose licenses have ceased to be valid pursuant to Article 105 of the Road Traffic Act after the date on which this Act comes into force, and prior laws continue to govern other persons.
Supplementary Provisions [Act No. 43 of May 12, 1993] [Extract]
(Effective Date)
Article 1 This Act comes into force within one year of its promulgation, on the date that Cabinet Order prescribes.
(Transitional Measures for Licenses)
Article 2 Notwithstanding Article 90-2 of the Road Traffic Act after its amendment (hereinafter referred to as the "New Act"), prior laws continue to govern a person who, by the time this Act comes into force, has passed a driver's license test for an S-MVL or motorcycle license.
Article 3 (1) Prior laws continue to govern the valid period of a license issued by the time this Act comes into force, and also governs a license renewed after the date on which this Act comes into force (hereinafter referred to as the "effective date"), if the first day of that renewal period, as prescribed in Article 101, paragraph (1) of the Road Traffic Act, falls before the effective date.
(2) For two years after the effective date, the phrase "a person who has held a license (other than provisional licenses) for at least five years continuously by the date of renewal or reference date and for a continuous period of at least five years, and who meets the criteria that Cabinet Order prescribes as a person with an exemplary record of observing the provisions of this Act, Orders based on this Act, and measures based on this Act, with respect to the driving of motor vehicles and motorized bicycles" in Note (i), 2. of the Table of Article 92-2, paragraph (1) of the New Act is deemed to be replaced with "a person who has held a license (other than a provisional license) for a period longer than the period that Cabinet Order prescribes and who meets the criteria that Cabinet Order prescribes as a person with an exemplary record of observing the provisions of this Act, Orders based on this Act, and measures based on this Act, with respect to the driving of motor vehicles and motorized bicycles".
Article 4 Conditions attached at time this Act comes into force pursuant to the second sentence of Article 101, paragraph (2) of the pre-amendment Road Traffic Act (hereinafter referred to as the "Former Act") (including as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to the second sentence of Article 101-2, paragraph (3), Article 102, paragraph (3), and Article 107-4, paragraph (3) of the Former Act) are deemed to be conditions attached pursuant to Article 91 of the New Act or orders issued pursuant to Article 107-4, paragraph (3) of the New Act.
(Transitional Measures for Designated Driving Schools and Related Considerations)
Article 5 A designated driving school that is subject to a designation under Article 99, paragraph (1) of the Former Act at time this Act comes into force is deemed to be a designated driving school subject to a designation under Article 99, paragraph (1) of the New Act.
Article 6 (1) If a skills evaluator who, as of the time this Act comes into force, has been appointed pursuant to Article 99, paragraph (2) of the Former Act at a driving school deemed, pursuant to the preceding Article, to be subject to a designation as a designated driving school under Article 99, paragraph (1) of the New Act (hereinafter referred to as a "driving school designated under the Former Act") is engaged in the duties of a skills evaluator as prescribed in Article 99-5, paragraph (1), (4), and (5) of the New Act at the driving school designated under the Former Act, that skills evaluator is deemed to have been appointed pursuant to Article 99-2, paragraph (1) of the New Act.
(2) Article 99-2, paragraph (2) of the New Act does not apply to a person who is deemed, pursuant to the preceding paragraph, to be a skills evaluator appointed under Article 99-2, paragraph (1) of the New Act (hereinafter referred to as a "skills evaluator appointed under the Former Act" in the following paragraph), until that person is issued a skills evaluator certificate pursuant to paragraph (4) of that Article.
(3) Article 99, paragraphs (8) and (9) of the Former Act remain in effect with regard to a skills evaluator of the Former Act until the end of the period provided for in the preceding paragraph.
Article 7 (1) If a skills instructor or academic instructor who, as of the time this Act comes into force, has been appointed pursuant to Article 99, paragraph (1), item (iii) of the Former Act at a driving school designated under the Former Act is engaged in the duties of an instructor as prescribed in Article 99-3, paragraph (1) of the New Act at that driving school, that skills instructor is deemed to have been appointed pursuant to Article 99-3, paragraph (1) of the New Act.
(2) Article 99-3, paragraph (2) of the New Act does not apply to a person who is deemed, pursuant to the preceding paragraph, to be a skills instructor appointed under Article 99-3, paragraph (1) of the New Act (hereinafter referred to in this Article as "person deemed to be a skills instructor"), until that person is issued a skills instructor certificate pursuant to paragraph (4) of that Article.
(3) Until the period provided for in the preceding paragraph is over, a person managing a driving school designated under the Former Act must not allow a person deemed to be a skills instructor who is not a skills instructor as referred to in Article 99, paragraph (1), item (iii) of the Former Act at the time this Act comes into force to provide instruction on driving skills, nor may such a person allow a person deemed to be a skills instructor who is not an academic instructor as referred to in that item at time this Act comes into force to provide instruction on driving knowledge.
(4) Article 99, paragraphs (8) and (9) of the Former Act remain in effect with regard to a person deemed to be an instructor until the period provided for in paragraph (2) is over. In such a case, the phrase "skills instructor or academic instructor" in paragraph (8) of that Article is deemed to be replaced with "person deemed to be a skills instructor pursuant to Article 7, paragraph (2) of the Supplementary Provisions of the Act Partially Amending the Road Traffic Act (Act No. 43 of 1993)" and the phrase "skills instructor or academic instructor" in paragraph (9) of that Article is deemed to be replaced with "person deemed to be a skills instructor pursuant to Article 7, paragraph (2) of the Supplementary Provisions of the Act Partially Amending the Road Traffic Act".
Article 8 (1) To apply Article 99-6, paragraph (1) of the New Act to a driving school designated under the Former Act, the phrase "this Section" in that paragraph is deemed to be replaced with "this Section, Article 7, paragraph (3) of the Supplementary Provisions of the Act Partially Amending the Road Traffic Act (Act No. 43 of 1993), and Article 99, paragraph (8) of that Act before its amendment, which is deemed to remain in force pursuant to Article 6, paragraph (3) and Article 7, paragraph (4) of the Supplementary Provisions of that Act".
(2) To apply Article 99-7, paragraph (1) of the New Act to a driving school designated under the Former Act, the phrase "finds that a designated driving school no longer conforms to any of the criteria set forth in the items of Article 99, paragraph (1)" in that paragraph is deemed to be replaced with "finds that a designated driving school no longer conforms to any of the criteria set forth in Article 99, paragraph (1), item (i), (iv), or (v), or finds that a designated driving school no longer has the employees as prescribed in item (ii) of that paragraph (including skills evaluators appointed under the Former Act as referred to in Article 6, paragraph (2) of the Supplementary Provisions of the Act Partially Amending the Road Traffic Act) or the employees as prescribed in Article 99, paragraph (1), item (iii) (including persons deemed to be skills instructors as referred to in Article 7, paragraph (2) of the Supplementary Provisions of that Act)" and the phrase "to ensure that it conforms to that criteria" is deemed to be replaced with "to ensure that it conforms to the criteria set forth in item (i), (iv), or (v) of that paragraph, or to employ those employees".
(3) To apply Article 99-7, paragraph (2) of the New Act to a driving school designated under the Former Act, the phrase "this Section" in that paragraph is deemed to be replaced with "this Section and Article 7, paragraph (3) of the Supplementary Provisions of the Act Partially Amending the Road Traffic Act".
(4) To apply Article 100, paragraph (1) of the New Act to a driving school designated under the Former Act, the phrase "Article 99-3, paragraph (3)" in that paragraph is deemed to be replaced with "Article 99-3, paragraph (3), or Article 7, paragraph (3) of the Supplementary Provisions of the Act Partially Amending the Road Traffic Act" and the phrase "an order under the preceding Article" is deemed to be replaced with "an order under the preceding Article or an order under Article 99, paragraph (8) of that Act before its amendment, which is deemed to remain in force pursuant to Article 6, paragraph (3) and Article 7, paragraph (4) of the Supplementary Provisions of that Act".
Article 9 (1) A person who has completed the instruction in motor vehicle driving skills and knowledge as prescribed in Article 99, paragraph (5) of the Former Act is deemed to have completed the instruction in motor vehicle driving skills and knowledge as prescribed in Article 99-5, paragraph (1) of the New Act.
(2) A skills evaluation as referred to in Article 99, paragraph (5) of the Former Act is deemed to be a skills evaluation as referred to in Article 99-5, paragraph (1) of the New Act.
(3) A certificate of graduation or a certificate of completion issued pursuant to Article 99, paragraph (6) of the Former Act is deemed to be a certificate of graduation or a certificate of completion issued pursuant to Article 99-5, paragraph (5) of the New Act.
Article 10 Beyond as prescribed in Article 5 of the Supplementary Provisions through the preceding Article, if there are corresponding provisions in the New Act, a measure, procedure, or other action undertaken pursuant to Article 99 of the Former Act or pursuant to an order based on the same is deemed to have been undertaken pursuant to the corresponding provisions of the New Act.
(Transitional Measures for Penal Provisions and Other Provisions)
Article 11 Prior laws continue to govern the applicability of penal provisions to conduct in which a person engages before this Act comes into force.
Article 12 Notwithstanding Article 125 and the Schedule of the New Act, prior laws continue to govern conduct in which a person engages before this Act comes into force.
Supplementary Provisions [Act No. 89 of November 12, 1993] [Extract]
(Effective Date)
Article 1 This Act comes into force on the day Administrative Procedure Act (Act No. 88 of 1993) comes into force.
(Transitional Measures for Adverse Dispositions under Pending Consultations and Requests)
Article 2 Notwithstanding related Acts amended by this Act, if, before this Act comes into force, a consultation or other request has been filed with a council or other panel based on laws and regulations to put a matter into proceedings corresponding to a hearing as prescribed in Article 13 of the Administrative Procedure Act, proceedings for providing a person with an opportunity for explanation, or other proceedings for hearing statements of opinion, prior laws continue to govern the proceedings involved in any adverse disposition connected with the consultation or other request.
(Transitional Measures for Penal Provisions)
Article 13 Prior laws continue to govern the applicability of penal provisions to conduct in which a person engages before this Act comes into force.
(Transitional Measures Accompanying Arrangement of Provisions on Hearings)
Article 14 Procedures for hearings (other than those involving adverse dispositions) implemented pursuant to law before this Act comes into force and proceedings incidental thereto are deemed to have been implemented pursuant to the corresponding provisions of the related Acts after their amendment under this Act.
(Delegation to Cabinet Order)
Article 15 Beyond what is prescribed in Article 2 of the Supplementary Provisions through the preceding Article, Cabinet Order provides for the necessary transitional measures related to bringing this Act into force.
Supplementary Provisions [Act No. 74 of April 21, 1995] [Extract]
(Effective Date)
Article 1 This Act comes into force within one year and six months of its promulgation, on the date that Cabinet Order prescribes; provided, however, that the provisions amending Article 2, paragraph (1) and paragraph (3), item (i) come into force within six months of promulgation, on the date that Cabinet Order prescribes.
(Transitional Measures for Licenses)
Article 2 (1) A motorcycle license as referred to in Article 84, paragraph (3) of the Road Traffic Act before its amendment (hereinafter referred to as the "Former Act") (hereinafter referred to as a "motorcycle license as referred to in the Former Act") is deemed to be a large motorcycle license as referred to in Article 84, paragraph (3) (hereinafter referred to as a "large motorcycle license") or a standard motorcycle license as referred to in that paragraph (hereinafter referred to as a "standard motorcycle license"), in accordance with the categories set forth in the following items:
(i) a license other than one set forth in the following item and item (iii): a large motorcycle license;
(ii) a license with a restriction attached to it limiting the motorcycles as referred to in Article 3 of the Former Act that a person is permitted to drive pursuant to Article 91 of the Former Act (hereinafter referred to as a "motorcycle as referred to in the Former Act") to those that are equivalent to a standard motorcycle as referred to in Article 3 of the New Act (hereinafter referred to as a "standard motorcycle"): a standard motorcycle license; or
(iii) a license deemed to be a motorcycle license as referred to in the Former Act pursuant to Article 2, paragraph (1) of the Supplementary Provisions of the Act Partially Amending the Road Traffic Act (Act No. 96 of 1965; hereinafter referred to in paragraph (2) of the following Article as the "Amending Act of 1965") held by a person who does not pass the screening prescribed in Article 2, paragraph (4) of the Supplementary Provisions of that Act before its amendment by Article 11 of the Supplementary Provisions: a standard motorcycle license.
(2) If, as the result of the lifting of a restriction as prescribed in item (ii) of the preceding paragraph on a motorcycle license as referred to in the Former Act, that license is deemed, pursuant to that paragraph, to be a large motorcycle license, the person in question is deemed to have obtained the large motorcycle license on the day the person obtained the motorcycle license as referred to in the Former Act.
Article 3 (1) If it is still in effect at the time this Act comes into force, a restriction or condition on the driving of a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle which has been attached to a motorcycle license as referred to in the Former Act pursuant to Article 91 of the Former Act (other than a restriction as prescribed in paragraph (1), item (ii) of the preceding Article involving the distinction between a large motorcycle and a standard motorcycle under Article 3 of the New Act) is deemed to be a restriction or condition on the driving of a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle attached to a large motorcycle license or standard motorcycle license pursuant to Article 91 of the New Act.
(2) A driver's license as set forth in paragraph (1), item (iii) of the preceding Article which is deemed to be a standard motorcycle license pursuant to that paragraph is deemed to have a restriction attached to it limiting the standard motorcycles that the person may drive pursuant to Article 91 of the New Act to those that are equivalent to class 2 motorized bicycles (meaning class 2 motorized bicycles as under Article 3, paragraph (2) of the Road Traffic Act before its amendment by Article 1 of the Amending Act of 1965).
Article 4 An application for a motorcycle license as referred to in the Former Act that is pending at the time this Act comes into force is deemed to be an application for a standard motorcycle license if the motorcycles as referred to in the Former Act that the person would be permitted drive with the motorcycle license as referred to in the Former Act would have been restricted to those that are equivalent to standard motorcycles, and is deemed to be an application for a large motorcycle license if this is not the case.
Article 5 Beyond what is prescribed in the preceding two Articles, measures or procedures pertaining to a motorcycle license as referred to in the Former Act made before the amendment of this Act is deemed to have been made as measures or procedures pertaining to a large motorcycle license or standard motorcycle license, in accordance with the categories of the driver's license under Article 2, paragraph (1) of the Supplementary Provisions.
Article 6 A person who has passed a driver's license test for a motorcycle license as referred to in the Former Act as of the time this Act comes into force but who has not received a motorcycle license as referred to in the Former Act is deemed to have passed the driver's license test for a standard motorcycle license if that person has passed a driver's license test that was conducted under the premise that the motorcycles as referred to in the Former Act that the person would be permitted to drive with the motorcycle license as referred to in the Former Act would be restricted to those that are equivalent to standard motorcycles, and is deemed to have passed the driver's license test for a large motorcycle license if that person has passed a driver's license test for a motorcycle license as referred to in the Former Act other than one conducted under that premise.
Article 7 To apply Article 88, paragraph (1), item (i) of the New Act to a person who, at time this Act comes into force, holds a motorcycle license as referred to in the Former Act that is deemed to be a large motorcycle license pursuant to Article 2, paragraph (1) of the Supplementary Provisions, and to a person who is deemed to have passed the driver's license test for a large motorcycle license pursuant to the preceding Article, the phrase "18 years of age in the case of S-MVLs, SL-MVLs, L-ML and licenses for towing" is deemed to be replaced with "18 years of age in the case of licenses for towing, or under 16 years of age in the case of large motorcycle licenses".
Article 8 To apply Article 100-2, paragraph (1) of the New Act to a person who, at time this Act comes into force, holds a motorcycle license as referred to in the Former Act that is deemed to be a large motorcycle license pursuant to Article 2, paragraph (1) of the Supplementary Provisions, the phrase "(hereinafter referred to as a 'vehicle the person is licensed to drive')" in that paragraph is deemed to be replaced with "with regard to the license which is deemed to be the large motorcycle license pursuant to Article 2, paragraph (1) of the Supplementary Provisions of the Act Partially Amending the Road Traffic Act (Act No. 74 of 1995; hereinafter referred to as the 'Amending Act'), the large motor vehicles and standard motor vehicles; hereinafter referred to as a 'vehicle the person is licensed to drive')", and the phrase "including licenses that Cabinet Order prescribes" in item (ii) of that paragraph is deemed to be replaced with "including licenses that Cabinet Order prescribes, and with regard to a license that is deemed to be a large motorcycle license pursuant to Article 2, paragraph (1) of the Supplementary Provisions of the Amending Act, including a license which is deemed to be a standard motorcycle license pursuant to that paragraph".
(Transitional Measures for Penal Provisions and Other Provisions)
Article 9 Prior laws continue to govern the applicability of penal provisions to conduct in which a person engages before this Act comes into force.
Article 10 Prior laws continue to govern the handling of violations committed before this Act comes into force.
Supplementary Provisions [Act No. 32 of May 9, 1996] [Extract]
(Effective Date)
(1) This Act comes into force within one year of its promulgation, on the date that Cabinet Order prescribes.
Supplementary Provisions [Act No. 41 of May 1, 1997]
(Effective Date)
Article 1 This Act comes into force within one year of its promulgation, on the date that Cabinet Order prescribes; provided, however, that the provisions set forth in the following items come into force on the dates prescribed therein:
(i) the provisions amending Article 14, provisions amending Article 71, provisions amending Article 71-5, amending provisions that add one Article after Article 75-8, provisions amending Article 75-9, provisions amending Article 85, paragraph (3), provisions amending Article 109-2, provisions amending Article 119, paragraph (1), item (ix)-2, provisions amending Article 120, paragraph (1), item (iii), provisions amending Article 121, paragraph (1), item (ix)-3, and provisions of Articles 6 and 7 of the Supplementary Provisions: within six months of promulgation, on the date that Cabinet Order prescribes. #(Effective October 30, 1997 under Cabinet Order No. 214 of 1997)#; or
(ii) the provisions amending the table of contents (but only the part amending the phrase "Article 102"), provisions amending Article 64, provisions amending Article 75, paragraph (1), provisions amending Article 88, paragraph (1), item (v), provisions amending Article 90 (other than the part amending the proviso of paragraph (1) of that Article, the part of the provisions amending paragraph (4) of that Article that amends the phrase "not exceeding three years", and the part of the provisions amending paragraph (3) of that Article that amends the phrase "in violation of this Act or an order under this Act, or of a measure under this Act, in connection with the driving of motor vehicle or motorized bicycle"), provisions amending Article 96, paragraph (5) (but only the part amending the phrase "paragraph (3) of Article 90"), provisions amending Article 96-3, provisions amending Article 101-3, amending provisions that add one Article after that Article, provisions amending Article 102, paragraph (1), amending provisions that add one Article after that Article, provisions amending Article 103, paragraph (2) (but only the part adding the proviso), provisions amending paragraph (4) of that Article, provisions amending Article 106 (but only the part that amends the phrase "paragraph (3) or (4)" and the part that adds the phrase "or item (xiii)" under "Article 108-2, paragraph (1), item (x)"), provisions amending Article 107, paragraph (3), amending provisions that add one Article after Article 107-4, provisions amending Article 107-5, paragraph (1) (but only the part adding a proviso), provisions amending paragraph (8) of that Article (other than the part that amends the term "three years"), provisions amending Article 107-7, paragraph (1), provisions amending Article 108-2, amending provisions that add one Article after Article 108-3, provisions amending Article 108-26 (but only the part that adds the phrase "Article 102-2" under "item (iv) of that paragraph"), provisions amending Article 112, paragraph (6), provisions amending Article 113-2, and provisions of Article 3 of the Supplementary Provisions: within one year and six months of the promulgation of this Act, on the date that Cabinet Order prescribes.
(Transitional Measures for Licenses)
Article 2 (1) Prior laws continue to govern the fixing of the period during which a person is not permitted to hold a license after that person becomes subject to measures, if that person has had a license denied or revoked because of circumstances that, before the date on which this Act comes into force (hereinafter referred to as the "effective date"), fall under the criteria for denial of a license under the proviso of Article 90, paragraph (1) of the Road Traffic Act before its amendment (hereinafter referred to as the "Former Act"), the criteria for revocation of a license under paragraph (3) of that Article, or the criteria for revocation of a license under Article 103, paragraph (2) or (4) of the Former Act.
(2) The Road Traffic Act after its amendment (other than the following paragraph and following Article, hereinafter referred to as the "New Act"), Article 90, paragraph (1), items (ii) and (iii), paragraph (4) of that Article (but only the parts with a bearing on paragraph (1), items (ii) and (iii) of that Article), Article 103, paragraph (2), items (iii) and (iv) of the New Act, paragraph (4) of that Article (but only the parts with a bearing on paragraph (2), items (iii) and (iv) of that Article), and Article 106-2, paragraph (2) of the New Act (but only the parts with a bearing on Article 103, paragraph (2), items (iii) and (iv) of the New Act) do not apply to conduct in which a person engages before the effective date.
(3) Prior laws continue to govern the valid period of a license issued by the time this Act comes into force, and to govern the valid period of a license that is renewed after the effective date, if the first day of its renewal period as prescribed in Article 101, paragraph (1) of the Road Traffic Act falls before the effective date.
(4) Prior laws continue to govern the period during which a person is prohibited from driving a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle based on circumstances that, before the effective date, fall under criteria for prohibiting a person from driving a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle under Article 107-5, paragraph (1) of the Former Act, or Article 103, paragraph (4) of the Former Act as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to paragraph (8) of that Article.
(Transitional Measures for Training)
Article 3 (1) Article 101-4 of the Road Traffic Act after its amendment (referred to as the "New Act" in the following paragraph) under the amending provisions set forth in Article 1, item (ii) of the Supplementary Provisions apply to a person seeking to renew a license if the final day in the renewal period falls on or after on the date after the final day in the two-month period following the date provided for in Article 1, item (ii) of the Supplementary Provisions (for one to renew a license under Article 101-2, paragraph (1) of the Road Traffic Act, this date means the application date).
(2) Article 102-2 of the New Act (including as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to Article 107-4-2 of the New Act; the same applies hereinafter in this paragraph), Article 108-2, paragraph (1), item (xiii) and Article 108-3-2 of the New Act apply to a person engaging in conduct after the date provided for in Article 1, item (ii) of the Supplementary Provisions that falls under the criteria referred to in Cabinet Order of Article 102-2 of the New Act.
(Transitional Measures for Prefectural Traffic Safety Associations)
Article 4 (1) A Prefectural Road Usage Adjustment Center that has been designated under Article 114-8, paragraph (1) of the Former Act at time this Act comes into force is deemed to have been designated as a Prefectural Traffic Safety Association under Article 108-31, paragraph (1) of the New Act on the effective date.
(2) An order issued pursuant to Article 114-8, paragraph (3) of the Former Act prior to the effective date is deemed to have been issued pursuant to Article 108-31, paragraph (3) of the New Act on the effective date.
(3) Even after this Act comes into force, prior laws continue to govern the obligation not to divulge confidential information that a former officer or employee of a Prefectural Road Usage Adjustment Center has come to know in connection with the research work as prescribed in Article 114-8, paragraph (2), item (iv) or (v) of the Former Act.
(Transitional Measures for the Japan Traffic Safety Association)
Article 5 (1) The National Road Usage Adjustment Center that has been designated under Article 114-9, paragraph (1) of the Former Act at time this Act comes into force is deemed to have been designated as the Japan Traffic Safety Association pursuant to Article 108-32, paragraph (1) of the New Act on the effective date.
(2) An order issued pursuant to Article 114-8, paragraph (3) of the Former Act as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to Article 114-9, paragraph (3) of the Former Act before the effective date is deemed to be an order issued pursuant to Article 108-31, paragraph (3) of the New Act as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to Article 108-32, paragraph (3) of the New Act on the effective date.
(Transitional Measures for Penal Provisions and Other Provisions)
Article 6 Prior laws continue to govern the applicability of penal provisions to conduct in which a person engages before this Act (or the amended provisions set forth in Article 1, item (i) of the Supplementary Provisions) comes into force, and to conduct in which a person engages after this Act comes into force in connection with a matter that prior laws are to continue to govern pursuant to Article 4, paragraph (3) of the Supplementary Provisions.
Article 7 Prior laws continue to govern the handling of violations for conduct in which a person engages before the amending provisions set forth in Article 1, item (i) of the Supplementary Provisions come into force.
Supplementary Provisions [Act No. 110 of September 28, 1998]
This Act comes into force on April 1, 1999.
Supplementary Provisions [Act No. 40 of May 10, 1999]
This Act comes into force within one year of its promulgation, on the date that Cabinet Order prescribes; provided, however, that the provisions amending Articles 71 and 94, Article 97-2, paragraph (1), item (ii), Article 106, and Article 108-2, paragraph (1), the amending provisions that add one Article after Article 108-3-2, the provisions amending Article 110 and Article 112, paragraph (1), the amending provisions that add one Article after Article 113-3, and the provisions amending Article 117-3, item (iii), Article 119, paragraph (1), and the Schedule come into force within six months of promulgation, on the date that Cabinet Order prescribes.
Supplementary Provisions [Act No. 87 of July 16, 1999] [Extract]
(Effective Date)
Article 1 This Act comes into force on April 1, 2000; provided, however, that the provisions set forth in the following items come into force on the dates prescribed therein:
(i) the amending provisions of Article 1 that add five Articles, a section name, and two Subsections and subsection names after Article 250 of the Local Autonomy Act (but only the part with a bearing on Article 250-9, paragraph (1) of that Act (but only the part regarding obtaining the consent of both Houses)), provisions of Article 40 amending paragraphs (9) and (10) of the Supplementary Provisions of the Natural Parks Act (but only the part with a bearing on paragraph (10) of the Supplementary Provisions of that Act), provisions of Article 244 (other than the part with a bearing on the provisions amending Article 14-3 of the Agricultural Improvement Promotion Act), and provisions of Article 472 (other than the parts with a bearing on the provisions amending Articles 6, 8, and 17 of the Act on Special Provisions of the Merger of Municipalities), provisions of Articles 7, 10, 12, and the proviso of Article 59, Article 60, paragraphs (4) and (5), Articles 73 and 77, Article 157, paragraphs (4) through (6), Articles 160, 163, 164, and 202 of the Supplementary Provisions: the day of promulgation.
(Administrative Processes of the National Government and Other Public Entities)
Article 159 Beyond as prescribed in the relevant Acts before their amendment under this Act, after this Act comes into force, a local government is to handle, as its own administrative processes, the administrative processes of the national government, of local governments other than itself, and of other public entities (referred to as "administrative processes of the national government and other public entities" in Article 161 of the Supplementary Provisions) which, before this Act comes into force, an entity of that local government manages or performs pursuant to an Act or pursuant to a Cabinet Order based on an Act, and is to do so pursuant to that Act or pursuant to a Cabinet Order based on an Act.
(Transitional Measures for Measures, Applications, and Other Actions)
Article 160 (1) To apply the relevant Acts after their amendment on or after the effective date of this Act, except for Article 2 of the Supplementary Provisions through the preceding Article and the provisions on transitional measures in the relevant Acts after their amendment (including orders thereunder), a measure or any other such action regarding something such as permission that is taken, pursuant to one of the relevant Acts before its amendment, before this Act comes into force (for the provisions set forth in the items of Article 1 of the Supplementary Provisions, this means before those provisions come into force; the same applies hereinafter in this Article and Article 163 of the Supplementary Provisions) (hereinafter referred to in this Article as a "measure or other such action") or an application or any other such action regarding something such as permission that is undertaken, pursuant to one of the relevant Acts before its amendment, by the time this Act comes into force (hereinafter referred to as an "application or other such action") which involves an administrative process that will start to be carried out by a different person on the day on which this Act comes into force, is deemed to be a measure or other such action or an application or other such action that is taken or undertaken pursuant to the corresponding provisions of the relevant Act after its amendment.
(2) Beyond as otherwise provided for in this Act and Cabinet Order based hereupon, information that, before this Act comes into force, a person must report to, file with, submit to, or otherwise process with the national government or a local government entity pursuant to the relevant Acts before their amendment, but that has not been processed before the date on which this Act comes into force, is deemed to be information that a person must report to, file with, submit to, or otherwise process with the national government or corresponding entity of the local government pursuant to the corresponding provisions of the relevant Acts after their amendment but that has not been processed, and the relevant Acts after their amendment by this Act apply.
(Transitional Measures for Appeals)
Article 161 (1) For an appeal under the Administrative Appeals Act against a measure that has been taken, before the effective date and in connection with an administrative process of the national government or another public entity, by an administrative agency (hereinafter referred to in this Article as an "issuing agency") that answered to a higher administrative agency as prescribed in that Act (hereinafter referred to in this Article as a "higher administrative agency") prior to the effective date, the issuing agency is deemed to continue to answer to a higher administrative agency even after the effective date, and the Administrative Appeals Act applies. In such a case, the agency deemed to be the higher administrative agency to which the issuing agency answers is that to which it answered before the effective date.
(2) In a case as referred to in the preceding paragraph, if the agency that is deemed to be the higher administrative agency is a local government entity, the administrative processes to be handled by the entity pursuant to the Administrative Appeals Act constitute item (i) statutorily entrusted functions as prescribed in Article 2, paragraph (9), item (i) of the New Local Autonomy Act.
(Transitional Measures for Fees)
Article 162 Beyond what is otherwise provided for in this Act and in Cabinet Orders based hereupon, prior laws continue to govern the fees payable under the relevant Acts (including orders based on the same) before their amendment under this Act prior to the effective date.
(Transitional Measures for Penal Provisions)
Article 163 Prior laws continue to govern the applicability of penal provisions to conduct in which a person engages before this Act comes into force.
(Delegation of Other Transitional Measures to Cabinet Order)
Article 164 Beyond what is prescribed in these Supplementary Provisions, Cabinet Order provides for the necessary transitional measures associated with bringing this Act into force (including transitional measures for penal provisions).
(Review)
Article 250 As well as reviews being made of item (i) statutorily entrusted administrative functions as prescribed in Article 2, paragraph (9), item (i) of the New Local Autonomy Act from the perspective of ensuring, to the greatest extent possible, that no new functions are created, reviews are also made of the functions set forth in Appended Table I of the New Local Autonomy Act and functions provided for by Cabinet Order based on the New Local Autonomy Act from the perspective of promoting decentralization of authority, and these functions are to be amended as appropriate.
Article 251 The government is to examine how to secure adequate sources of local tax revenue based on the sharing of roles between the national government and local governments in consideration of the prevailing economic trends, and take the necessary measures based on the results of its examination, in order to enable local governments to perform their administrative functions and undertakings autonomously and independently.
Supplementary Provisions [Act No. 160 of December 22, 1999] [Extract]
(Effective Date)
Article 1 This Act (other than Articles 2 and 3) comes into force on January 6, 2001; provided, however that the provisions set forth in the following items come into force on the dates prescribed therein:
(i) Article 995 (but only the parts with a bearing on the amendment of the Supplementary Provisions of the Act on the Regulation of Nuclear Source Material, Nuclear Fuel Material and Reactors), Article 1305, Article 1306, Article 1324, paragraph (2), Article 1326, paragraph (2), and Article 1344: the date of promulgation.
Supplementary Provisions [Act No. 86 of May 26, 2000] [Extract]
(Effective Date)
Article 1 This Act comes into force before March 31, 2002, on the date that Cabinet Order prescribes.
Supplementary Provisions [Act No. 51 of June 20, 2001] [Extract]
(Effective Date)
Article 1 This Act comes into force within one year of its promulgation, on the date that Cabinet Order prescribes; provided, however, that the amending provisions that add one paragraph in Article 85, amending provisions that add two paragraphs in Article 86, amending provisions that add one paragraph after Article 87, paragraph (4), and the provisions amending Article 107-2 (but only the part that adds the phrase "or drives a standard motor vehicle that is to be driven by a professional designated driver" after "as a part of passenger motor carrier services") come into force within three years of promulgation, on the date that Cabinet Order prescribes.
(Transitional Measures for Licenses)
Article 2 (1) Notwithstanding Article 92-2 of the Road Traffic Act after amendment (hereinafter referred to as the "New Act"), prior laws continue to govern the valid period of a license that has been issued by the time this Act comes into force.
(2) Notwithstanding the preceding paragraph, if the first day in a renewal period as under Article 101, paragraph (1) of the Road Traffic Act before its amendment (hereinafter referred to as the "Former Act") for a license as prescribed in the preceding paragraph falls on or after the date on which this Act comes into force (hereinafter referred to as the "effective date"), the final day in the valid period of that license is the last day in the one-month period following the final day of the valid period that, pursuant to the previous paragraph, would be governed by prior laws (or the last day in the one-month period following the issuee's most recent birthday prior to the final day of the valid period that would be governed by prior laws, if this is not the issuee's birthday) (if the last day in that one-month period constitutes a day provided for Article 92-2, paragraph (4) of the Road Traffic Act, the following day).
(3) Notwithstanding Article 92-2 of the New Act, prior laws continue to govern the valid period of a license which has been issued by the time this Act comes into force, if the first day of its renewal period as under Article 101, paragraph (1) of the Former Act falls before the effective date (hereinafter referred to as a "specified license") and if it is renewed on or after the effective date (hereinafter referred to in the following paragraph as a "license renewed as specified").
(4) Notwithstanding the preceding paragraph, the final day in the valid period of a license renewed as specified is the last day in the one-month period following the final day of a valid period that, pursuant to the previous paragraph, would be governed by prior laws (or the last day in the one-month period following the issuee's most recent birthday prior to the final day of the valid period that would be governed by prior laws, if this is not the issuee's birthday) (if the last day in that one-month period constitutes a day provided for Article 92-2, paragraph (4) of the Road Traffic Act, the following day).
(5) Notwithstanding Article 101, paragraph (1) of the New Act, if a person seeks to renew a specified license on or after the effective date, the first day of the renewal period as prescribed in that paragraph (1) is the first day of the renewal period as prescribed in Article 101, paragraph (1) of the Former Act.
(6) Article 101-2-2 and Article 112, paragraph (1), item (v)-2 of the New Act do not apply to a person seeking to renew a specified license on or after the effective date.
(7) Notwithstanding Article 101-3 and Article 108-2, paragraph (1), item (xi) of the New Act, prior laws continue to govern the training that a person must undergo when seeking to renew a specified license on or after the effective date.
(8) Article 101-4 of the New Act apply to a person seeking to renew a license for which the final day in the renewal period (or the day of filing an application, if a person is seeking to apply to renew a license pursuant to Article 101-2, paragraph (1) of the New Act) is on or after the date after the final day in the three-month period following the effective date.
Article 3 (1) Notwithstanding Article 90-2 of the New Act, prior laws continue to govern a person who has passed a driver's license test for a class 2 L-MVL or class 2 S-MVL by the time this Act comes into force.
(2) Notwithstanding Article 96-2 and Article 97, paragraph (2) of the New Act, if a person has applied for a class 2 L-MVL or class 2 S-MVL pursuant to the Former Act by the time this Act comes into force, prior laws continue to govern the person's eligibility to take the driver's license test that the person has applied to take (other than test eligibility in connection with Article 96, paragraph (1) of the Former Act) and to govern how the driver's license test covering the point set forth in Article 97, paragraph (1), item (ii) of the New Act is administered to that person.
Article 4 To apply Article 97-2, paragraph (1), item (iii) of the New Act to a person falling under the category of a specified holder of an expired license as prescribed in Article 97-2, paragraph (1), item (ii) of the Former Act if the circumstances due to which that person could not take the driver's license arose prior to the day of promulgation of this Act, the phrase "if it has been less than one month since the date on which those compelling circumstances came to an end, but only if it has been less than three years since the expiration date" is deemed to be replaced with "if it has been less than one month since the date on which those compelling circumstances came to an end".
Article 5 Article 90, paragraph (1), item (vii), Article 104-2-3, and Article 106-2, paragraph (2) of the New Act do not apply to a person notified as under Article 102, paragraph (3) or Article 107-4, paragraph (1) of the Road Traffic Act prior to the effective date.
Article 6 Notwithstanding Article 103-2, paragraph (1) of the New Act (including as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to Article 107-5, paragraph (9) of the New Act), prior laws continue to govern the chief of a police station's suspension of a licensee's license (including a chief's prohibiting a person from driving a motor vehicle or motorized bicycle) (including a person with an International Driving Permit or foreign driver's license) in connection with conduct that the licensee engages in before the effective date.
Article 7 To apply Article 107-2 of the New Act to a person who, at time this Act comes into force, holds an International Driving Permit or foreign driver's license, the phrase "departs from Japan" is deemed to be replaced with "departs from Japan on or after the effective date of the Act Partially Amending the Road Traffic Act (Act No. 51 of 2001)".
(Transitional Measures for Filings Involving Operations to Provide Drivers with Specified Traffic Information)
Article 8 To apply Article 109-3, paragraph (1) of the New Act to the operations of a person that, at the time this Act comes into force, is carrying out operations that fall under the category of operations to provide drivers with specified traffic information as referred to in that paragraph, the phrase "pursuant to Cabinet Office Order" is deemed to be replaced with "pursuant to Cabinet Office Order, by the final day in the three-month period following the date on which the Act Partially Amending the Road Traffic Act (Act No. 51 of 2001) comes into force".
(Transitional Measures for Penal Provisions)
Article 9 Prior laws continue to govern the applicability of penal provisions to conduct in which a person engages before this Act comes into force.
(Delegation of Other Transitional Measures to Cabinet Orders)
Article 10 Beyond what is prescribed in Article 2 of the Supplementary Provisions through the preceding Article, Cabinet Order provides for the necessary transitional measures associated with bringing this Act into force (including transitional measures for penal provisions).
Supplementary Provisions [Act No. 138 of December 5, 2001] [Extract]
(Effective Date)
Article 1 This Act comes into force on the date after the final day in the 20-day period following its promulgation.
Supplementary Provisions [Act No. 77 of June 19, 2002] [Extract]
(Effective Date)
Article 1 This Act comes into force within one year of its promulgation, on the date that Cabinet Order prescribes.
Supplementary Provisions [Act No. 98 of July 31, 2002] [Extract]
(Effective Date)
Article 1 This Act comes into force on the date of enforcement of the Public Corporations Act; provided, however, that the provisions set forth in the following items come into force on the dates prescribed therein:
(i) Section 1 of Chapter I (including Schedules I through IV), and Article 28, paragraph (2), Article 33, paragraphs (2) and (3), and Article 39 of the Supplementary Provisions: the day of promulgation.
(Transitional Measures for Penal Provisions)
Article 38 Prior laws continue to govern the applicability of penal provisions to conduct in which a person engages before the effective date, as well as continuing to govern conduct in which a person engages after the effective date if prior laws continue to govern pursuant to this Act or if prior laws remain in force pursuant to these Supplementary Provisions.
(Delegation of Other Transitional Measures to Cabinet Order)
Article 39 Beyond as prescribed in this Act, Cabinet Order provides for the necessary transitional measures to bring the Public Corporations Act and this Act into force (including transitional measures for penal provisions).
Supplementary Provisions [Act No. 73 of June 2, 2004] [Extract]
(Effective Date)
Article 1 This Act comes into force once six-months have passed following its promulgation; provided, however, that the provisions set forth in the following items come into force on the dates prescribed therein:
(i) Article 2, and Articles 6 through 9 and Article 12 (other than the part that amends the phrase "Article 47, paragraph (2), Article 49, paragraph (5)" to "Article 47, paragraphs (3) and (5), Article 48, paragraph (9), Article 49, paragraph (6)" and the part that adds the phrase "Article 55-3, paragraph (2)" after "Article 55, paragraph (2)") of the Supplementary Provisions: within one year of promulgation, on the date that Cabinet Order prescribes.
Supplementary Provisions [Act No. 90 of June 9, 2004] [Extract]
(Effective Date)
Article 1 For the categories set forth in each of the following items, the provisions of this Act come into force on the dates set forth therein:
(i) the provisions of in Article 1 amending Article 16, paragraph (2) of the Supplementary Provisions, amending provisions that delete Articles 19 and 20 of the Supplementary Provisions, amending provisions that change Article 21 of the Supplementary Provisions to Article 19 of the Supplementary Provisions, provisions amending Article 22 of the Supplementary Provisions, amending provisions that change that Article to Article 20 of the Supplementary Provisions, amending provisions that delete Article 23, item (iii) of the Supplementary Provisions, amending provisions that change that Article to Article 21, and provisions amending Articles 3 and 25 of the Supplementary Provisions: the day of promulgation; or
(ii) Article 1 (other than the amending provisions set forth in the preceding item), and Articles 4 and 19 of the Supplementary Provisions: within six months of promulgation, on the date that Cabinet Order prescribes;
(iii) Article 2 and the following Article, and Articles 23 and 24 of the Supplementary Provisions: within one year of promulgation, on the date that Cabinet Order prescribes;
(iv) Article 3, and Articles 5, 16, and 20 through 22 of the Supplementary Provisions: within two years of promulgation, on the date that Cabinet Order prescribes;
(v) Article 4, and Articles 6 through 15 and Articles 17 and 18 of the Supplementary Provisions: within three years of promulgation, on the date that Cabinet Order prescribes.
(Preparatory Actions)
Article 2 The necessary procedures and other actions involved in registrations as referred to in Article 51-8, paragraph (1) of the Road Traffic Act after its amendment under Article 3, in the issuance of parking inspector certificates as referred to in Article 51-13, paragraph (1) of that Act, and in asking others to handle checking and confirmation processes may be undertaken even before Article 3 comes into force.
(Transitional Measures Connected with Special Grants for Traffic Safety Measures)
Article 3 Prior laws continue to govern special grants for traffic safety measures given in or before the year 2003.
(Transitional Measures for Stored Vehicles, Loads, and Objects)
Article 4 (1) To apply Article 51, paragraph (10) of the Road Traffic Act after its amendment under Article 1 (including as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to paragraph (24) of that Article, and Article 51-3, paragraph (10), Article 72-2, paragraph (3), and Article 75-8, paragraph (2) of that Act) to a vehicle, load, or damaged object or load that, at the time the provisions set forth in Article 1, item (ii) of the Supplementary Provisions come into force, is being stored, pursuant to Article 51, paragraph (9) of the Road Traffic Act before its amendment by Article 1 (including as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to paragraph (21) of that Article and Article 75-8, paragraph (2) of that Act), Article 51-3, paragraph (1) of that Act, or the second sentence of Article 72-2, paragraph (2) of that Act (referred to in the following paragraph as a "stored vehicle, load, or object"), the stored vehicle, load, or object is deemed have been taken into storage pursuant to Article 51, paragraph (9) of that Act (including as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to paragraph (24) of that Article and Article 75-8, paragraph (2) of that Act), Article 51-3, paragraph (1) of that Act, or the second sentence of Article 72-2, paragraph (2) of that Act, on the date on which the provisions set forth in Article 1, item (ii) of the Supplementary Provisions come into force.
(2) Notwithstanding the preceding paragraph, prior laws continue to govern a stored vehicle, load, or object for which a public notice under the second sentence of Article 51, paragraph (10) of the Road Traffic Act before its amendment by Article 1 (including as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to paragraph (21) of that Article, and Article 51-3, paragraph (10), Article 72-2, paragraph (3), and Article 75-8, paragraph (2) of that Act) has been issued before the provisions set forth in Article 1, item (ii) of the Supplementary Provisions come into force.
(Transitional Measures for Abandoned Vehicles)
Article 5 (1) Prior laws continue to govern marks that are attached to a vehicle pursuant to Article 51, paragraph (3) of the Road Traffic Act before its amendment by Article 3, before that Article comes into force.
(2) Notwithstanding Article 75-2, paragraph (1) of the Road Traffic Act after Article 3 comes into force, prior laws continue to govern cases in which a person engages in the conduct set forth in Article 75, paragraph (1), item (vii) of the Road Traffic Act before its amendment by Article 3 (including as applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to Article 75-8, paragraph (3) that Act) before Article 3 comes into force with regard to a vehicle for which instructions have been given pursuant to Article 51-4 of that Act.
(Transitional Measures for Licenses)
Article 6 A large motor vehicle license as referred to in Article 84, paragraph (3) of the Road Traffic Act before its amendment by Article 4 (hereinafter referred to as the "Former Act") (hereinafter referred to as an "L-MVL as referred to in the Former Act"), a standard motor vehicle license as referred to in that paragraph (hereinafter referred to as an "S-MVL as referred to in the Former Act"), a class 2 large motor vehicle license as referred to in paragraph (4) of that Article (hereinafter referred to as a "class 2 L-MVL as referred to in the Former Act"), a class 2 standard motor vehicle license as referred to in that paragraph (hereinafter referred to as a "class 2 S-MVL"), a provisional large motor vehicle license as referred to in paragraph (5) of that Article (hereinafter referred to as a "provisional L-MVL as referred to in the Former Act"), or a provisional standard motor vehicle license as referred to in that paragraph (hereinafter referred to as a "provisional S-MVL as referred to in the Former Act") is deemed, for each category of license set forth in the following items and as prescribed in the relevant item, to be a large motor vehicle license as referred to in Article 84, paragraph (3) of the Road Traffic Act after its amendment by Article 4 (hereinafter referred to as the "New Act") (hereinafter referred to as an "L-MVL"), a mid-sized motor vehicle license as referred to in that paragraph (hereinafter referred to as an "M-MVL"), a standard motor vehicle license as referred to in that paragraph (hereinafter referred to as an "S-MVL"), a class 2 large motor vehicle license as referred to in paragraph (4) of that Article (hereinafter referred to as a "class 2 L-MVL"), a class 2 mid-sized motor vehicle license as referred to in that paragraph (hereinafter referred to as a "class 2 M-MVL"), a class 2 standard motor vehicle license as referred to in that paragraph (hereinafter referred to as a "class 2 S-MVL"), a provisional large motor vehicle license as referred to in paragraph (5) of that Article (hereinafter referred to as a "provisional L-MVL"), or a provisional standard motor vehicle license as referred to in that paragraph (hereinafter referred to as a "provisional S-MVL"):
(i) an L-MVL as referred to in the Former Act: an L-MVL;
(ii) an S-MVL as referred to in the Former Act other than as set forth in the following item and in items (ix) through (xi): an M-MVL that limits the mid-sized motor vehicles as prescribed in Article 3 of the New Act (hereinafter referred to as a "mid-sized motor vehicle") that a person is permitted to drive pursuant to Article 91 of the New Act to those that are equivalent to a standard motor vehicle as referred to in Article 3 of the Former Act (hereinafter referred to as a "standard motor vehicle as referred to in the Former Act");
(iii) an S-MVL as referred to in the Former Act that limits the standard motor vehicles as referred to in the Former Act that a person is permitted to drive pursuant to Article 91 of the Former Act to those that are equivalent to a standard motor vehicle as prescribed in Article 3 of the New Act (hereinafter referred to as a "standard motor vehicle"): an S-MVL that includes an equivalent limitation on the standard motor vehicles that a person is permitted to drive pursuant to Article 91 of the New Act;
(iv) a class 2 L-MVL as referred to in the Former Act: a class 2 L-MVL;
(v) a class 2 S-MVL as referred to in the Former Act other than as set forth in the following item and item (xii): a class 2 M-MVL that limits the mid-sized motor vehicles that a person is permitted to drive pursuant to Article 91 of the New Act to those that are equivalent to a standard motor vehicle as referred to in the Former Act;
(vi) a class 2 S-MVL as referred to in the Former Act that limits the standard motor vehicles as referred to in the Former Act that a person is permitted to drive pursuant to Article 91 of the Former Act to those that are equivalent to a standard motor vehicle: a class 2 S-MVL that includes an equivalent limitation on the standard motor vehicles that a person is permitted to drive pursuant to Article 91 of the New Act;
(vii) a provisional L-MVL as referred to in the Former Act: a provisional L-MVL;
(viii) a provisional S-MVL as referred to in the Former Act: a provisional S-MVL;
(ix) an S-MVL as referred to in the Former Act which, pursuant to Article 3, paragraph (2) of the Supplementary Provisions of the Former Act, is deemed to be held by a person as prescribed in that paragraph (but only a person who did not pass the examination as prescribed in paragraph (3) of that Article), or an S-MVL as referred to in the Former Act which, pursuant to the first sentence of Article 5, paragraph (1) of the Supplementary Provisions of the Former Act, is held by a person as prescribed in the first sentence of that paragraph (but only a person who did not pass the examination as prescribed in paragraph (2) of that Article): an S-MVL that limits the standard motor vehicles that a person is permitted to drive pursuant to Article 91 of the New Act to those that are equivalent to a small four-wheel motor vehicle as prescribed in the Order for Enforcement of the Road Traffic Control Act (Cabinet Order No. 261 of 1953) before its repeal under Article 2 of the Supplementary Provisions of the Former Act;
(x) an S-MVL as referred to in the Former Act that limits the standard motor vehicles that a person is permitted to drive pursuant to Article 2, paragraph (3) of the Supplementary Provisions of the Act Partially Amending the Road Traffic Act (Act No. 96 of 1965; hereinafter referred to in this Article and Article 15 of the Supplementary Provisions as the "Amending Act of 1965") to motorized three-wheeled vehicles as under the Road Traffic Act before its amendment by the Amending Act of 1965: an S-MVL that limits the standard motor vehicles that a person is permitted to drive pursuant to Article 91 of the New Act to motorized three-wheeled vehicles and light motor vehicles as under the Road Traffic Act before its amendment by the Amending Act of 1965;
(xi) an S-MVL as referred to in the Former Act that limits the standard motor vehicles that a person is permitted to drive pursuant to Article 5, paragraph (3) of the Supplementary Provisions of the Amending Act of 1965 to light motor vehicles as under the Road Traffic Act before its amendment by the Amending Act of 1965: an S-MVL that limits the standard motor vehicles that a person is permitted to drive pursuant to Article 91 of the New Act to light motor vehicles as under the Road Traffic Act before its amendment by the Amending Act of 1965; or
(xii) a class 2 S-MVL as referred to in the Former Act that limits the standard motor vehicles that a person is permitted to drive pursuant to Article 2, paragraph (3) of the Supplementary Provisions of the Amending Act of 1965 to motorized three-wheeled vehicles as under the Road Traffic Act before its amendment by the Amending Act of 1965: a class 2 S-MVL that limits the standard motor vehicles that a person is permitted to drive pursuant to Article 91 of the New Act to motorized three-wheeled vehicles and light motor vehicles as under the Road Traffic Act before its amendment by the Amending Act of 1965.
Article 7 An application for a driver's license as set forth in one of the following items that is pending at the time Article 4 comes into force is deemed to be an application for the driver's license that the relevant item prescribes:
(i) an L-MVL as referred to in the Former Act: an L-MVL;
(ii) an S-MVL as referred to in the Former Act: an S-MVL;
(iii) a class 2 L-MVL as referred to in the Former Act: a class 2 L-MVL;
(iv) a class 2 S-MVL as referred to in the Former Act: a class 2 S-MVL;
(v) a provisional L-MVL as referred to in the Former Act: a provisional L-MVL; or
(vi) a provisional S-MVL as referred to in the Former Act: a provisional S-MVL.
Article 8 Beyond as prescribed in the preceding two Articles, a measure, procedure, or other action undertaken pursuant to the Former Act in connection with an L-MVL as referred to in the Former Act, S-MVL as referred to in the Former Act, class 2 L-MVL as referred to in the Former Act, class 2 S-MVL as referred to in the Former Act, provisional L-MVL as referred to in the Former Act, or provisional S-MVL as referred to in the Former Act is deemed to be a measure, procedure, or other action undertaken pursuant to the corresponding provisions of the New Act.
Article 9 To apply Article 71-5, paragraph (1) and Article 85, paragraph (7) of the New Act, person who, at the time Article 4 comes into force, holds an S-MVL as referred to in the Former Act which is deemed to be an M-MVL pursuant to Article 6 of the Supplementary Provisions, or a person who, at the time Article 4 comes into force, holds an M-MVL and is deemed to have passed a driver's license test for an M-MVL pursuant to the following Article is deemed to be person holding an S-MVL.
Article 10 A person who, at the time Article 4 comes into force, has passed a driver's license test for an L-MVL as referred to in the Former Act, S-MVL as referred to in the Former Act, class 2 L-MVL as referred to in the Former Act, class 2 standard motor vehicle as referred to in the Former Act, provisional L-MVL as referred to in the Former Act, or provisional S-MVL as referred to in the Former Act but has not received a driver's license under the Former Act is deemed to have passed the driver's license test for a driver's license as prescribed in Article 6, items (i) through (viii) of the Supplementary Provisions, based on the categories set forth in those items.
Article 11 (1) To apply Article 88, paragraph (1), item (i) and Article 96, paragraph (2) of the New Act to a person holding an L-MVL as referred to in the Former Act, which is deemed to be an L-MVL pursuant to Article 6 of the Supplementary Provisions, or to a person who is deemed to have passed a driver's license test for an L-MVL pursuant to the preceding Article, the phrase "21 years of age" in Article 88, paragraph (1), item (i) of the New Act is deemed to be replaced with "20 years of age", and the phrase "three years" in Article 96, paragraph (2) of the New Act is deemed to be replaced with "two years".
(2) To apply Article 88, paragraph (1), item (i) of the New Act to a person holding an S-MVL as referred to in the Former Act which is deemed to be an M-MVL pursuant to Article 6 of the Supplementary Provisions, or to a person who is deemed to have passed a driver's license test for an M-MVL pursuant to the preceding Article, the phrase "a person under 20 years of age (or under 19 years of age, for persons that Cabinet Order prescribes) is not granted an M-MVL; a person under 18 years of age is not granted an SM-MVL" is deemed to be replaced with "a person under 18 years of age is not granted an M-MVL, SM-MVL".
(3) Article 96, paragraph (3) of the New Act does not apply to a person as prescribed in the preceding paragraph.
(4) To apply Article 88, paragraph (2) of the New Act to a person holding a provisional L-MVL as referred to in the Former Act, which is deemed to be a provisional L-MVL pursuant to Article 6 of the Supplementary Provisions, or to a person who is deemed to have passed a driver's license test for an L-MVL pursuant to the preceding Article, the phrase "21 years of age" in that paragraph is deemed to be replaced with "20 years of age".
Article 12 (1) Notwithstanding Article 90-2 of the New Act, prior laws continue to govern a person who is deemed to have passed a driver's license test for an L-MVL pursuant to Article 10 of the Supplementary Provisions.
(2) To apply Article 90-2 of the New Act, a person who is deemed to have passed a driver's license test for an M-MVL pursuant to Article 10 of the Supplementary Provisions is deemed to be a person seeking to obtain an S-MVL.
(3) To apply Article 90-2 of the New Act, a person who is deemed to have passed a driver's license test for a class 2 M-MVL pursuant to Article 10 of the Supplementary Provisions is deemed to be a person seeking to hold a class 2 S-MVL.
Article 13 Notwithstanding Article 96-2 and Article 97, paragraph (2) of the New Act, prior laws continue to govern a person filing an application for an L-MVL as referred to in the Former Act which is deemed, pursuant to Article 7 of the Supplementary Provisions, to be an application for an L-MVL.
Article 14 To apply Article 100-2, paragraph (1) of the New Act to a person holding an S-MVL as referred to in the Former Act which is deemed, pursuant to Article 6 of the Supplementary Provisions, to be an M-MVL, or to a person holding an M-MVL who is deemed to have passed a driver's license test for an M-MVL pursuant to Article 10 of the Supplementary Provisions, the term "S-MVL" in that paragraph is deemed to be replaced with "M-MVL, S-MVL", and the phrase "hereinafter referred to as a 'vehicle the person is licensed to drive')" is deemed to be replaced with "for an S-MVL, a standard motor vehicle under the Road Traffic Act before its amendment by Article 4 of the Act Partially Amending the Road Traffic Act (Act No. 90 of 2004) (hereinafter referred to as a 'vehicle the person is licensed to drive')", and the phrase "the same type of license" in item (ii) of that paragraph is deemed to be replaced with "an S-MVL as prescribed in that Act"; and the phrase "obtained the license in question" in item (iii) of that paragraph is deemed to be replaced with "obtained the license in question, or a person for whom the limits prescribed in Article 6, item (ii) of the Supplementary Provisions of the Act Partially Amending the Road Traffic Act have been lifted".
(Transitional Measures for Penal Provisions and Other Provisions)
Article 23 Prior laws continue to govern the applicability of penal provisions to conduct in which a person engages before Articles 2 through 4 come into force as well as to conduct in which a person engages after this Act comes into force if prior laws are to continue to govern that conduct pursuant to Article 5 and Article 21, paragraph (3) of the Supplementary Provisions or if prior laws remain in force pursuant to Article 21, paragraph (2) of the Supplementary Provisions.
Article 24 Prior laws continue to govern the handling of violations as regards conduct in which a person engages before Articles 2 through 4 come into force.
(Delegation of Other Transitional Measures to Cabinet Order)
Article 25 Beyond as prescribed in Articles 3 through 14, Articles 21 and 23 of the Supplementary Provisions, and the preceding Article, Cabinet Order provides for the necessary transitional measures associated with bringing this Act into force (including transitional measures for penal provisions).
Supplementary Provisions [Act No. 112 of June 18, 2004] [Extract]
(Effective Date)
Article 1 This Act comes into force within three months of its promulgation, on the date that Cabinet Order prescribes.
Supplementary Provisions [Act No. 113 of June 18, 2004] [Extract]
(Effective Date)
Article 1 This Act comes into force on the date on which the Agreement Amending the Agreement Between the Government of Japan and the Government of the United States of America Concerning Reciprocal Provision of Logistic Support, Supplies and Services Between the Self-Defense Forces of Japan and the Armed Forces of the United States of America comes into force; provided, however, that Article 13, Article 14, paragraph (1), item (ii), and Articles 15 and 17, and Article 4 of the Supplementary Provisions come into force within three months of promulgation, on the date that Cabinet Order prescribes.
Supplementary Provisions [Act No. 77 of June 29, 2005] [Extract]
(Effective Date)
Article 1 This Act comes into force on April 1, 2006; provided, however, that the provisions set forth in the following items come into force on the dates prescribed therein:
(i) Articles 1, 5, 8, 11, 13, and 15 of this Act, and Articles 4, 15, and 22, Article 23, paragraph (2), and Articles 32, 39, and 56 of the Supplementary Provisions: the day of promulgation.
(Transitional Measures for Penal Provisions)
Article 55 Prior laws continue to govern the applicability of penal provisions to conduct in which a person engages before this Act comes into force, and to conduct in which a person engages after this Act comes into force if prior laws are to continue to govern that conduct pursuant to Article 9 of the Supplementary Provisions.
(Delegation of Other Transitional Measures to Cabinet Order)
Article 56 Beyond as prescribed in Articles 3 through 27 of this Act, and Articles 36 and 37 of the Supplementary Provisions, Cabinet Order provides for the necessary transitional measures to bring this Act into force (including transitional measures for penal provisions).
Supplementary Provisions [Act No. 102 of October 21, 2005] [Extract]
(Effective Date)
Article 1 This Act comes into force on the date of enforcement of the Postal Service Privatization Act.
(Transitional Measures for Penal Provisions)
Article 117 Prior laws continue to govern the applicability of penal provisions to conduct in which a person engages before this Act comes into force; to conduct in which a person engages after this Act comes into force if prior laws continue to govern that conduct pursuant to these Supplementary Provisions; to conduct in which a person engages before the loss of effect of those of the provisions of Article 38-8 of the Former Postal Money Order Act (but only the part with a bearing on items (ii) and (iii)) that remain in force pursuant to Article 9 of the Supplementary Provisions even after this Act comes into force; to conduct in which a person engages before the loss of effect of those of the provisions of Article 70 of the Former Postal Transfer Act (but only the part with a bearing on items (ii) and (iii)) that remain in force pursuant to Article 13, paragraph (1) of the Supplementary Provisions even after this Act comes into force; to conduct in which a person engages before the loss of effect of those of the provisions of Article 8 of the Former Postal Transfer Deposit Contribution Entrustment Act (but only the part with a bearing on item (ii)) that remain in force pursuant to Article 17, paragraph (1) of the Supplementary Provisions even after this Act comes into force; to conduct in which a person engages before the loss of effect of those of the provisions of Article 70 of the Former Japan Post Public Corporation Act (but only the part with a bearing on item (ii)) that remain in force pursuant to Article 19, paragraph (2) of the Supplementary Provisions even after this Act comes into force; to conduct in which a person engages before the loss of effect of those of the provisions of Article 71 and Article 72 of the Former Japan Post Public Corporation Act (but only the part with a bearing on item (v)) that remain in force pursuant to Article 42, paragraph (1) of the Supplementary Provisions even after this Act comes into force; and to conduct in which a person engages before the specified date associated with the Postal Savings Bank which is prescribed in Article 104 of the Postal Services Privatization Act, if Article 2, paragraph (2) of the Supplementary Provisions is applicable.
Supplementary Provisions [Act No. 40 of May 19, 2006] [Extract]
(Effective Date)
Article 1 This Act comes into force within 10 months of its promulgation, on the date that Cabinet Order prescribes.
Supplementary Provisions [Act No. 50 of June 2, 2006] [Extract]
This Act comes into force on the day on which the Act on General Incorporated Associations and General Incorporated Foundations comes into force.
Supplementary Provisions [Act No. 118 of December 22, 2006] [Extract]
(Effective Date)
Article 1 This Act comes into force within three months of its promulgation, on the date that Cabinet Order prescribes.
Supplementary Provisions [Act No. 54 of May 23, 2007] [Extract]
(Effective Date)
Article 1 This Act comes into force on the date after the final day in the 20-day period following its promulgation.
(Transitional Measures Accompanying the Partial Amendment of the Road Traffic Act)
Article 5 To apply Article 99-2, paragraph (4), item (ii) (d) and Article 108-4, paragraph (3), item (iii) of the Road Traffic Act after its amendment under Article 6 of the Supplementary Provisions of the Act on Punishment for When a Motor Vehicle Is Driven in a Way That Results in a Death or Injury (Act No. 86 of 2013) to a person committing a crime as referred to in Article 211, paragraph (1) of the Penal Code before its amendment under this Act in relation to the driving of motor vehicle or motorized bicycle as prescribed in Article 84, paragraph (1) (including any provisions that, pursuant to Article 2 of the Supplementary Provisions, continue to be governed by prior laws) of the Road Traffic Act before this Act comes into force, the phrase "as referred to in Article 2 through Article 6 of the Act on Punishment for When a Motor Vehicle Is Driven in a Way That Results in a Death or Injury" in these provisions is deemed to be replaced with "as referred to in Article 2 through Article 6 of the Act on Punishment for When a Motor Vehicle Is Driven in a Way That Results in a Death or Injury, an offense as referred to in Article 208-2 of the Penal Code before its amendment by to Article 2, Supplementary Provisions of the Road Traffic Act or Article 211, paragraph (2) of the Penal Code (including any provisions that, pursuant to Article 14, Supplementary Provisions of the Act on Punishment for When a Motor Vehicle Is Driven in a Way That Results in a Death or Injury, continue to be governed by prior laws), an offense as referred to in Article 211, paragraph (1) of the Penal Code before its amendment under the Act Partially Amending the Penal Code (Act No. 54 of 2007) (including any provisions that, pursuant to Article 2 of the Supplementary Provisions of the Act Partially Amending the Penal Code, continue to be governed by prior laws)".
Supplementary Provisions [Act No. 90 of June 20, 2007] [Extract]
(Effective Date)
Article 1 This A