Basic Act on Science and Technology
Act No. 130 of November 15, 1995
Table of Contents
Chapter I General Provisions (Article 1 – Article 8)
Chapter II Basic Plan for Science and Technology (Article 9)
Chapter III Promotion of Research and Development (Article 10 – Article 17)
Chapter IV Promotion of International Exchange (Article 18)
Chapter V Advancement of Scientific and Technological Learning (Article 19)
Supplementary Provisions
Chapter I General Provisions
(Purpose)
Article 1 The purpose of this Act is to improve the level of science and technology in Japan by establishing the particulars that will form the basis of policies to advance science and technology (other than science or technology whose sole concern is the humanities; the same applies hereinafter) and comprehensively and systematically promoting policies that advance science and technology; and in doing so, to contribute to Japan's socioeconomic development and improve the national welfare, as well as playing a role in global scientific and technological progress and the continued development of mankind.
(Course of Action for Scientific and Technological Advancement)
Article 2 (1) Scientific and technological advancement must be actively pursued in balance with people's lives, society, and nature, based on the principle of tapping into the creativity of researchers and technology experts (hereinafter referred to as "Researchers and Experts"), in view of the fact that science and technology are the foundations for the future development of Japan and of mankind, and that the accumulation of scientific and technological knowledge is one of humanity's intellectual assets.
(2) As science and technology advance, thought must be given to cultivating research and development capabilities with equilibrium across a wide spectrum of fields; to balancing the development of basic research, applied research, and developmental research; and to fostering organic collaboration among national research organizations, universities (and graduate schools; the same applies hereinafter), the private sector, and others; and care must also be taken to balance the development of the natural sciences and the humanities, as their interrelatedness is essential to scientific and technological progress.
(Responsibilities of the National Government)
Article 3 The national government has a responsibility to formulate comprehensive policies to advance science and technology and to implement them.
(Responsibilities of Local Governments)
Article 4 A local government has a responsibility to formulate policies to advance science and technology based on the national government's policies, to formulate independent policies to advance science and technology that utilize the characteristics of that local government's administrative area, and to implement them.
(Policymaking Considerations for the National Government and Local Governments)
Article 5 When formulating policies to advance science and technology and implementing them, the national government and local governments must keep in mind the importance of the roles that they will play in the progress of basic research, remaining mindful that basic research brings about the discovery of new phenomena, breakthroughs in understanding them, and new and creative technological innovations; but that it is also difficult to predict what results basic research will yield from its inception, and that its results do not always have a practical application.
(Considerations Involving Policies for Universities and Research Institutes)
Article 6 When formulating policies to advance science and technology that involve universities and inter-university research institutes (hereinafter referred to as "Universities and Research Institutes") and when implementing them, the national government and local governments must remain mindful of respecting the autonomy of Researchers and Experts and take into account other characteristics of research at Universities and Research Institutes, while also endeavoring to stimulate research activities at Universities and Research Institutes.
(Legislative Measures)
Article 7 The government must take the necessary legislative, fiscal, monetary, and other measures to implement policies that advance science and technology.
(Annual Reports)
Article 8 Every year, the government must submit a written report to the National Diet on policies that it has implemented to advance science and technology.
Chapter II Basic Plan for Science and Technology
Article 9 (1) In order to achieve comprehensive and systematic promotion of policies to advance science and technology, the government must formulate a basic plan for advancing science and technology (hereinafter referred to as the "Basic Plan for Science and Technology").
(2) The Basic Plan for Science and Technology must establish:
(i) a comprehensive policy for promoting research and development (meaning basic research, applied research, and developmental research, and including the development of technologies; the same applies hereinafter);
(ii) policies that the government will comprehensively and systematically implement to maintain research facilities and research equipment (hereinafter referred to as "Research Facilities and Equipment"), to encourage informatization in research and development, and to otherwise establish an environment that promotes research and development;
(iii) other necessary particulars concerning scientific and technological advancement.
(3) To formulate the Basic Plan for Science and Technology, the government must first pass this through discussions by the Council for Science, Technology and Innovation.
(4) The government must change the Basic Plan for Science and Technology at its discretion if it finds this to be necessary, having reviewed this in consideration of factors such as the extent to which science and technology are progressing and the impact of policies that it has implemented to advance science and technology. The provisions of the preceding paragraph apply mutatis mutandis in such a case.
(5) When the government formulates a Basic Plan for Science and Technology pursuant to the provisions of paragraph (1) or if it changes it pursuant to the provisions of the preceding paragraph, it must publish an outline of the plan.
(6) In order to ensure the necessary funding for the costs needed to implement the Basic Plan for Science and Technology, the government must endeavor to take the necessary measures for implementing the plan smoothly, such as including the necessary funding in the budget each fiscal year to the extent that national finances allow.
Chapter III Promotion of Research and Development
(Promoting Diverse Research and Development while Maintaining Equilibrium)
Article 10 In order for the national government to redouble its efforts to promote research and development in essential scientific and technological fields whose advancement it should specifically work towards at the national level, it is to implement the necessary policies for things such as the planning and implementation of research and development in those fields, as well as implementing the necessary policies to promote diverse research and development with equilibrium across a wide spectrum of fields.
(Securing Researchers and Experts)
Article 11 (1) The national government is to implement the necessary policies to enhance graduate school education and research and otherwise improve the securement, training, and credentials of Researchers and Experts, in order to promote research and development that responds to scientific and technological progress.
(2) The national government is to implement the necessary policies to secure appropriate treatment for Researchers and Experts, so as to make working as a Researcher or Expert as attractive as it is important.
(3) The national government is to implement policies equivalent to those that the preceding two paragraphs prescribe in order to improve the securement, training, and credentials of research and development support staff and to secure appropriate treatment for them, in view of the fact that such staff are indispensable to the smooth promotion of research and development.
(Maintenance of Research Facilities and Equipment)
Article 12 (1) The national government is to implement the necessary policies to maintain the Research Facilities and Equipment at research and development institutes (meaning institutes involved in research and development at national research organizations, at Universities and Research Institutes, in the private sector, and elsewhere; the same applies hereinafter), in order to promote research and development that responds to scientific and technological progress.
(2) The national government is to implement the necessary policies to enhance research and development support functions such as the smooth supply of materials used in research, in order to effectively promote research and development.
(Encouraging Informatization in Research and Development)
Article 13 The national government is to implement the necessary policies to promote informatization in research and development, such as increased sophistication in scientific and technological information processing, enhancement of scientific and technological databases, and the construction of information networks among research and development institutes, so as to effectively promote research and development.
(Encouraging Exchange in Research and Development)
Article 14 The national government is to implement the necessary policies to promote exchange in research and development, such as exchange among Researchers and Experts, joint research and development by research and development institutes, and collaborative use of research and development institutes' Research Facilities and Equipment, in view of the fact that integrating Researchers' and Experts' diverse knowledge through reciprocal exchange among research and development institutes and among Researchers and Experts creates a wellspring that brings about new developments in research and development, and that such exchange is indispensable to the effective promotion of research and development.
(Effective Use of Research and Development Funds)
Article 15 The national government is to implement the necessary policies to allow for the fruitful use of research and development funds, such as making it possible for those funds to be used effectively in line with the evolution of research and development, in order to ensure the smooth promotion of research and development.
(Disclosure of Results from Research and Development)
Article 16 The national government is to implement the necessary policies to popularize research and development, such as disclosing the results of research and development and providing information about research and development, and is also to implement the necessary policies to promote its appropriate reduction to practical use, in order to ensure the fruitful use of the results of research and development.
(Furtherance of Private-Sector Efforts)
Article 17 The national government is to implement the necessary measures to promote research and development in the private sector by facilitating independent efforts in that sector, in view of the importance of the role that the private sector plays in Japan's scientific and technological activities.
Chapter IV Promotion of International Exchange
Article 18 The national government is to implement the necessary policies to promote international exchange in science and technology, such as international exchange among Researchers and Experts, international joint research and development, and the international flow of scientific and technological information, so as to ensure that Japan plays an active role in the international community as well as contributing to further progress in science and technology in Japan, by propelling the expansion of international scientific and technological activities.
Chapter V Advancement of Scientific and Technological Learning
Article 19 The national government is to implement the necessary policies to advance scientific and technological learning in formal and social education and to spread scientific and technological edification and knowledge, so that not only young people, but the people as a whole are afforded every opportunity to deepen their understanding and interest in science and technology.
Supplementary Provisions
This Act comes into effect as of the day of its promulgation.
Supplementary Provisions [Feb. 22, 1999; Act No. 160] [Extract]
(Effective Date)
Article 1 This Act (except Articles 2 and 3) comes into effect as of January 6, 2001.
Supplementary Provisions [May 1, 2014; Act No. 31] [Extract]
(Effective Date)
Article 1 This Act comes into effect as of the day specified by Cabinet Order within a period not exceeding one month from the date of its promulgation.